PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP0283022 24.09.1992
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0283022
Titel Maschine und Methode zur Bodenvorbereitung.
Anmelder Tennant Co., Minneapolis, Minn., US
Erfinder Olson, Donald L., Minneapolis, MN 55416, US
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 3873791
Vertragsstaaten DE, FR, GB, IT, NL, SE
Sprache des Dokument En
EP-Anmeldetag 17.03.1988
EP-Aktenzeichen 881042808
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 21.09.1988
EP date of grant 19.08.1992
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 24.09.1992
IPC-Hauptklasse B24B 7/18
IPC-Nebenklasse A47L 11/00   B24B 21/04   E04G 23/00   

Beschreibung[en]

The present invention relates to a method and a machine for removing unwanted material, such as a coating, a membrane, soilage or the like, from a surface, the method and machine being of the type as described in the preambles of claims 1 and 7.

A method and a machine of this type is disclosed in US-A-3 522 679. The driver for free abrasive particles of one embodiment of the known machine has two spiders each of which is adapted to rotate about a vertical shaft. The spiders are arranged to the shaft through universal joint drives permitting the spider to flex in order to follow irregularities without moving the driving shafts. Each of the spiders has three legs which are used to mount rubbing pads of steel. Free abrasive particles can be deposited in one spot between the spiders to be spread over the surface to be worked upon as the spiders rotate. Drivers which rotate on vertical axes, however, tend to overgrind on the periphery and undergrind in the centre.

DE-OS 3041032, US-A-3 087 288, GB-A-896 170 and US-A-3 744 188 describe machines for polishing, removing coating or sanding and refinishing surfaces by using a work wheel, with or without a belt, which rotates about a horizontal axis. The abrasive particles which are used to work upon the surface, are fixedly attached to the circumferential surface of the wheel or to the outer surface of the belt. Abrasive surfaces having fixed abrasive particles tend to become clogged with material from the surface being treated. Also, the abrasive particles wear down very rapidly when used against a surface such as a concrete floor.

It will therefore be appreciated that there has been a significant need for a method and a machine for abrasively removing unwanted material from a surface in a uniform manner without clogging or rapid wear of the abrasion medium.

The present invention fulfils this need by a method according to claim 1, and a machine according to claim 7.

The driver for free abrasive particles of the present invention provides at least a linear contact with the surface to be worked upon for a uniform pressure upon the abrasive particles, providing a uniform grinding procedure. Nevertheless, the free abrasive particles will prevent the driver from loading up or clogging with removal residue. The method and machine of the present invention is more economical than prior methods, and may be used to remove urethane, epoxy, paints, compacted soilage, and so on from a floor surface, or the method and machine of the present invention can grind off an old finish or surface from vinyl floor tiles or wood floors, or remove rubber marks from airport runways. The method and the machine of the present invention may be used on concrete floors that are new and that have curing membranes on them or may be used on old floors that have a worn coating and also may be used on bare concrete floors to prepare any of them to receive a new coating. The method and machine ensures the right texture of the concrete, i.e. it will bond a new coating securely without absorbing an excessive amount of coating material. The method and the machine of the present invention does not generate so much heat that it softens or melts a floor coating but at the same time effecively removes various types of coatings.

Further developments of the method and the machine of the present invention are described in the dependent claims.

The method and the machine of the present invention is adapted to increase the ability of the machine to conform to floor contours, either by the work wheel being able to move up or down and/or tilt and/or by the wash wheel being provided with a compressible exterior. This provides effective conformability to uneven floor surfaces, thereby quite uniformly removing coatings and/or membranes from such floors. Even when the work wheel has fixed abrasive particles, these fixed particles are merely used to form pockets for receiving the free abrasive particles so that the free particles do most if not all of the work of removing the coating or membrane.

The propelling means for the free abrasive particles ensure that the abrasive is in the cutting zone without overfeeding or underfeeding either of which will reduce the cutting action of the abrasive.

Chamfered edges of the work wheel ensure proper blending of adjacent cuts or strips.

Embodiments of the present invention will hereinafter be described by reference to the figures, wherein:

  • Fig. 1 is a perspective of the machine.
  • Fig. 1A is a portion of a perspective of a variant form.
  • Fig. 2 is a side view on an enlarged scale of a part of Fig. 1, with parts removed and broken away for clarity.
  • Fig. 3 is an enlargement of a part of Fig. 2.
  • Fig. 4 is a top view of Fig. 2 as viewed along line 4-4 with parts removed and broken away for clarity.
  • Fig. 5 is a section taken along line 5-5 of Fig. 4 on an enlarged scale; and
  • Fig. 6 is a section along line 6-6 of Fig. 2 on an enlarged scale.

In Fig. 1 a machine is shown at 10 which may have a suitable frame 12 with suitable wheels 14 and 16 or the like. It may be assumed that there are two rear wheels 14 and one front wheel 16 although it may be otherwise. In the present case, the front wheel steers and has a propelling motor 18 which may be powered by batteries 20 although the unit may be engine driven. A driver's platform 22 and steering wheel 24 of any suitable type may also be used.

Mounted on the machine in any suitable manner is a hopper 26 which contains a suitable granular abrasive, as explained hereinafter. The bottom of the hopper may open over a vibratory tray 28 of any suitable type so that the free granular abrasive will fall off of its front edge as shown in Fig. 2. The vibrator, shown at 30 in Fig. 2, may be of any suitable type and may be adjustable so as to control the feed rate.

The granular abrasive falls into an abrasive chute 32 which has a rotary slinger 34 at its lower end which may be driven by a suitable motor 36 or the like. The abrasive is propelled out through a nozzle 38 onto a surface being worked upon.

A suitable flexible abrasive driver belt 40 disposed about a forward work wheel 42 and a rear idler drum 44 is forced against the surface under the work wheel 42. The work wheel is shown as supported by a suitable support am 46 in Figs. 2 and 4 with the mounting and drive projecting in one end of the work wheel as explained hereinafter. The support arm 46 is mounted on a longitudinal roll pivot 48 which is laterally pivoted, as at 50, to the frame of the machine in any suitable manner. The roll pivot 48 is approximately lined up with the center of the work wheel so that the work wheel may pivot about its axis to conform to any irregularity in the surface being worked upon. A hydraulic cylinder 52 in Fig. 2 may be used to apply a controllable down force on the work wheel 42 by pivoting it up or down on the pivot 50. The oil supply to cylinder 52 is maintained at a constant pressure by, for example, an adjustable relief valve which can be set at any desired pressure, so the down force on work wheel 42 can be set as desired and will then remain constant, even when the work wheel moves up or down in the process of following floor contours.

Whereas the mechanism for maintaining a constant down force on the work wheel has been shown and described as being hydraulic, it should be understood that it could be otherwise, e.g. electrical or pneumatic. In an electrical set up, a load cell could be interposed between the work wheel and an electrical actuator which would automatically either extend or retract in response to increased or decreased load on the work wheel caused by variations in the surface contour. This would be in the nature of a closed loop force sensing servo system. A pneumatic system could use an air compressor and storage tank to supply an air cylinder through a pressure regulator which would be adjustable and which could be set for any pressure desired.

The idler drum 44 at the other end of the flexible driver is spaced slightly above the surface or floor being worked upon and may be mounted on a suitable arm 54 which may be pivoted at 56 to be biased by a spring, an air cylinder or any suitable biasing means 58, to move the idler drum 44 rearwardly thereby tensioning the belt.

A suitable belt edge sensing arrangement 60 in Fig. 4 may be used which may include a pivoted arm 62 with a grooved roller 64 on the end thereof for sensing the edge of the belt which may be converted into an electric signal as at 66 with a suitable tracking control 68 which operates an actuator 70 pivoted on the frame of the machine as at 72 and with its rod connected to a belt tracking pivot arm 74. The pivot arm 74 may be connected by a suitable bracket or the like to an idler drum pivot 75, shown in cross section in Fig. 5, which has a suitable shaft 76 projecting from one end thereof on which is mounted an idler drum hub 78. The hub 78 is offset, as shown in Fig. 4 and connected to the inside of the idler drum, as at 80. A yoke 82 is pivoted on each side of the idler drum pivot on a generally vertical axis 83, as shown in Fig. 5. The yoke is connected to an idler drum support arm 84 which is connected by welding or otherwise to the drum support arm 54. It will be noted in Fig. 4 that the attachment 80 of the idler drum hub to the idler drum is aligned more or less with the vertical axis 83 of the idler drum pivot.

A suitable cleaning tool 86 shown here in the form of a rotary wire brush may be positioned, for example, above the top throw of the belt and in contact therewith to remove free abrasive and surface coating residue which may tend to adhere to the surface of the belt.

The work wheel 42 is shown as having a relieved surface in the form of a plurality of generally equally spaced grooves 88, shown in this case as herringbone, which allow deflection and compression of the work surface thereof when it is pressed against the floor or surface being worked upon. While the groove pattern has been shown as a herringbone, it could be otherwise, for example a waffle, honeycomb, spaced pockets, grooves in a suitable pattern, a tread, etc. A soft work wheel is desirable to give adequate floor conformance. Relieving the surface of the work wheel gives it greater effective softness. The work wheel has a structural core or sleeve 90 in Fig. 6 which is surrounded by a soft elastomer 92 in which the grooves or relieving 88 are formed. The elastomer may be bonded or otherwise suitably attached to the core 90 which is in turn connected to a speed reduction transmission 94 which is driven by a suitable motor 96 or the like which in turn is mounted on and supported by the support arm 46.

The elastomer 92 has its edges chamfered as at 98 and the belt 40 is a little wider than the elastomer so that it overhangs or extends beyond the edges of the elastomer on each side, as at 100 in Fig. 6 for reasons explained later.

As shown in Figs. 2 and 3, the free abrasive particles are fed from the abrasive slinger 34 in front of the work wheel, as at 102. The surface being worked upon has a coating or membrane which is Indicated generally at 104 in Fig. 3. The abrasive belt 40 may be a commercially available abrasive belt, with abrasive particles permanently bonded to its outer surface. In Fig. 3, it is moving from left to right. The outer surface of the belt thus presents a series of pockets into which the free abrasive 102 moves or flows and is trapped therein and carried along by the belt and pressed against the surface or coating 104 as the abrasive belt moves rearwardly. The down pressure on the work wheel 42 should be such that the elastomer 92 will be compressed against the belt and surface for a certain distance in what may be considered a deflection zone as indicated at 106 in Fig. 3 thus applying a certain down force on the free abrasive particles or medium as it abrades or cuts the coating. After the so-called deflection zone 106 the abrasive belt moves away from the surface and the particles of free abrasive along with the cut material are nearly all left lying loose on the surface, as indicated at 108, to be picked up subsequently by a sweeper or other suitable means. Those that stick to the belt are removed by the belt cleaner 86.

The use, operation and function of the invention are as follows:

   The invention is concerned with a machine and method for removing coatings and/or membrane from a floor or surface, although it may also be used to work a bare or soiled surface. The floor or surface may be uneven or wavy. In all cases the machine and method will leave the floor with a degree of surface texture that is suitable for accepting new coatings. The system uses an abrasive belt which functions as a driver element or member that receives free abrasive and works it against a surface, with pressure against the surface being applied by a work wheel which has a soft elastomeric exterior. A free abrasive is thus applied under a deformable load so that differential deflection is allowed across the width of a working zone. The system or method uniquely accommodates uneven surfaces, which are quite frequently encountered.

The belt type abrasive driver, which may have abrasive particles bonded to its exterior, does very little, if any, work in removing the coating from the floor. Rather, the belt serves as a driver and provides a series of pockets which accept the free abrasive and work it across the surface under yieldable or deflectable pressure. A commercially available abrasive belt works well. It will have a relatively hard surface and will not be rapidly worn by the free abrasive particles. While a belt has been referred to and disclosed, it should be understood that in certain applications the work wheel could be surrounded by an abrasive sleeve which might require a cooling arrangement of some kind.

For example, in Fig. 1A a variant form has been shown in which an abrasive chute 32A has a rotary slinger 34A at its lower end which feeds or propels abrasive, like the arrangement shown in Fig. 1. A work wheel 42A has an abrasive sleeve 43 around its exterior. There are applications where, for cost reasons or for ease of ganging several units, an abrasive sleeve will be preferable to a belt. But a belt is considered better because it tends to be self-cooling.

Whereas the flexible driver which has been shown and described both as a belt and as a sleeve includes a backing or belt with abrasive particles bonded to it, it should be understood that in certain situations a flexible abrasive driver may not be needed, and a work wheel with a compressible exterior, supplied with the free abrasive, would be quite effective. And, Fig. 1A may be considered to represent such an arrangement. Or a driver may be used around the work wheel in the form of a non-abrasive belt or sleeve which could still grip free abrasive particles and pull them into the work zone. It could be changed from time to time when excessively worn.

When a belt is being used, it is desirable that the second wheel be relatively close to the surface being worked upon but above it somewhat. This has the advantage that variations and inclinations of the work wheel caused by the surface will cause a minimum misalignment of a low angle belt as compared to a belt that is, say, at a higher angle of inclination, for example 45°. The larger the angle of inclination, the more difficult tracking becomes.

The configuration of the work wheel is important. Its outer layer is a soft elastomer, made effectively still softer by a relieved surface, shown as a pattern of herringbone grooves. This construction allows the work wheel to compress when biased downwardly against the surface being worked upon, and thus it will conform to irregularities in the surface. At the same time the abrasive belt, being flexible, can deflect and will also conform to an uneven surface. Since concrete floors or surfaces are frequently uneven, it is desirable that the abrasive belt and work wheel be flexible and/or deflectable to conform to the surface. Also, the side edges of the work wheel are chamfered so that the edge of a cut will be feathered or beveled, which insures that the edges of adjacent cuts will smoothly feather into each other or blend together.

It will be noted that the abrasive belt is wide enough so that it extends beyond the ends of the work wheel. This is done so that there will always be belt under the outer ends of the work wheel, even when the belt shifts somewhat, which may be caused by the work wheel tilting, with corrections being applied by the tracking mechanism. Thus a straight edged cut is assured, even though the belt may be drifting back and forth laterally to some degree. This will also be of advantage when manufacturing tolerances cause the belt or work wheel to vary slightly in width.

The free abrasive feeding mechanism and the impeller at the bottom of the chute are important in that they control the feed rate of free abrasive to the work wheel and cause it to be thrown into the cutting zone. The feeding rate is controlled by the vibrator 30 which may be adjustable to set the rate of material supplied to the chute 32. Thus, overfeeding or underfeeding can be avoided, either of which will reduce the efficiency of the coating removal process. By the mechanism shown a controlled rate of free abrasive particles is provided to exactly effect the desired action.

The work wheel is movable and moves in two directions. First, it is pressed down against the surface being worked upon, and, second, it may swivel about the roll pivot 48 so that the work wheel and belt automatically conform to or match any inclines or slants in the floor or surface.

The belt tracking mechanism indicated at 60 has only been disclosed generally, but it should be understood that the tracking mechanism is important because the pivoting action of the work wheel about the roll pivot 48 will cause the belt to tend to move laterally off the work wheel. So, a sensing mechanism with a feedback to correspondingly adjust the alignment of the idler or follower roller to maintain proper belt tracking is important.

Cut material and free abrasive particles tend to cling to the belt to some extent, so a cleaning tool such as indicated at 86, which may be a rotary mounted wire brush or cleaning tool, is also considered important.

The surface speed of the belt and the down load or pressure on the work wheel in relation to the travel speed of the machine are important in effectively and efficiently removing a coating without melting or softening it, extending the life of the belt and avoiding the creation of excessive dust as well as acquiring the surface finish desired both as to appearance and coating adhesion. A belt speed in the neighborhood of 450-600 m/min (1500-2000 feet per minute) relative to the floor or surface has been found to be suitable. One of the advantages of the present system is that high speed of the abrasive is not necessary which, if employed, will create enough heat to melt the surface coating. A melted coating becomes gummy and does not cut cleanly off the floor. Also, it adheres to the abrasive belt and quickly clogs it. A slower belt speed, which does not heat the floor very much, avoids these problems and uses less power.

Another advantage of the present system is that because the removal of the coating is quite even the resultant surface is quite uniform whether the old surface was uniformly coated or had patches of old coating and bare areas.

Yet another advantage of the present arrangement is that it removes all of the coating in one pass. The machine does not have to go over the surface several times. Thus it is economical to operate.

While one belt has been shown, it should be understood that if a greater width of removal is desired, a plurality of belts could be used in gangs with separate work wheels, abrasive hoppers, etc.

Whether the machine is used to remove a coating or a film or to prepare bare concrete for coating, it has the advantage that the degree of grind can be closely controlled. The desired result is to have the concrete a little open, which is to say, a little rough. You do not want to either over grind or under grind. You want the concrete open so that it will accept the next coating and bond it securely without absorbing excessive amounts of the coating material. The present machine and method can be closely controlled so the exact degree of openness desired in the resulting concrete is obtained.

This system for removing floor coatings is completely mechanical, and consequently has a major advantage over chemical systems which use solvents in that it does not release any toxic materials into the atmosphere during operation and does not generate any hazardous waste materials as a by-product.

While it has not been shown, it will be understood that there may be some dust created by the unit, so conventional shrouding and possibly a vacuum system and filter might be needed on the unit for dust control. If so, they can be readily installed using well-known techniques.

The use of an abrasive belt, sleeve or disk alone, without free abrasive, to grind off the surface has the disadvantage that whatever is used will dull and stop cutting very quickly due to contact with the concrete surface. Any one of these also will tend to clog very quickly with the material being removed, which reduces or eliminates the cutting action. Introducing free abrasive under the work wheel provides a continuous supply of new, sharp abrasive particles so an effective cutting action is maintained indefinitely. The spent abrasive particles carry away most of the material removed from the floor, so clogging of the belt is largely eliminated. The free abrasive can be a material which is low enough in cost that it is economically feasible to use it once and discard it along with the cut material that is removed from the floor or surface.

Using a cylindrical work wheel has the advantage as compared to a disc grinder in that it does not tend to overgrind on the periphery and undergrind in the center as a disc grinder does, but grinds uniformly across its width.

The tension required in the belt is related to the torque delivered to the work wheel. This in turn is related to the down pressure on the work wheel and its resulting deflection, the thickness and toughness of the coating being removed, and the smoothness of the concrete substrate. It is necessary to keep enough tension in the belt to prevent it from slipping on the work wheel, and this tension can be set by adjusting tensioning spring 58. The belt must have enough strength to withstand this tension. It has been found that commercially available abrasive belts with fabric backing have adequate strength.

While removing worn coatings from surfaces such as concrete floors has been mentioned, it should be understood that soilage and deposits may also be removed, for example accumulated rubber on airport runways and landing strips. As well, the machine and method may be used on various types of surfaces, for example, vinyl tile, wood, etc. Also, the device could be used on highways, steel floors, ship decks, etc.

When grinding a relatively soft surface, such as vinyl tile or wood, it may be possible to use the abrasive belt as the primary grinding medium without using any free abrasive and still achieve an acceptable life on the abrasive belt. When grinding a concrete surface it is desirable to use free abrasive because the abrasive belt, if used alone, quickly becomes dull and loses its cutting ability.

It might be desirable, in certain applications, to use a driver belt which is not coated with abrasive, but rather has a smooth or textile-like surface which would engage the free abrasive particles and drag them under the work wheel. However, the driver belt needs a hard surface to resist abrasion from the loose abrasive particles, and a coated abrasive belt possesses that hardness as well as having the other characteristics needed by this belt, namely a rough surface, flexibility, adequate tensile strength, and a relatively low coefficient of friction against some types of work surfaces, such as concrete.

Under certain circumstances, instead of the work wheel being driven, the second or idler roller might be driven, but it is preferred that the work wheel be the driven element.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Verfahren zum Entfernen unerwwnschten Materials von einer Oberfläche, wie beispielweise eine Beschichtung, eine Membran, Verschmutzungen oder dergleichen, mit den Verfahrensschritten des Bewegens eines rotierenden, flexiblen Mitnehmers (42, 42A) über einen vorbestimmten Weg unter einer nach unten gegen die zu bearbeitende Oberfläche (104) gerichteten Kraft, um dadurch eine Arbeitszone (106) zu schaffen, des Zuführens freier, schmirgelnder Partikel (102) zur Arbeitszone (106) zwischen dem Mitnehmer (42, 42A) und der Oberfläche (104) und in eine derartige Richtung, daß die Partikel (102) dazu tendieren, durch den Mitnehmer (42, 42A) durch die Arbeitszone (106) bewegt zu werden, des Zulassens, daß die Partikel (102) durch den Mitnehmer (42, 42A) durch die Arbeitszone (106) in Kontakt mit der Oberfläche (104) bewegt werden, und des Aufrechterhaltens der nach unten gerichteten Kraft auf den Mitnehmer (42, 42A) und die schmirgelnden Partikel (102), während sie sich in der Arbeitszone (106) befinden, um sie zu veranlassen, unerwünschtes Material von der Oberfläche zu entfernen, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Mitnehmer (42, 42A) um eine Achse rotiert, die sich parallel zur zu bearbeitenden Oberfläche (104) erstreckt und daß der Mitnehmer über die Oberfläche mit einer Bewegungsrate geführt wird, die geringer ist als die Relativbewegung zwischen einem der Oberfläche (104) nächstliegenden Punkt an der Außenseite des Mitnehmers (42, 42A) und einem Punkt auf der zu bearbeitenden Oberfläche (104), während die Zuführung von freien, schmirgelnden Partikeln (102) zwischen den Mitnehmer (42, 42A) und die Arbeitszone (106) fortgesetzt wird.
  2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, gekennzeichnet durch den Verfahrenschritt, den Mitnehmer (42, 42A) zu veranlassen, sich selbst flexibel an Unregelmäßigkeiten der Oberfläche (104) anzupassen.
  3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, gekennzeichnet durch den Verfahrensschritt, dem Mitnehmer (42, 42A) zu erlauben, um eine sich im wesentlich parallel zu seiner Bewegungsrichtung in der Arbeitszone (106) erstreckende Achse (48) zu kippen, um ihm zu gestatten, sich an Unregelmäßigkeiten der Oberfläche (104) anzupassen.
  4. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, gekennzeichnet durch den Verfahrensschritt, die nach unten gerichtete Kraft auf den Mitnehmer (42, 42A) gegen die Oberfläche (104) im wesentlichen konstant zu halten, wenn der Mitnehmer (42, 42A) auf Unregelmäßigkeiten in der Oberfläche (104) trifft.
  5. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, gekennzeichnet durch den Verfahrensschritt, eine Mehrzahl von bloßliegenden Taschen an der Außenseite (40, 43) des flexiblen Mitnehmers (42, 42A) vorzusehen, die mit dem Mitnehmer (42, 42A) durch die Arbeitszone (106) bewegt werden, und wobei freie, schmirgelnde Partikel (102) in den Taschen enthalten sein können und mit den Taschen durch die Arbeitszone (106) bewegt werden können.
  6. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, gekennzeichnet durch den Verfahrensschritt, freie, schmirgelnde Partikel (102) vor den Mitnehmer (42, 42A), in Bewegungsrichtung gesehen, zu fördern, so daß die schmirgelnden Partikel (102) zwischen den Mitnehmer und die zu bearbeitende Oberfläche (104) gezogen werden.
  7. Maschine (10) zum Entfernen unerwünschten Materials, wie einer Oberflächenschicht, von einer Oberfläche (104), mit einem mobilen Rahmen (12) und einer Einrichtung (18) für ihren Antrieb, einem rotierenden, flexiblen Mitnehmer (42, 42A) und einer Antriebseinrichtung (96) zum Drehen des Mitnehmers (42, 42A), einer Einrichtung (52) zum Beaufschlagen des Mitnehmers (42, 42A) in Richtung auf die Oberfläche (104), einem Vorrat (26) freien Schmirgels (102) am Rahmen (12), und einer Einrichtung (28 bis 38) zum Zuführen freien Schmirgels (102) zwischen den Mitnehmer (42, 42A) und die zu bearbeitende Oberfläche (104) um eine Oberflächenschicht von der Oberfläche zu entfernen, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Mitnehmer (42, 42A) ein im wesentlichen zylindrisches Arbeitsrad am Rahmen (12) ist, das um eine im wesentliche horizontale Achse rotieren kann.
  8. Maschine nach Anspruch 7, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Antriebseinrichtung (96) das Arbeitsrad (42, 42A) in einer Richtung vom Boden nach rückwärts relativ zur Bewegungsrichtung der Maschine (10) mit einer Bewegungsrate am Umfang dreht, die größer ist als die Bewegungsgeschwindigkeit der Maschine (10).
  9. Maschine nach Anspruch 7 oder 8, gekennzeichnet durch eine Einrichtung, die es dem Arbeitsrad (42, 42A) gestattet zu kippen, so daß es sich automatisch an Unregelmäßigkeiten in der zu bearbeitenden Oberfläche (104) anpaßt.
  10. Maschine nach Anspruch 9, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das Arbeitsrad (42, 42A) um eine Achse kippbar ist, die sich im wesentlichen parallel zu seiner Bewegungsrichtung in einer Arbeitszone (106) erstreckt.
  11. Maschine nach einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 10, gekennzeichnet durch eine Einrichtung (34, 36, 38) zum Treiben der freien, schmirgelnden Partikel unter und vor das Arbeitsrad (42, 42A).
  12. Maschine nach Anspruch 11, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Menge der freien, schmirgelnden Partikel (102) durch eine einstellbare Schwingeinrichtung (30) und ein schwingendes Tablett (28) geregelt wird.
  13. Maschine nach einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 12, gekennzeichnet durch eine Antriebseinrichtung (34, 36, 38) zum Bewegen des freien Schmirgels (102) zwischen den Boden des Arbeitsrads (42, 42A) und der zu bearbeitenden Oberfläche (104).
  14. Maschine nach einem der Ansprüche 11 bis 13, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Einrichtung (34, 36, 38) zum Antreiben der freien, schmirgelnden Partikel ein rotierendes Schleuderrad (34) enthält.
  15. Maschine nach einem Ansprüche 7 bis 14, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das Arbeitsrad (42, 42A) eine zusammendrückbare Außenseite (92) aufweist.
  16. Maschine nach Anspruch 15, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die zusammendrückbare Außenseite des Arbeitsrads (42, 42A) als gummiartige Hülse (92) ausgebildet ist, die auf einem festen Kern montiert ist.
  17. Maschine nach Anspruch 15 oder 16, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die zusammendrückbare Außenseite (43, 92) des Arbeitsrads (42, 42A) die allgemeinen Merkmale hinsichtlich Flexibilität und Verformbarkeit von Gummi hat, um die Außenseite des Arbeitsrads (42, 42A) zusammendrückbar zu gestalten, so daß sie sich an Unregelmäßigkeiten in der Oberfläche (104) anpaßt.
  18. Maschine nach einem der Ansprüche 15 bis 17, dadurch gekennzeichnet,daß jedes Ende der zusammendrückbaren Außenseite (92) leicht abgeschrägt ist, so daß benachbarte Bearbeitungsstreifen auf der zu bearbeitenden Oberfläche (104) ineinander übergehen und sich mischen.
  19. Maschine nach einem der Ansprüche 15 bis 18, gekennzeichnet durch ein Muster (88) von Reliefflächen auf der Außenseite des Arbeitsrads (42, 42A) um eine erhöhte Verformbarkeit zu schaffen.
  20. Maschine nach Anspruch 19, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das Muster von Reliefflächen eine Mehrzahl von Nuten (88) aufweist.
  21. Maschine nach Anspruch 20, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Nuten (88) in Fischgrätform angeordnet sind.
  22. Maschine nach einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 21, gekennzeichnet durch ein flexibles Band (40) um das Arbeitsrad (42) und ein zweites Rad (44), und eine Einrichtung (58) zum Spannen des Bandes (40).
  23. Maschine nach Anspruch 22, gekennzeichnet durch einen Spurmechanismus (60, 66, 68, 70, 74) am Rahmen (12), um eine seitliche Bewegung des Bandes (40) festzustellen und das Band (40) auf dem Arbeitsrad (42) automatisch zu zentrieren.
  24. Maschine nach Anspruch 23, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Spurmechanismus (60, 66, 68, 70, 74) eine Fühlereinrichtung (60) zum Abtasten der Bandkante aufweist.
  25. Maschine nach Anspruch 23 oder 24, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Spurmechanismus (60, 66, 68, 70, 74) eine Einrichtung (70) zum Einstellen des zweiten Rads (44) um eine im wesentlichen vertikale Achse aufweist, um eine seitliche Bewegung des Bandes (40) auf dem Arbeitsrad (42) zum kompensieren.
  26. Maschine nach einem der Ansprüche 22 bis 25, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das zweite Rad (44) in unmittelbarer Nähe der zu bearbeitenden Oberfläche (104) angeordnet ist, diese jedoch nicht berührt.
  27. Maschine nach einem der Ansprüche 22 bis 26, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Einrichtung (58) zum Spannen des Bandes (40) derart konstruiert und angeordnet ist, daß sie die Räder (42, 44) trennt.
  28. Maschine nach einem der Ansprüche 22 bis 27, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Antriebseinrichtung (96) das Arbeitsrad (42) antreibt.
  29. Maschine nach einem der Ansprüche 22 bis 27, gekennzeichnet durch eine Antriebseinrichtung zum Antreiben des zweiten Rads (44), so daß das Arbeitsrad (42) durch das Band (40) angetrieben wird.
  30. Maschine nach einem der Ansprüche 22 bis 29, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das Band (40) etwas breiter als das Arbeitsrad (42) ist, so daß ein gerader Arbeitsstreifen auf der Oberfläche (104) gebildet wird, selbst wenn sich das Band (40) auf dem Arbeitsrad (42) etwas seitwärts bewegt.
  31. Maschine nach einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 26, gekennzeichnet durch eine flexible, schmirgelnde Außenseite (40, 43) um mindestens einen Teil des Arbeitsrads (42, 42A).
  32. Maschine nach einem der Ansprüche 22 bis 31, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das Band ein flexibles, schmirgelndes Band (40) ist.
  33. Maschine nach Anspruch 31, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die schmirgelnde Außenseite eine flexible, schmirgelnde Hülse (43) um das Arbeitsrad (42A) umfaßt.
  34. Maschine nach einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 33, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Einrichtung zur Beaufschlagung des Mitnehmers (42, 42A) eine im wesentlichen konstante, abwärtsgerichtete Kraft auf das Arbeitsrad (42, 42A) und den freien Schmirgel (102) auf der zu bearbeitenden Oberfläche (104) aufbringen und aufrechterhalten kann, wenn das Arbeitsrad (42, 42A) Veränderungen in den Konturen der Oberfläche (104) folgt.
  35. Maschine nach Anspruch 34, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Einrichtung (52) zum Aufbringen und Aufrechterhalten einer im wesentlichen konstanten, abwärtsgerichteten Kraft hydraulisch arbeitet.
  36. Maschine nach Anspruch 34, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Einrichtung (52) zum Aufbringen und Aufrechterhalten einer im wesentlichen konstanten, nach unten gerichteten Kraft pneumatisch arbeitet.
  37. Maschine nach Anspruch 34, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Einrichtung (52) zum Aufbringen und Aufrechterhalten einer im wesentlichen konstanten, nach unten gerichteten Kraft elektrisch arbeitet.
Anspruch[en]
  1. A method of removing unwanted material, such as a coating, membrane, soilage or the like, from a surface, including the steps of moving a rotating, flexible driver (42, 42A) through a predetermined path under down force against the surface (104) being worked upon thereby creating a working zone (106), supplying free abrasive particles (102) to the working zone (106) between the driver (42, 42A) and the surface (104) and in a direction so that the particles (102) will tend to be moved by the driver (42, 42A) through the working zone (106), allowing the particles (102) to be moved by the driver (42, 42A) through the working zone (106), in contact with the surface (104) and continuing the down force on the driver (42, 42A) and abrasive particles (102) while they are in the working zone (106) to cause them to remove unwanted material from the surface,

    characterised by

    rotating the driver (42, 42A) around an axis which is parallel to the surface (104) being worked upon and by moving the driver over the surface at a rate of travel less than the relative motion between a point on the exterior of the driver (42, 42A) nearest the surface (104) and a point on the surface (104) being worked upon while continuing the supply of free abrasive particles (102) between the driver (42, 42A) and the working zone (106).
  2. The method of claim 1, characterised by the step of causing the driver (42, 42A) to flexibly conform itself to irregularities in the surface (104).
  3. The method of claim 1 or 2, characterised by the step of allowing the driver (42, 42A) to tilt about an axis (48) generally parallel to its direction of movement in the working zone (106) to enable it to conform to irregularities in the surface (104).
  4. The method of any one of claims 1 to 3 characterised by the step of maintaining the down force on the driver (42, 42A) against the surface (104) approximately constant as the driver (42, 42a) encounters irregularites in the surface (104).
  5. The method of any one of claims 1 to 4, characterised by the step of providing a plurality of exposed pockets on the exterior (40, 43) of the flexible driver (42, 42A) to be moved through the working zone (106) with the driver (42, 42A) and allowing free abrasive particles (102) to be received in and moved by the pockets through the working zone (106).
  6. The method of any one of claims 1 to 5, characterised by the step of supplying free abrasive particles (102) in front of the driver (42, 42A) when seen in its direction of movement, so that the abrasive particles (102) will be drawn between the driver and the surface (104) being worked upon.
  7. A machine (10) for removing unwanted material, such as a coating from a surface (104), comprising a mobile frame (12) and means (18) for propelling it, a rotatable, flexible driver (42, 42A) and power means (96) for rotating the driver (42, 42A), means (52) for biasing the driver (42, 42A) toward the surface (104), a source (26) of free abrasive (102) on the frame (12), and means (28 to 38) for supplying free abrasive (102) between the driver (42, 42A) and the surface (104) being worked upon to remove a coating from the surface,

    characterised in that the driver

    (42, 42A) is a generally cylindrical work wheel on the frame (12) disposed for rotation about a generally horizontal axis.
  8. The machine of claim 7, characterised in that the power means (96) rotates the work wheel (42, 42A) in a direction bottom side to the rear relative to the direction of travel of the machine (10) and at a peripheral rate of travel greater than the speed of travel of the machine (10).
  9. The machine of claim 7 or 8, characterised by means allowing the work wheel (42, 42A) to tilt so that it automatically conforms to irregularities in the surface (104) being worked upon.
  10. The machine of claim 9, characterised by the work wheel (42, 42A) being allowed to tilt about an axis generally parallel to its direction of movement in a working zone (106).
  11. The machine of any one of claims 7 to 10, characterised by means (34, 36, 38) for propelling the free abrasive particles under and in front of the work wheel (42, 42A).
  12. The machine of claim 11, characterised in that the amount of free abrasive particles (102) is controlled by an adjustable vibrator (30) and a vibratory tray (28).
  13. The machine of any one of claims 7 to 12, characterised by power means (34, 36, 38) for propelling the free abrasive (102) between the bottom of the work wheel (42, 42A) and the surface (104) being worked on.
  14. The machine of any one of claims 11 to 13, characterised in that the means (34, 36, 38) for propelling the free abrasive particles include a rotary slinger (34).
  15. The machine of any one of claims 7 to 14, characterised in that the work wheel (42, 42A) has a compressible exterior (92).
  16. The machine of claim 15, characterised in that the compressible exterior on the work wheel (42, 42A) is in the form of a rubberlike sleeve (92) mounted on a structural core.
  17. The machine of claim 15 or 16, characterised in that the compressible exterior (43, 92) on the work wheel (42, 42A) has the general characteristics of rubber as to flexibility and distortability to provide compressibility to the exterior of the work wheel (42, 42A) so that it will conform to irregularities in the surface (104).
  18. The machine of any one of claims 15 to 17, characterised in that each end of the compressible exterior (92) is slightly chamfered so that adjacent cuts on the surface (104) being worked upon will be feathered together and will blend.
  19. The machine of any one of claims 15 to 18, characterised by a pattern (88) of relief areas for the exterior of the work wheel (42, 42A) to provide for increased distortability.
  20. The machine of claim 19, characterised in that the pattern of relief areas includes a plurality of grooves (88).
  21. The machine of claim 20, characterised in that the grooves (88) are in the form of a herringbone.
  22. The machine of any one of claims 7 to 21, characterised by a flexible belt (40) around the work wheel (42) and a second wheel (44) and means (58) for tensioning the belt (40).
  23. The machine of claim 22, characterised by a tracking mechanism (60, 66, 68, 70, 74) on the frame (12) for detecting lateral movement of the belt (40) and for automatically centering the belt (40) on the work wheel (42).
  24. The machine of claim 23, characterised in that the tracking mechanism (60, 66, 68, 70, 74) includes a belt edge sensing device (60).
  25. The machine of claim 23 or 24, characterised in that the tracking mechanism (60, 66, 68, 70, 74) includes means (70) for adjusting the second wheel (44) about a generally vertical axis to compensate for lateral movement of the belt (40) on the work wheel (42).
  26. The machine of any one of claims 22 to 25, characterised in that the second wheel (44) is closely adjacent but out of contact with the surface (104) being worked upon.
  27. The machine of any one of claims 22 to 26, characterised in that the means (58) for tensioning the belt (40) is constructed and arranged to separate the wheels (42, 44).
  28. The machine of any one of claims 22 to 27, characterised in that the power means (96) drives the work wheel (42).
  29. The machine of any one of claims 22 to 27, characterised by power means for driving the second wheel (44) so that the work wheel (42) will by driven by the belt (40).
  30. The machine of any one of claims 22 to 29, characterised in that the belt (40) is somewhat wider than the work wheel (42) so that a straight cut will be taken on the surface (104) even if the belt (40) moves somewhat laterally on the work wheel (42).
  31. The machine of any one of claims 7 to 26, characterised by a flexible abrasive exterior (40, 43) around at least a part of the work wheel (42, 42A).
  32. The machine of any one of claims 22 to 31, characterised in that the belt is a flexible abrasive belt (40).
  33. The machine of claim 31, characterised in that the abrasive exterior includes a flexible abrasive sleeve (43) around the work wheel (42A).
  34. The machine of any one of claims 7 to 33, characterised in that the means (52) for biasing the driver (42, 42A) are adapted to apply and maintain a generally constant down force by the work wheel (42, 42A) and free abrasive (102) on the surface (104) being worked upon as the work wheel (42, 42A) follows changes in the contours of the surface (104).
  35. The machine of claim 34, characterised in that the means (52) for applying and maintaining a generally constant down force is hydraulic.
  36. The machine of claim 34, characterised in that the means (52) for applying and maintaining a generally constant down force is pneumatic.
  37. The machine of claim 34, characterised in that the means (52) for applying and maintaining a generally constant down force is electrical.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Procédé pour enlever un matériau superflu tel qu'un revêtement, une membrane, des souillures ou autres d'une surface, qui comporte les étapes qui consistent à déplacer un organe d'entraînement rotatif flexible (42, 42A) le long d'un trajet prédéterminé en exerçant un effort vers le bas contre la surface (104) en cours de traitement, créant ainsi une zone de travail (106), à amener des particules abrasives libres (102) dans la zone de travail (106) entre l'organe d'entraînement (42, 42A) et la surface (104) dans une direction telle que les particules (102) tendent à être déplacées par l'organe d'entraînement (42, 42A) à travers la zone de travail (106), à permettre aux particules (102) d'être déplacées par l'organe d'entraînement (42, 42A) à travers la zone de travail (106) en contact avec la surface (104) et à continuer d'exercer l'effort dirigé vers le bas sur l'organe d'entraînement (42, 42A) et les particules abrasives (102) pendant que celles-ci se trouvent dans la zone de travail (106) afin de les amener à enlever le matériau superflu de la surface,

       caractérisé par les étapes qui consistent à mettre en rotation l'organe d'entraînement (42, 42A) autour d'un axe parallèle à la surface (104) en cours de traitement et à déplacer l'organe d'entraînement au-dessus de la surface suivant une vitesse de déplacement inférieure au déplacement relatif entre un point situé à l'extérieur de l'organe d'entraînement (42, 42A) le plus voisin de la surface (104), et un point situé sur la surface (104) en cours de traitement tout en continuant à répandre des particules abrasives libres (102) entre l'organe d'entraînement (42, 42A) et la zone de travail (106).
  2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, caractérisé par l'étape qui consiste à amener l'organe d'entraînement (42, 42A) à se conformer de façon flexible aux irrégularités de la surface (104).
  3. Procédé selon les revendications 1 ou 2, caractérisé par l'étape qui consiste à permettre à l'organe d'entraînement (42, 42A) d'osciller autour d'un axe (48) généralement parallèle à la direction de son déplacement dans la zone de travail (106) pour lui permettre de se conformer aux irrégularités de la surface (104).
  4. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, caractérisé par l'étape qui consiste à maintenir l'effort exercé vers le bas sur l'organe d'entraînement (42, 42A) contre la surface (104) approximativement constant lorsque l'organe d'entraînement (42, 42A) rencontre des irrégularités sur la surface (104).
  5. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, caractérisé par l'étape qui consiste à prévoir une pluralité de poches en effleurement sur la partie extérieure (40, 43) de l'organe d'entraînement flexible (42, 42A) prévues pour être déplacées à travers la zone de travail (106) avec l'organe d'entraînement (42, 42A) et à permettre aux particules abrasives libres (102) d'être reçues dans ces poches et déplacées par ces poches à travers la zone de travail (106).
  6. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, caractérisé par l'étape qui consiste à répandre des particules abrasives libres (102) à l'avant de l'organe d'entraînement (42, 42A) vu dans le sens de son déplacement, de telle sorte que les particules abrasives (102) soient tirées entre l'organe d'entraînement et la surface (104) devant être traitée.
  7. Machine (10) pour enlever un matériau superflu tel qu'un revêtement d'une surface (104), comportant un cadre mobile (12) et des moyens (18) pour propulser ce dernier, un organe d'entraînement flexible rotatif (42, 42A) et des moyens de puissance (96) pour mettre en rotation l'organe d'entraînement (42, 42A), des moyens (52) pour pousser l'organe d'entraînement (42, 42A) vers la surface (104), une source (26) d'abrasif libre (102) située sur le cadre (12) et des moyens (28 à 38) pour répandre un abrasif libre (102), entre l'organe d'entraînement (42, 42A) et la surface (104) en cours de traitement pour enlever un revêtement de la surface,

       caractérisée en ce que l'organe d'entraînement (42, 42A) est une roue de travail généralement cylindrique montée sur le cadre (12) et disposée pour pouvoir tourner autour d'un axe généralement horizontal.
  8. Machine selon la revendication 7, caractérisée en ce que les moyens de puissance (96) entraînent en rotation la roue de travail (42, 42A), dans un sens tel que la partie inférieure soit dirigée vers l'arrière par rapport au sens de déplacement de la machine (10) et à une vitesse périphérique de déplacement supérieure à la vitesse de déplacement de la machine (10).
  9. Machine selon les revendications 7 ou 8, caractérisée par des moyens permettant à la roue de travail (42, 42A) d'osciller de manière à se conformer de façon automatique aux irrégularités de la surface (104 en cours de traitement.
  10. Machine selon la revendication 9, caractérisée en ce que la roue de travail (42, 42A) petit osciller autour d'un axe généralement parallèle à la direction de son déplacement dans la zone de travail (106).
  11. Machine selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 10, caractérisée par des moyens (34, 36, 38) pour propulser les particules abrasives libres au-dessous et à l'avant de la roue de travail (42, 42A).
  12. Machine selon la revendication 11, caractérisée en ce que la quantité de particules abrasives libres (102) est commandée par un vibreur réglable (30) et un plateau vibrant (28).
  13. Machine selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 12, caractérisée par des moyens de puissance (34, 36, 38) pour propulser l'abrasif libre (102) entre la partie inférieure de la roue de travail (42, 42A) et la surface (104) en cours de traitement.
  14. Machine selon l'une quelconque des revendications 11 à 13, caractérisée en ce que les moyens (34, 36, 38) pour propulser les particules abrasives libres comportent une roue d'étanchéité (34) rotative.
  15. Machine selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 14, caractérisée en ce que la roue de travail (42, 42A) a sa partie extérieure (92) compressible.
  16. Machine selon la revendication 15, caractérisée en ce que la partie extérieure compressible de la roue de travail (42, 42A) a la forme d'un manchon (92) du type en caoutchouc monté sur un noyau structurel.
  17. Machine selon les revendications 15 ou 16, caractérisée en ce que la partie extérieure compressible (43, 92) sur la roue de travail (42, 42A) a les caractéristiques générales du caoutchouc en ce qui concerne la flexibilité et la déformabilité pour conférer une compressibilité à la partie extérieure de la roue de travail (42, 42A) ce qui lui permet de se conformer aux irrégularités de la surface (104).
  18. Machine selon l'une quelconque des revendications 15 à 17, caractérisée en ce que chaque extrémité de la partie extérieure compressible (92) est légèrement chanfreinée de telle sorte que des découpes adjacentes sur la surface (104) en cours de traitement, seront fondues ensemble et raccordées.
  19. Machine selon l'une quelconque des revendications 15 à 18, caractérisée par un motif (88) de zones de dégagement ménagé sur la partie extérieure de la roue de travail (42, 42A) pour lui conférer une déformabilité accrue.
  20. Machine selon la revendication 19, caractérisée en ce que le motif de zones de dégagement comporte une pluralité de rainures (88).
  21. Machine selon la revendication 20, caractérisée en ce que les rainures (88) ont la forme de chevrons.
  22. Machine selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 21, caractérisée par une courroie flexible (40) autour de la roue de travail (42) et d'une deuxième roue (44) et des moyens (58) pour tendre la courroie (40).
  23. Machine selon la revendication 22, caractérisée par un mécanisme d'alignement (60, 66, 68, 70, 74) monté sur le cadre (12) pour détecter un déplacement latéral de la courroie (40) et pour centrer automatiquement la courroie (40) sur la roue de travail (42).
  24. Machine selon la revendication 23, caractérisée en ce que le mécanisme d'alignement (60, 66, 68, 70, 74) comporte un dispositif capteur (60) de bord de courroie.
  25. Machine selon les revendications 23 ou 24, caractérisée en ce que le mécanisme d'alignement (60, 66, 68, 70, 74) comporte des moyens (70) pour ajuster la deuxième roue (44) autour d'un axe généralement vertical afin de compenser le déplacement latéral de la courroie (40) sur la roue de travail (42).
  26. Machine selon l'une quelconque des revendications 22 à 25, caractérisée en ce que la deuxième roue (44) est étroitement adjacente à la surface (104) en cours de traitement mais hors de contact avec celle-ci.
  27. Machine selon l'une quelconque des revendications 22 à 26, caractérisée en ce que le moyen (581 pour tendre la courroie (40) est construit et agencé pour séparer les roues (42, 44).
  28. Machine selon l'une quelconque des revendications 22 à 27, caractérisée en ce que Des moyens de puissance (96) entraînent la roue de travail (42).
  29. Machine selon l'une quelconque des revendications 22 à 27, caractérisée par des moyens de puissance pour entraîner la deuxième roue de travail (44) de telle sorte que la roue de travail (421 soit entraînée par la courroie (40).
  30. Machine selon l'une quelconque des revendications 22 à 29, caractérisée en ce que la courroie (40) est légèrement plus large que la roue de travail (421 de manière à entamer de façon rectiligne la surface (104) même si la courroie (40) se déplace légèrement dans une direction latérale par rapport à la roue de travail (42).
  31. Machine selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 26, caractérisée par une partie extérieure flexible abrasive (40, 43) autour d'au moins une partie de la roue de travail (42, 42A).
  32. Machine selon l'une quelconque des revendications 22 à 31, caractérisée en ce que la courroie est une courroie abrasive flexible (40).
  33. Machine selon la revendication 31, caractérisée en ce que la partie extérieure abrasive comporte un manchon abrasif flexible (43) autour de la roue de travail (42A).
  34. Machine selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 33, caractérisée en ce que les moyens (52) pour pousser l'organe d'entraînement (42, 42A) sont adaptés pour appliquer et maintenir un effort dirigé vers le bas généralement constant exercé par la roue de travail (42, 42A) et par l'abrasif libre (102) sur la surface (104) en cours de traitement lorsque la roue de travail (42, 42A) suit les variations de contour de la surface (104).
  35. Machine selon la revendication 34, caractérisée en ce que les moyens (52) pour appliquer et maintenir un effort dirigé vers le bas généralement constant sont des moyens hydrauliques.
  36. Machine selon la revendication 34, caractérisée en ce que les moyens (52) pour appliquer et maintenir un effort dirigé vers le bas généralement constant sont des moyens pneumatiques.
  37. Machine selon la revendication 34, caractérisée en ce que les moyens (52) pour appliquer et maintenir un effort dirigé vers le bas généralement constant sont des moyens électriques.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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