PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP0302012 27.06.1991
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0302012
Titel Vorrichtung zum Weben eines Stoffs mit sphäroidaler Kontur.
Anmelder Ciba-Geigy AG, Basel, CH
Erfinder Fleury, Gilles A., Garden Grove California 92641, US;
Lavallee, Robert L., Perris California 92370, US;
Ohnstad, Thomas S., Marysville Washington 98270, US
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 3862906
Vertragsstaaten CH, DE, ES, FR, GB, IT, LI, NL
Sprache des Dokument En
EP-Anmeldetag 18.07.1988
EP-Aktenzeichen 888104924
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 01.02.1989
EP date of grant 22.05.1991
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 27.06.1991
IPC-Hauptklasse D03D 3/08
IPC-Nebenklasse D03D 13/00   

Beschreibung[en]

This invention relates to an apparatus for producing a spheroidally contoured fabric from a fiber which is somewhat difficult to weave.

Background of the invention

Processes and apparatusses to produce contoured woven tissue, for instance to produce woven tissue for clothes, are well-known. One of such processes is known, for example, from FR-A-1 069 282. Using the herein described process, contoured tissues, for example for clothes like skirts, which have different lengths of borders, can be produced. In this process the forwarding velocity of the single warp threads is varied by guiding the threads over some guide bars onto a contoured receiving spool. To compensate variations of density of the weft threads, the number of weft threads is varied as a function of the forwarding velocity of the warp threads, for instance by means of some additional weft threads to be added to the tissue at variable intervals, said additional weft threads appearing at the surface of the tissue (skirt). Such process is suitable to produce tissues or clothes using threads made of cotton or wool which are "easy to weave" or may be suitable for using some artificid "easy to weave" fibres but is not suitable for using "more difficult to weave" fibres, which are defined hereinafter.

The production of a spheroidally, or more particularly a spherically, contoured fabric of material which is difficult to weave, such as a carbon fiber material, has become desirable in recent times for use in the formation of shims for spherically shaped rocket nozzle parts, for use in the construction of parabolic antennae, and as bases or cores for radar domes made of resin or the like.

Ordinary fiber or thread, such as that made from cotton or wool or similar artificial fibers, can be formed into spheroidally contoured fabrics on conventional shuttle-typed looms. However, these looms are not very well adapted for fibers or threads with different characteristics, such as low or medium modulus of elasticity carbon fibers, E-glass or S2-glass fibers, or other aerospace grade or engineered type fibers, which are more difficult to weave. These will hereinafter be referred to simply as "more difficult to weave" fibers. When these more difficult to weave fibers are run on a conventional shuttle loom, it is difficult to handle and does not produce sufficiently satisfactory fabric for the purpose of forming shims and the like. This is because when the warp fibers are formed into the shed and moved vertically past each other as the shed is changed during normal weaving to the degree this is done in the conventional shuttle-type loom, the fibers tend to fray or even break. Further, because the ordinary reciprocating shuttle carries a supply of weft or filler fiber thereon, it is difficult to satisfactorily operate the shuttle because the fiber is difficult to wind into the relatively small space on the shuttle, and it is bent extensively as it is unwound and passed through the shed of the warp fibers during the reciprocal motion of the shuttle. This also leads to fraying of the fiber and breakage to an extent which is not acceptable for normal production requirements.

A rapier-type loom, also variously called a needle type loom or a shuttleless loom, has been used for the weaving of contoured fabrics of another difficult to weave fiber, namely aramid, a thread or fiber sold under the trade name Kevlar by E.I. Dupont De Nemours & Co. Such a loom is also adaptable to weave the above-described difficult to weave fibers, because the rapier or needle is relatively small in cross section as compared with a conventional shuttle, moving through the shed to pick up a single length of filler or weft thread and then drawing it back through the shed, it is not necessary to move the warp fibers to the same extent during changing of the shed as in a conventional shuttle loom, thereby reducing thed opportunity for fraying. Moreover, because the rapier simply picks up the end of a length of filler or weft fiber, and simply draws it across the shed during the return movement of the rapier, there is essentially no bending of the weft thread and thus little or no opportunity for breakage.

The rapier-type loom is therefore a desirable type loom for weaving of the highly heat insulating fiber material or fibers with similar characteristics.

However, the amount of contouring of the woven fabric which can be achieved by the usual rapier-type loom is relatively limited. The contouring is achieved by providing the desired contour on the peripheral surface of the mandrel which takes up the fabric after it has been woven at the shed area and which feeds the contoured fabric to a take-up roller on which the finished fabric is stored. The degree of contouring of the mandrel, however, must be limited. The reason for this is that at larger diameter portions of the mandrel, for example near the longitudinal middle of the mandrel, the warp fibers or threads coming from the shed area of the loom will be drawn in the direction of the mandrel along a shorter path and at a higher speed than warp fibers which extend around the smaller diameter portions of the mandrel, for example at the ends of the mandrel. This tends to cause the parts of the weft fibers or threads which are toward the edges of the fabric to lay behind the part in the center of the fabric so as to be changed from their normal direction perpendicular to the length of the warp fibers or threads to distorted positions in which they are at an angle to the warp fibers or threads. The greater the difference in diameter between the larger diameter portions and the smaller diameter portions of the mandrel, the more that the portions of the weft fibers or threads toward the edges will be caused to lag, and the greater will be the distortion of the position of the weft fibers or threads from the perpendicular position. When the distortion of the position of the weft fibers or threads becomes too great, the fabric becomes unsatisfactory.

This problem is accentuated when it is attempted to provide a profile for the mandrel which will produce a spheroidally shaped cloth, specifically a spherically shaped clot, since the differences between the larger diameter portions and the smaller diameter portions become rather large.

In the finished product, while the warp fibers or threads will be substantially circumferential around the axis of a sphere, in the nature of the latitude lines on a globe, the weft fibers or threads will not run in planes parallel to the axis of the sphere, in the nature of longitude lines on a globe, but rather will be caused to curve away from such positions from the larger diameter edge of the spherical portion to the smaller diameter edge. This problem will be discussed more fully hereinafter. This distortion of the position of the weft fibers or threads makes the fabric unsatisfactory.

Another property of spheroidally contoured fabric is that if it is shaped from fabric in which the weft fibers and warp fibers are uniformly spaced across the fabric, when the fabric is shaped into a spherical shape, the weft fibers will be closer together at the portion of the fabric nearer the pole of the sphere, i.e. the fibers lying along longitude lines of the sphere will converge toward the poles, so that the density of the fabric will increase toward the poles of the spheroid. This can be undesirable.

Objects and brief summary of the invention

It is an object of the present invention to provide a loom apparatus for making spheroidally contoured fabric from a fiber which is somewhat stiff, such as a highly heat insulating material, which apparatus avoids the disadvantages of the prior art loom apparatus.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide a modified rapier-type loom suitable for making spheroidally contoured fabric from a fiber which is somewhat stiff, such as a highly heat insulating material.

It is a further object of the invention to provide a loom apparatus for making spheroidally contoured fabric in which the density of fibers in the fabric is substantially constant throughout the area of the fabric.

These objects are achieved according to the present invention by a loom for weaving contoured cloth, comprising:

shed forming means for receiving warp fibers from a warp fiber supply and forming a warp fiber shed;

means for inserting successive lengths of weft fiber through the shed formed by said shed forming means;

means for beating up the weft fibers into a woven fabric;

a contoured rotatably driven mandrel positioned downstream, relative to the direction of the warp fiber movement, from said beating up means for receiving the woven fabric and drawing it from said beating up means, said mandrel having at least a part thereof with a spheroidal shape for giving a spheroidal shape to the fabric passed around the mandrel;

a nip roller means engaged with the contoured surface of said mandrel for pressing the woven fabric against said mandrel for causing said mandrel to draw the woven fabric from said beating up means and shape the fabric according to the contour of said mandrel;

a fabric guide means adjacent said mandrel at a position along the path of the fabric from said beating up means to the point on said mandrel where said nip roller means is positioned, said fabric guide means having a contour along said mandrel corresponding to the contour of said mandrel and guiding the fabric into engagement with said mandrel; and

warp fiber path length extending means positioned along the path of the fabric from said beating up means to said fabric guide means and having contour transversely of the path of the fabric for increasing the lengths of the paths of the warp fibers of the fabric drawn from the beating up means wherein said path length extending means increase the length of the paths of the warp fibres, which are directed onto those portions of the spheroidally contoured mandrel which are larger than the smallest diameter portion of the spheroidally contoured part, the increase being sufficient for making the lengths of such paths sufficiently longer than the length of the path of the warp fiber which is directed onto said smallest diameter portion of the spheroidally contoured portion of said mandrel to cause substantially all the length of each of the respective weft fibers to reach said mandrel at the same time.

It is to be understood that the present invention is for use in producing spheroidal shaped fabrics. However, for simlicity of explanation, the description of the invention is directed only to spherically shaped fabric. It is not intended that the invention be so limited, however.

Brief description of the figures

Other and further objects of the invention will become apparent from the following description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

  • Fig. 1a is a side elevation views of an annular spherical shim made from spherically contoured fabric produced by the apparatus according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 1b is a plan view of a developed piece of fabric which can be formed into the shim of Fig. 1a;
  • Fig. 2a is a diagrammatic side elevation view of a conventional rapier-type loom;
  • Fig. 2b is as front elevation view of the loom of Fig. 2a;
  • Fig. 3 is a schematic sectional view of a contoured mandrel of a type which has been used on the loom of Figs. 2a and 2b;
  • Figs. 4a and 4b are respectively schematic plan and end views of a contoured mandrel with fabric being wound there-around on a conventional rapier-type loom;
  • Fig. 5 is an elevation view of a mandrel according to the present invention for producing spherically contoured fabric;
  • Fig. 6 is an end view of the mandrel of Fig. 5 as it would be placed in a conventional rapier-type loom without the improvement of the present invention;
  • Fig. 7a is a schematic end elevation view similar to Fig. 5 showing the improved mandrel and associated structure for a rapier-type loom according to the present invention;
  • Fig. 7b is a plan view of the structure of Fig. 7a; and
  • Fig. 8 is a schematic plan view of a part of an annular member formed from the spherically contoured fabric made on the apparatus according to the present invention.

Detailed description of the Invention

One embodiment of the spherically contoured fabric product which it is desired to produce is shown in Figs. 1a and 1b, and it consists of a spherically contoured piece of fabric preferably made of a difficult to weave fiber, such as low or medium modulus carbon fiber, which is to serve as an annular spherical shim for use in a rocket nozzle. The product, in its finished form as shown in Fig. 1a, is constituted by a section of a sphere, shown in broken lines, which is defined between two parallel planes which extend perpendicularly to the vertical axis of the sphere. As will be appreciated, the shim is designed to lie against the inside of a concave spherical part of the rocket nozzle to shim up a further part which fits into the spherical portion against which the shim rests. Thus, the configuration of the exterior of the shim is part of the surface of a sphere. As can be seen from the right-hand sectional portion, the cross section of the fabric will be circularly curved.

The product is made up from the developed shape as shown in Fig. 1b, and it will be appreciated that the cross section of the developed shape will be the same as that shown in the right-hand part of Fig. 1a, and when the shape lies convex side down on a surface, the shape will be slightly convexly curved upwardly.

It is this developed shape which is produced from the improved rapier-type loom according to the present invention.

As can be seen from the drawings, the outermost warp fiber f of the developed shape will be at a radius r from the center of the shape, and the intermediate warp fibers Fi will be at radii ri. The weft fibers will extend substantially radially across the warp fibers, as shown schematically at the portion F in Fig. 1b. The manner in which this particular shape of fabric is obtained from the loom will be described in greater detail hereinafter.

As pointed out above, the fabric is produced on an improved loom, which is variously known in the art as a shuttleless loom, a needle-type loom, or a rapier-type loom. A conventinal loom of this type is shown somewhat schematically in Figs. 2a and 2b, and generally consists of a frame 10 which carries the remainder of the loom parts. Warp fibers or threads 11 are supplied from a creel 12 which contains a number of spools 12a on which the individual warp fibers 11 are wound, and they are supplied past a guide bar means 13 to a conventional shedding mechanism, which includes the conventional harnesses 14 which carry the heddles 15 to which the individual warp fibers are fed in an alternating pattern according to the weave desired. The up and down movement of the harnesses 14 is provided by the harness driving means 16 shown schematically, in a conventional fashion. Within the shed is the lay 17 on which the needle guide 18 is provided, the lay being driven in a conventional manner by a lay driving means 19 in order to beat up the weft fibers which are carried across the shed by a needle. In the particular type of apparatus which has been in current use for the production of fabric from the Kevlar yarn, there is a pair of press rolls 20 at the downstream end of the shed where the weft fibers are beat up, and the thus woven fabric extends around a driven mandrel 21 over an idler roller 22 immediately above the mandrel 21, and is held against the mandrel by a nip roller 23 so as to be drawn off the loom by rotation of the mandrel. From the nip roller, the fabric is wound up on a fabric take-up roll 24.

The loom of course has all of the conventional mechanisms for its complete operation, all of which are conventional and well known to those skilled in the art. They do not form any part of the present invention and are accordingly not described.

The needle or rapier 25 is sufficiently long to extend entirely across the shed, and has a fiber gripping means 26 for gripping the weft fiber from a weft fiber supply 27 and drawing it across the shed on the return stroke of the needle. The individual weft fibers are then cut from the fiber supply by a cutting means (not shown). The needle 25 is guided back and forth in the raceway 28, being driven by a conventional needle driving means 29.

Contoured fabric of Kevlar has been successfully produced on a loom of this type, one example of such a contoured fabric being shown in Fig. 3. The mandrel 31 corresponding to the mandrel 21 of Fig. 2a is provided with a contoured surface having cylindrical portions 36 of different diameters joined by conical-shaped portions 35. The profile, as shown in Fig. 3 corresponds to the profile of a machine which it is desired to wrap with the Kevlar fabric in order to prevent any parts of the machine which may come loose during high speed operation from being thrown through the casing of the machine and away from the machine.

The fabric coming from the shedding mechanism of the loom of Figs. 2a and 2b is drawn around the idler roll 22, and then drawn around the mandrel 31 of Fig. 3, at which point it is given the shape, in cross section, as shown in Fig. 3.

However, as can be seen from the contour shown in Fig. 3, while the conical transition portions 35 between most of the cylindrical portions 36 are relatively small and inclined only silghtly to the cylindrical portions, at the right-hand end, there is a rather substantial size conical portion. It has been found in practice that at this portion of the fabric, the weft fibers tend to lang somewhat behind the portions of the weft which are carried by the warp yarns to the cylindrical portion 36 of the mandrel. This is because they must move a longer distance from the position at which the weft fiber is laid into the shed to the surface of the mandrel, as compared with the warp fibers which reach the cylindrical portion 36 of the mandrel immediately adjacent the large conical portion, and also because the warp fibers carrying these portions of the weft fibers to the conical portion of the mandrel are moving more slowly than the warp fibers moving to the cylindrical portion of the mandrel.

This condition is illustrated schematically in Figs. 4a and 4b, which are respectively plan views and an end elevation view of a double ended conical mandrel with a cylindrical portion in the center thereof. It will first be seen that the warp fibers 39 will have to move through a longer path L&sub2; from the shed to the conical surface 35 of the mandrel than will the warp fibers 28 moving a distance L&sub1; to the cylindrical portion 36 of the mandrel. It will be further understood that the warp fibers generally indicated at 38 will proceed in the direction of the movement of the fabric from the point at which the weft fiber is inserted into the shed to the cylindrical portion of the mandrel at a speed v&sub1; corresponding to the circumferential speed of the surface of the cylindrical portion 36 of the mandrel, whereas the warp fibers 39 will proceed at a somewhat slower speed v&sub1;, which progessively decreases the further outwardly from the cylindrical surface 36 the respective warp fibers 39 lie in the fabric. This is because along the conical portion 35 of the mandrel, the circumferential speed of the surface progressively decreases toward the narrower end of the conical portion. As a result, the portions 37a of the weft fibers carried by the warp fibers 39 will progress toward the mandrel at successively lower speeds, as compared to the speeds at which portions 37b are being carried by warp fibers 38, the further toward the end of the mandrel the warp fibers 39 are positioned. The slowest warp fiber, i.e. the outermost warp fiber at the edge of the fabric, will, of course, move at the lowest speed, thus causing the greatest retardation of the weft fiber.

As a result, when the fabric has moved around the mandrel 31 to the position where it moves over the nip roller 23, the weft fibers on the outer edges of the fabric are no longer perpendicular to the direction of the length of the fabric, but rather are at an angle to the perpendicular, which angle increases the further the fabric moves along the direction of the length of the fabric. The same condition will exist if a difficult to weave fiber such as a carbon fiber material is woven instead of the Kevlar.

This may be acceptable for a piece of fabric to be used for wrapping around a generally cylindrical shape with conical portions joining portions of the cylindrical shape. However, if the portion of the fabric shaped on the conical portion 35 of the madrel were to be cut from the remainder of the fabric into a narrow strip, the weft fibers would lie at angles other than perpendicular to the warp fibers, and this would cause distortion of the fabric if it were used for being shaped into, for example, a conical or spherical shape. The warp fibers in any such piece of fabric would be substantially concentric to an axis of the cone or sphere, much like latitudinal lines on a globe. The weft fibers, on the other hand, would be distorted, and rather than lie along lines similar to longitudinal lines of a globe, would run along a shape somewhat similar to a spiral across the surface of the shaped fabric. This would be unacceptable for the purposes for which a spherically shaped piece of clot is to be used, namely shims for rocket parts, or forms for use as a parabolic antenna or a radar dome since fiber orientation is required.

The first modification to the apparatus of Figs. 2a-2b for producing the spherically shaped fabric according to the present invention comprises providing a mandrel with spherical surface portions thereon. As shown in Fig. 5, a preferred mandrel 40 has two spherical portions 41 and 42 the same shape as the section of the sphere shown in Fig. 1a, the spherical portions constituting the peripheral surfaces of the mandrel, with the larger diameter ends of the spherical portions abutting each other and the smaller diameter ends at the outer ends of the mandrel.

However, merely providing such a mandrel and a guide member which is contoured to guide the fabric into close contact with this thus shaped mandrel will not resuslt in the desired fabric with the weft fibers in the proper positions along the longitudinal lines of the basic sphere. Shown in Fig. 6 is the mandrel 40 and a guide member 44 in the form of a cylindrical bar bent in the shape of the contour of the mandrel for guiding the fabric against the mandrel 40.

However, as will be apparent from Fig. 6, the mere provision of such a guide bar 44 will not overcome the above-described problems of weft fiber distortion due to the varying speed and distance of the different warp fibers moving from the shed to the mandrel. As is clear from Fig. 6, the warp fibers moving to the largest diameter portion of the mandrel at the center of the length of the mandrel will move only a distance L&sub1;, and since the radius rmo of the mandrel at this point is large, the velocity of the warp fibers at this point will be a maximum, i.e. a veldocity v&sub1;.

The warp fibers at the edge of the fabric will move along a slightly downwardly inclined path to the smaller diameter end of the mandrel where the radius is only rmi. Because the peripheral velocity of the mandrel at this point will be much smaller than at the radius rmo, the speed v&sub2; of the warp fibers on the downwardly inclined path will be somewhat less than the speed v&sub1; of the warp fibers moving through the distance L&sub1;, and the net result will be that because of the longer path and the slower velocity, the portions 37a of the weft fibers at the edge of the fabric will be lagging behind the portion 37b at the center of the fabric, as shown schematically in the figure. The warp fibers moving toward the intermediate diameter portions rm will travel along an intermediate length path and at an intermediate velocity and will lag an intermediate amount.

The resulting weft fibers in the fabric wound on the mandrel for shaping will thus not lie perpendicular to the warp fibers, but will be at an angle thereto, and this distortion will continue into the finished fabric which is removed over a nip means 45 downstream of the guidebar 44.

The present invention provides the means for overcoming this problem, and this means consits of a warp fiber path length extending means generally indicated at 50 in Figs. 7a and 7b. This means 50 in the preferred embodiment is a series of profiled members in the form of curved bars 51-54. The bars are curved to have a profile similar to that of the profile of the mandrel 40, and the first bar is positioned so that the profile projects in one direction transversely to the path of the fabric, in this embodiment upwardly of the path of the fabric, and the next curved bar 52 having a similar profile projecting in the opposite direction transversely to the path of the fabric, i.e. downwardly from the path of the fabric. The third curved bar projects in the one direction, i.e. upwardly, and the fourth curved bar projects in the other direction, i.e. downwardly. The fabric moving from the shed to the mandrel is diverted back and forth across the normal path of the fabric over each of the bars until it reaches the guidebar 44.

The maximum point of projection of the contour of the bar is at the position corresponding to the center of the longitudinal length of the mandrel 40, and the lowest point on the profile of the bars corresponds to the position of the ends of the mandrel and lies along the path of the fabric.

It will be seen that the warp fiber or fibers which lie along the center of the fabric will be diverted by the first bar 51 out of the normal direct path from the position of the shed to the guide bar 44 a maximum distance dmax above the path, an then diverted by the second bar 52 out of the normal direct path a distance dmax below the normal path of the fabric. These central warp fibers are then directed by dmax above and below the normal path again.

The warp fibers at the opposite edges of the fabric, on the other hand, will simply be guided along the ends of the bars in the normal path of the fabric.

The profiles of the bars and the number of bars is determined so that the combination of the normal shorter path length L&sub1; for the mid-fabric warp fibers and their increased velocity v&sub1; will be completely compensated for, so that the portions of the weft fibers carried by these warp fibers will reach the mandrel 40 at the same time as the end portions of the weft fibers held by the warp fibers at the side edges of the fabric. As shown in Fig. 7b, this will mean that by the time the weft fibers have reached the guide bar 44, they will not only not have the ends langging the center, but in fact the ends will have moved forward to the center and the curvature of the weft fibers will correspond to the profile over the guide 44 onto the mandrel 40, the weft fibers will lie along lines corresponding to longitudinal lines on the spherical shape of the mandrel portions 41 and 42. As a result, the finished fabric when it is taken off over the nip roller 45 will have a spherical shape, yet the warp fibers and the weft fibers will be in the proper longitudinal and latitudinal relationship in relation to the spherical shape of the fabric.

In addition to providing the warp fiber path length extending means 50, the modified loom of the present invention has a special nip roller means for nipping the fabric against the spherical mandrel in the form of a plurality of nip pressure rollers 60 at a position generally corresponding to the position of the nip roller 23 of the loom of Figs. 2a and 2b. These rollers are positioned along the contour of the mandrel in side-by-side positions and press against the mandrel with a pressure sufficient to cause the mandrel to draw the fabric around the mandrel similarly to the nip roller 23 of the conventional loom. The rollers 60 can be mounted on arms 61 extending upwardly from a support 62, and can, if desired, be spring-loaded against the mandrel.

It is also an aspect of the present invention to provide the shperoidally countered fabric, specifically a spherically contoured fabric, with a construction which has the desirable property that the fiber density is more uniform throughout the fabric.

As pointed out above, if the warp fibers supplied to the loom for making the spherically shaped fabric are uniformly spaced across the width of the fabric, these warp fibers in the finished fabric will be in the positions corresponding to latitudinal lines on a sphere, and will be at equal distances from each other across the surface of the sphere. The weft fibers, on the other hand, will correspond to longitudinal lines on the sphere and will converge toward the poles of the sphere. As a result, the density of the fabric, i.e. the number of fibres per unit area, will increase toward the poles.

To change this property, the present invention provides means in the form of the heddles 15 and associated warp fiber guiding means for causing the warp fibers toward the center of the width of the fabric, i.e. toward the larger diameter part of the finished spherically contoured fabric, to be closer together than at the edges of the fabric. As a result, as shown in Fig. 8, the fibers 70 lying along the latidunial lines will be closer together toward the larger diameter part, and become progressively further apart the closer to the small diameter part they lie. By properly spacing the warp fibers in the loom, the number of fibers 70 and 71 per unit area of the fabric can be made substantially uniform.


Anspruch[de]
  • 1. Webstuhl zum Weben von konturiertem Gewebe, umfassend:
    • Mittel zur Webfachbildung (14, 15, 16), um Kettenfasern von einer Kettenfaserzuführung aufzunehmen und ein Webfach zu bilden;
    • Mittel (25) zum Einführen einer ausreichenden Länge einer Schussfaser durch das von den Mitteln zur Webfachbildung gebildete Webfach;
    • Mittel (17, 18, 19) zum Einknüpfen der Schussfasern zu einem gewebten Erzeugnis;
    • eine konturierte drehbar angetriebene Spule zum Herunterziehen des gewebten Erzeugnisses von den Mitteln zum Einknüpfen und zum Aufnehmen des Erzeugnisses, welche Spule, von den Mitteln zum Einknüpfen aus betrachtet, relativ zur Bewegungsrichtung der Kettenfasern in Flussrichtung angeordnet ist und welche Spule zumindest einen Teil mit einer sphäroidischen Form (41, 42) aufweist, um dem um die Spule gewickelten Erzeugnis eine sphäroidische Form zu geben;
    • ein Andruckrollenmittel (45), das an der konturierten Oberfläche der Spule angreift und das gewebte Erzeugnis gegen die Spule drückt, um zu bewirken, dass die Spule das gewebte Erzeugnis von den Einknüpfmitteln herunterzieht und es gemäss der Kontur der Spule formt;
    • ein an die Spule (40) sich anschliessendes Führungsmittel (44) für das Erzeugnis in einer Position längs des Weges des Erzeugnisses von den Einknüpfmitteln bis zu dem Punkt auf der Spule (40), an dem das Andruckrollenmittel (45) angeordnet ist, wobei dieses Führungsmittel (44) entlang der Spule (40) eine Kontur aufweist, die mit der Kontur der Spule (40) korrespondiert, und das das Erzeugnis in Eingriff mit der Spule führt; und
    • ein Mittel (50) zum Verlängern der Kettenfasern, das entlang des Weges des Erzeugnisses von den Einknüpfmitteln (17, 18, 19) zu den Führungsmitteln (44) angeordnet ist, und das eine Kontur quer zum Weg des Erzeugnisses aufweist, um die Länge der Wege der Kettenfasern des von den Einknüpfmitteln heruntergezogenen Erzeugnisses zu verlängern, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Mittel (50) zum Verlängern der Wege der Kettenfasern die Länge der Wege der Kettenfasern verlängert, die auf jene Teile der sphäroidisch konturierten Spule (40) geführt sind, welche grösser sind als der Teil der Spule (40) mit dem kleinsten Durchmesser des sphäroidisch konturierten Teils (41, 42) der Spule (40), wobei diese Verlängerung ausreichend ist, um die Wege ausreichend länger zu machen als die Länge des Weges der Kettenfaser, die auf den Teil des sphäroidisch konturierten Teils (41, 42) der Spule (40) geführt ist, der den kleinsten Durchmesser aufweist, so dass im wesentlichen die gesamte Länge der jeweiligen Schussfaser die Spule zur gleichen Zeit erreicht.
  • 2. Webstuhl nach Anspruch 1, bei dem das Mittel (25) zum Einführen einer ausreichenden Länge an Schussfaser ein rapierartiges Mittel ist.
  • 3. Webstuhl nach Anspruch 1, bei dem die konturierte Spule (40) zwei sphäroidisch konturierte Teile (41, 42) aufweist, die sich von der längenmässigen Mitte der Spule nach aussen erstrecken, und der weiterhin bei der längenmässigen Mitte angeordnete Mittel umfasst, um das Erzeugnis, das von der Spule (40) herunterkommt, zu schneiden und so den Teil, der vom einen sphäroidischen Teil (41) geformt wurde, von dem Teil zu trennen, der vom anderen sphäroidischen Teil (42) geformt wurde.
  • 4. Webstuhl nach Anspruch 3, bei dem die zwei Teile (41, 42) der Spule sphärische Teile sind.
  • 5. Webstuhl nach Anspruch 1, bei dem das Andruckrollenmittel (45) eine Vielzahl von einzelnen federdruckbelasteten Andruckrollen umfasst, die nebeneinander entlang der Oberfläche der Spule (40) angeordnet sind.
  • 6. Webstuhl nach Anspruch 1, bei dem das Führungsmittel (44) für das Erzeugnis eine Stange umfasst, die sich entlang der Spule erstreckt und die eine mit der Kontur der Spule korrespondierende Kontur aufweist.
  • 7. Webstuhl nach Anspruch 1, bei dem das Mittel (50) zum Verlängern des Weges der Kettenfasern eine Vielzahl von profilierten Teilen (50, 51, 52) umfasst, die sich quer zum Weg des Erzeugnisses erstrecken und die ein konvex gekrümmtes Profil aufweisen, wobei die einen Teile (52, 54) ein solches Profil aufweisen, dass sie über den Weg des Erzeugnisses ragen, und die übrigen Teile (51, 53) ein solches Profil aufweisen, dass sie unter den Weg ragen.
  • 8. Webstuhl nach Anspruch 7, bei dem die Teile (51, 52, 53, 54) gekrümmte Stangen sind.
  • 9. Webstuhl nach Anspruch 1, der weiterhin Mittel umfasst, um den Abstand der Kettenfasern, welche entlang des zentralen Teils des Weges des Erzeugnisses durch den Webstuhl geführt werden, kleiner zu machen als den Abstand der Kettenfasern nahe der Berandung des Erzeugnisses, wobei der Abstand zwischen den Kettenfasern von der Mitte des Weges aus zu den Berandungen ständig wächst.
  • 10. Sphäroidisch geformtes Erzeugnis mit Fasern, die sich quer und längs der sphäroidischen Form erstrecken, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die sich quer erstreckenden Fasern enger zueinander angeordnet sind je enger sie zu dem Teil der sphäroidischen Form angeordnet sind, der den grösseren Durchmesser aufweist, und dass die sich längs erstreckenden Fasern im wesentlichen im gleichen Abstand zueinadnder angeordnet sind um die ganze sphäroidische Form herum.
Anspruch[en]
  • 1. A loom for weaving contoured cloth, comprising:
    • shed forming means (14, 15, 16) for receiving warp fibers from a warp fiber supply and forming a warp fiber shed;
    • means (25) for inserting successive lengths of weft fiber through the shed formed by said shed forming means;
    • means (17, 18, 19) for beating up the weft fibers into a woven fabric;
    • a contoured rotatably driven mandrel (21, 31, 40) positioned downstream, relative to the direction of the warp fiber movement, from said beating up means (17, 18, 19) for receiving the woven fabric and drawing it from said beating up means, said mandrel having at least a part thereof with a spheroidal shape (41, 42) for giving a spheroidal shape to the fabric passed around the mandrel (21, 31, 40);
    • a nip roller means (45) engaged with the contoured surface of said mandrel (21, 31, 40) for pressing the woven fabric against said mandrel for causing said mandrel to draw the woven fabric from said beating up means and shape the fabric according to the contour of said mandrel;
    • a fabric guide means (44) adjacent said mandrel (40) at a position along the path of the fabric from said beating up means to the point on said mandrel (40) where said nip roller means (45) is positioned, said fabric guide means (44) having a contour along said mandrel (40) corresponding to the contour of said mandrel (40) and guiding the fabric into engagement with said mandrel; and
    • warp fiber path length extending means (50) positioned along the path of the fabric from said beating up means (17, 18, 19) to said fabric guide means (44) and having a contour transversely of the path of the fabric for increasing the lengths of the paths of the warp fibers of the fabric drawn from the beating up means,
    • characterized in that said path length extending means (50) increase the length of the paths of the warp fibres, which are directed onto those portions of said spheroidally contoured mandrel (40) which are larger than the smallest diameter portion of the spheroidally contoured part (41, 42) the increase being sufficient for making the lenghts of such paths sufficiently longer than the length of the path of the warp fiber which is directed onto said smallest diameter portion of the spheroidally contoured portion (41, 42) of said mandrel (40) to cause substantially all the length of each of the respective weft fibers to reach said mandrel (40) at the same time.
  • 2. A loom as claimed in claim 1 in which said means (25) for inserting successive lengths of weft fiber is a rapier means.
  • 3. A loom as claimed in claim 1 in which said contoured mandrel (40) has two spheroidal portions (41, 42) extending outwardly from the longitudinal center of the mandrel, and further comprising means adjacent the longitudinal center of said mandrel for cutting the fabric coming off said mandrel (40) to divide the portion shaped on one shperoidal portion (41) from the portion shaped on the other spheroidal portion (42).
  • 4. A loom as claimed in claim 3 in which said two mandrel portions (41, 42) are spherical portions.
  • 5. A loom as claimed in claim 1 in which said nip roller means (45) comprises a plurality of individual spring loaded nip rollers side by side along the surface of said mandrel (40).
  • 6. A loom as claimed in claim 1 in which said fabric guide means (44) comprises a bar extending along the mandrel (40) and having a contour corresponding to the contour of said mandrel.
  • 7. A loom as claimed in claim 1 in which said warp fiber path length extending means (50) comprises a plurality of profiled members (51, 52, 53, 54) extending transversely to the path of the fabric, said members having a convexly curved profile and alternate members (52, 54) having the profile projecting above the path of the fabric and the remaining members (51, 53) having the profile projecting below the path of the fabric.
  • 8. A loom as claimed in claim 7 in which said members (51, 52, 53, 54) are curved bars.
  • 9. A loom as claimed in claim 1 further comprising means for spacing the warp fibers which are along the central portion of the path of the fabric through the loom closer together than the warp fibers near the edge of the path of the fabric, with the spacing between the warp fibers progressively increasing from the center of the path of the fabric towards the edges.
  • 10. A spheroidally shaped fabric having fibers extending latitudinally and longitudinally of the spheroidal shape, characterized in that the latitudinally extending fibers are positioned closer together the closer to the larger diameter part of the spheroidal shape they are positioned, and the longitudinally extending fibers being substantially equally spaced around the spheroidal shape.
Anspruch[fr]
  • 1. Métier à tisser une étoffe façonnée, comprenant:
    • un dispositif (14, 15, 16) destiné à former une foule et destiné à recevoir des fibres de chaîne d'une réserve de fibres de chaîne et à former une foule de fibres de chaîne,
    • un dispositif (25) destiné à introduire des tronçons successifs de fibres de trame dans la foule formée par le dispositif de formation de foule,
    • un dispositif (17, 18, 19) de battage des fibres de trame sous forme d'un tissu,
    • un mandrin façonné (21, 31, 40), entraîné en rotation et placé en aval du dispositif de battage (17, 18, 19), dans le sens de déplacement des fibres de chaîne, afin qu'il reçoive le tissu et qu'il le tire à partir du dispositif de battage, le mandrin ayant au moins une partie de forme sphéroïdale (41, 42) destinée à donner une forme sphéroïdale à l'étoffe passant autour du mandrin (21, 31, 40),
    • un dispositif (45) à rouleaux d'emprise coopérant avec la surface façonnée du mandrin (21, 31, 40) et destiné à repousser le tissu contre le mandrin de manière que le mandrin tire le tissu du dispositif de battage et mette le tissu à une configuration qui correspond à la forme du mandrin,
    • un dispositif (44) de guidage d'étoffe adjacent au mandrin (40), le long du trajet de l'étoffe du dispositif de battage à l'emplacement sur le mandrin (40) auquel le dispositif (45) à rouleaux d'emprise est placé, le dispositif (44) de guidage d'étoffe ayant, le long du mandrin (40), une configuration correspondant à la forme du mandrin (40) et guidant l'étoffe au contact du mandrin, et
    • un dispositif (50) d'allongement du trajet des fibres de chaîne, placé le long du trajet de l'étoffe du dispositif de battage (17, 18, 19) au dispositif de guidage (44) de l'étoffe et ayant un profil, transversalement au trajet de l'étoffe, lui permettant d'augmenter les longueurs des trajets des fibres de chaîne de l'étoffe tirée à partir du dispositif de battage,
    • caractérisé en ce que le dispositif (50) d'allongement de trajet augmente la longueur des trajets des fibres de chaîne qui sont dirigées vers les parties du mandrin (40) de forme sphéroïdale qui sont plus grandes que la partie de plus petit diamètre de la partie de forme sphéroïdale (41, 42), l'augmentation étant suffisante pour que les longueurs de ces trajets soient suffisamment supérieures à la longueur du trajet de la fibre de chaîne qui est dirigée sur la partie de plus petit diamètre de la partie de forme sphéroïdale (41, 42) du mandrin (40) pour que toute la longueur pratiquement de chaque fibre respective de trame atteigne le mandrin (40) en même temps pratiquement.
  • 2. Métier selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le dispositif (25) d'introduction de tronçons successifs de fibres de trame est un dispositif à lances.
  • 3. Métier selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le mandrin profilé (40) a deux parties sphéroïdales (41, 42) dépassant vers l'extérieur du centre longitudinal du mandrin, et comprenant en outre un dispositif adjacent au centre longitudinal du mandrin et destiné à découper l'étoffe provenant du mandrin (40) afin que la partie mise en forme sur une partie sphéroïdale (41) soit séparée de la partie mise en forme sur l'autre partie sphéroïdale (42).
  • 4. Métier selon la revendication 3, dans lequel les deux parties de mandrin (41, 42) sont des parties sphériques.
  • 5. Métier selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le dispositif (45) à rouleaux d'emprise comporte plusieurs rouleaux d'emprise individuels repoussés par les ressorts, placés côte à côte le long de la surface du mandrin (40).
  • 6. Métier selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le dispositif (44) de guidage d'étoffe comporte une barre disposée le long du mandrin (40) et ayant un profil correspondant à celui du mandrin.
  • 7. Métier selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le dispositif (50) d'allongement du trajet des fibres de chaîne comporte plusieurs organes profilés (51, 52, 53, 54) disposés transversalement au trajet de l'étoffe, ces organes ayant un profil à courbure convexe, un organe sur deux (52, 54) ayant son profil qui dépasse au-dessus du trajet de l'étoffe et les autres organes (51, 53) ayant leur profil qui dépasse au-dessous du trajet de l'étoffe.
  • 8. Métier selon la revendication 7, dans lequel lesdits organes (51, 52, 53, 54) sont des barres courbes.
  • 9. Métier selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre un dispositif destiné à positionner latéralement les fibres de chaîne qui sont placées le long de la partie centrale du trajet de l'étoffe dans le métier afin qu'elles soient plus rapprochées que les fibres de chaîne proches du bord du trajet de l'étoffe, l'espacement des fibres de chaîne augmentant progressivement du centre du trajet de l'étoffe vers les bords.
  • 10. Etoffe de forme sphéroïdale, ayant des fibres disposées suivant des parallèles et des méridiens de la forme sphéroïdale, caractérisée en ce que les fibres des parallèles sont plus proches les unes des autres du côté de la partie de grand diamètre de la forme sphéroïdale sur laquelle elles sont placées, et les fibres des méridiens sont pratiquement régulièrement espacées tout autour de la forme sphéroïdale.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

Anmelder
Datum

Patentrecherche

Patent Zeichnungen (PDF)

Copyright © 2008 Patent-De Alle Rechte vorbehalten. eMail: info@patent-de.com