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Dokumentenidentifikation EP0602152 01.02.1996
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0602152
Titel VORRICHTUNG ZUR BEFESTIGUNG VON ZWEI ODER MEHREREN SEISMISCHEN ENERGIEQUELLEN AN RELATIV FIXIERTE POSITIONEN
Anmelder Geco A.S., Stavanger, NO
Erfinder CAPPELEN, Hans, N-3420 Lierskogen, NO;
ELHOLM, Tor, N-1347 Hosle, NO;
SORBOTTEN, Oyvind, N-5500 Haugesund, NO;
VATNE, Odd, Olav, N-0353 Oslo, NO
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69206997
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, CH, DE, DK, ES, FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LI, LU, MC, NL, SE
Sprache des Dokument En
EP-Anmeldetag 01.09.1992
EP-Aktenzeichen 929193696
WO-Anmeldetag 01.09.1992
PCT-Aktenzeichen NO9200137
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 9305410
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 18.03.1993
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 22.06.1994
EP date of grant 20.12.1995
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 01.02.1996
IPC-Hauptklasse G01V 1/04
IPC-Nebenklasse G01V 1/38   

Beschreibung[en]

The invention concerns a device for securing two or more seismic energy sources at fixed relative positions during firing of the sources, by placing them in a rigid framework consisting of end frames and intermediate longitudinal bars. The seismic energy sources are preferably of the airgun type.

In seismic surveys at sea the seismic signals are transmitted from energy sources which are normally arranged in groups. In order to increase the effect from energy sources these may also be arranged in sets, with several seismic energy sources or airguns being suspended in a frame-like arrangement, a so-called "cluster".

In an article in the periodical Geophysics, Vol. 44, no. 5 (May 1979), pages 865-879, there is a description of an arrangement of airguns in a group or "cluster" where the guns are secured in the frame at predetermined intervals, thus enabling them to be fired while in a state of constant geometry and without this geometry being altered by or after the firing. Such an assembly of airguns in a framework offers a number of advantages when conducting seismic surveys, but is a technique which has been known for some time and which does not constitute any part of the present invention.

In US patent no. 4 719 987 (corresponding to Norwegian patent application no. 85 2459) an embodiment is illustrated for suspension of seismic energy sources in groups, where the energy sources are kept at fixed relative positions by means of a chain device which is attached to the sources by means of sleeves. However, during firing these energy sources will be able to move in relation to one another and it will not be possible to obtain 100% accurate positioning.

Furthermore, in NO patent no. 165 857 there is a description of a securing device for seismic energy sources in a framework, where the energy sources or airguns are fastened in a frame and secured in a shock-absorbing rubber packing. Although it is true that in this construction the airguns are secured at defined intervals, the device requires a relatively large amount of space and every frame is constructed for a special gun type, or the securing device has to be adapted to suit the respective gun types.

The object of the present invention is to provide a new device for securing two or more seismic energy sources at relative positions during firing of the source, which device, while forming a completely rigid framework for the seismic energy sources, should at the same time be as simple as possible, so that it is easy to stow away when not in use and also easy to assemble. A further object of the invention is to provide a rigid framework of a type which does not cause any bouncing or shifting of the guns in relation to one another, and which can be used for guns of different sizes so that it is only necessary to keep one single type of device in store.

In US-A-4 970 046 it is also described a system for positioning of airguns. According to this US patent the air guns are held in position and spaced from each other by means of single rod elements comprising shock absorbers, connecting means and clamps. The frame according to the US patent is in reality a system in which a plurality of rod elements are provided between air guns in order to maintain the space between them. The system is time consuming in building up an air gun configuration and the rod elements will also have a certain influence on the pulses from the air guns.

Further examples on frames and fastening means for connecting air guns are shown in the US patents 4 721 180, 4 858 205 and the European Patent Application 0368472.

Yet another object of the invention is to supply a device which is designed in such a way that the frame does not obstruct the positioning of the guns in any way, so that the transmitted sound pulses are in no way affected by the framework.

These objects are achieved by a device of the type described in the introduction, which is characterized by the features in the claims presented.

In the design of the frame in accordance with the invention all the above-mentioned advantages are achieved. The most advantageous embodiment of the invention is as a triangular frame for assembling three single airguns to form a high energy source. The character of a small gun or energy source will be retained, while the energy level is increased. The signal properties will be extremely sensitive to the distance between the guns, and this distance will be accurately maintained by means of the construction according to the invention, since the guns are secured in fixed positions. Powerful forces are generated by the firing of the energy sources. The frame will suffer the effects both of the impact from the source during the firing as well as the explosion which is triggered and the collapse of the air bubble which is formed by the released high pressure air. The forces from the guns and the bubbles have been calculated and the frame is designed to take account of these forces. Enormous impact forces would also have been expended upon every element placed in the central area of the frame or cluster. In the invention this central area is free of any construction elements. During the firing the seismic sources, i.e. the airguns, will be exposed to radial forces, which will be dispersed to the other guns via the end frames. These end frames will mainly be exposed to axial forces. Since the end frames are placed at a distance from those pressure waves which are formed during the firing, they will be exposed to minimal force effects. From the point of view of the forces involved, therefore, the open construction in accordance with the invention is extremely favourable while at the same time providing a rigid arrangement of the guns in the cluster. There will also be the additional advantage that the same end frameworks can be used for different gun sizes.

In the following section the invention will be explained in more detail by means of an embodiment which is illustrated in purely schematic form in the drawings:

Fig. 1
is a schematic perspective view illustrating the principle for construction of a device in accordance with the invention for use in seismic surveys,
fig. 2
is a side view of the device according to the invention, as it is also illustrated in purely schematic form in fig. 1,
fig. 3
is a schematic view of an end frame of the type which is illustrated in fig. 2, and
fig. 4
is a perspective view illustrating a corner connection of an end frame.

In a marine seismic survey a number of seismic energy sources or airguns are arranged in the normal manner in an array towed in a predetermined pattern or sequence behind a seismic vessel. In those seismic areas it can be expedient to arrange guns in groups or clusters. The guns are suspended in the usual way in a float 1 on the surface of the water, from which float lines lead down to a securing bracket 3 which again holds the airgun arrangement. This well-known principle is illustrated in fig. 1 and the drawing shows in particular a cluster device in accordance with the invention of three such guns 7. The device in accordance with the invention is suspended in a special way in the bracket 3 and is supplied with its control pulses together with compressed air through the air hose 5 with side hoses 5&min;, 5&sec; and 5‴, which lead to the respective three guns. In the illustrated embodiment the guns are arranged in a triangular configuration, in which the two uppermost guns 7 are positioned horizontally on the same level, while the third deeper lying gun forms the third side of the configuration. The guns 7 are secured in position in relation to one another by means of two end frames which are generally indicated by 6.

The end frames can, as in the example shown, consist of pipe elements 8 whose end sections are welded on to plate elements 9, thus forming a triangle with blunt end pieces. These end plates 9 are preferably arranged at right angles to the opposite side 8 of the triangle. The sides or pipe elements 8 are preferably formed from cylindrical pipes, but other configurations will also be entirely feasible.

The end plates 9 are joined to an additional plate 10 positioned at right angles to the plate 9 to form the attachment element for the longitudinal steps between two end frames 6 which are formed by the airguns 7. For stiffening purposes, the angular attachment element thus created can be reinforced with stiffening parts 11. The attachment plate 10 is equipped with attachment elements for the airguns 7. In the simplest and most practical embodiment these attachment elements consist quite simply of through-going bolts which can be screwed into holes tapped for this purpose at both ends of the guns 7. Thus an extremely simple method of assembling the cluster construction can be achieved.

Normally the end portions of the guns 7 are rounded. To compensate for this, plates which, e.g., can be welded on can also be attached to the ends of the guns, and these plates can then be screwed on to the plates 10 to form a completely rigid and permanent connection. This embodiment is clearly illustrated in fig. 2 which also shows the securing screws or bolts 14. In this embodiment the plate element 9 also consists of two plate parts, thus providing a connection between the pipe elements 8 and the attachment fittings 9, 10, 11 which can be disconnected, i.e. also replaced. This embodiment is also clearly illustrated in the perspective view in fig. 4. Fig. 2 also illustrates the point for transmission of the seismic pulses or air bubbles, this area being indicated by 12.

Fig. 3 illustrates the simple, triangular construction of the end frames 6. It should be noted that other constructions can, of course, be used here, such as a more pointed frame or a construction with four guns, even though the preferred embodiment is a frame in the form of an isosceles triangle. Theoretically it should also be possible to mount the attaching plates at points other than the corners.

Fig. 4 illustrates an advantageous embodiment of the attachment fitting, where the plate 10 is in two parts, thus providing access to not shown connections for compressed air and the control hoses 5&min; - 5‴.

One of the major advantages of the device according to the invention is that, when it is not in use and, e.g., has to be stored on board a seismic vessel, the cluster can be very easily dismantled by simply unscrewing the airguns and placing the two end frames alongside each other. The construction will thus also be considerably easier to handle and will also be light in weight. For example, an end frame construction according to the invention will weigh around 90 kg, while the previously used cluster frames of fixed construction for a similar gun configuration could weigh around 5-600 kg (without guns).

This weight saving also means that a cluster according to the invention will be considerably lighter to tow behind a ship, since the float construction can also be made lighter, the weight having been reduced.

As already mentioned, many modifications of the device according to the invention will be possible. No special mention has been made in the above, e.g., of the attachment of tow wires, which are indicated by 4 in fig. 1, since this will be a feature which the skilled person himself will be able to choose. The figure illustrates that the device according to the invention is suspended in the bracket 3, from the securing devices in the corners of the end frame, but it is, of course, also possible to use the attachment lugs already supplied on normal airguns and designed for the suspension of the guns in a similar way, when they are used individually. It will be possible to alter both the form of the device and the construction of the method of attachment within the scope of the invention.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Vorrichtung zur Befestigung von zwei oder mehreren seismischen Energiequellen (7) an stationären relativen Positionen, wobei die Energiequellen (7) als Längsstäbe zwischen starren Rahmenkonstruktionen (6) so funktionieren, daß die Rahmenkonstruktionen (6) und die Energiequellen (7) zusammenwirken, um eine starre Anordnung bereitzustellen, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß eine jede Rahmenkonstruktion (6) eine Vielzahl von Elementen (8, 9) aufweist, die starr in einer Ebene verbunden sind; und daß die Rahmenkonstruktionen (6) an den Enden der Energiequellen (7) so befestigt sind, daß sie soweit weg wie möglich vom Zündzentrum der Energiequellen entfernt sind, wobei Schrauben (14) in die Gewindebohrungen an den Enden der Energiequellen (7) hineingeschraubt sind.
  2. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Rahmenkonstruktionen (6) in der Form von Dreiecken vorliegen.
  3. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Dreiecke gleichschenklige Dreiecke sind.
  4. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Verbindung zwischen den Elementen (8) der Rahmen (6) aus geschweißten Platten (9) besteht, auf denen die Flanschplatten (10) montiert sind, wobei ein Plattenteil unter rechtem Winkel zur Längsrichtung der Längsstäbe (6) verläuft.
  5. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Enden der seismischen Energiequellen (7) mit Montageplatten (15) mit Löchern für die Befestigungsschrauben (14) versehen sind.
  6. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Vorrichtung durch die Rahmen (6) frei getragen wird, und daß die Energieversorgungs- und Steuerkabel für die Energiequelle über die Befestigungsvorrichtungen des Rahmens eingeführt werden.
  7. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Vorrichtung in den normalen Hängefittings der Quellen frei getragen wird.
  8. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß sie so frei getragen wird, daß ein Punkt des Dreieckes nach unten gerichtet ist.
  9. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Rahmenelemente (8) einen kreisförmigen Querschnitt aufweisen.
  10. Vorrichtung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die seismischen Energiequellen (7) Spritzpistolen sind.
Anspruch[en]
  1. A device for securing two or more seismic energy sources (7) at fixed relative positions, the energy sources (7) acting as longitudinal bars between stiff frame constructions (6) so that the frame constructions (6) and the energy sources (7) co-operate to provide a stiff system, characterised in that each frame construction (6) comprises a plurality of elements (8, 9) rigidly connected in a plane and in that the frame constructions (6) are attached to the ends of the energy sources (7) so as to be as far away as possible from the firing centre of the energy sources by way of bolts (14) screwed into tapped holes at the ends of the energy sources (7).
  2. A device as claimed in Claim 1, characterised in that the frame constructions (6) are in the form of triangles.
  3. A device as claimed in Claim 2, characterised in that the triangles are isosceles triangles.
  4. A device according to claim 1, characterised in that the connection between the elements (8) of the frames (6) consist of welded plates (9) on which are mounted flange plates (10), with one plate part at right angles to the longitudinal direction of the longitudinal bars (6).
  5. A device according to claim 1, characterised in that the ends of the seismic energy sources (7) are provided with mounting plates (15) with holes for the attaching bolts (14).
  6. A device according to claim 1, characterised in that the device is suspended by the frames (6) and that the energy supply and control cables for the energy source are inserted via the frame's attaching devices.
  7. A device according to claim 1, characterised in that the device is suspended in the sources' normal suspension fittings.
  8. A device according to claim 2, characterised in that it is suspended with a point of the triangle facing down.
  9. A device according to claim 1, characterised in that the frame elements (8) have circular cross section.
  10. A device as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterised in that the seismic energy sources (7) are airguns.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Un dispositif de fixation de deux sources d'énergie sismiques (7) ou plus, en des positions relatives fixées, les sources d'énergie (7) agissant comme des barres longitudinales entre des constructions en châssis rigides (6), de manière que les constructions en châssis (6) et les sources d'énergie (7) coopèrent pour constituer un système rigide, caractérisé en ce que chaque construction en châssis (6) comprend une pluralité d'éléments (8, 9) reliés rigidement dans un plan, et en ce que les constructions en châssis (6) sont fixées aux extrémités des sources d'énergie (7), de manière à être aussi écartées que possible du centre de détonation des sources d'énergie, au moyen de boulons (14) vissés dans des trous taraudés ménagés aux extrémités des sources d'énergie (7).
  2. Un dispositif selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que les constructions en châssis (6) se présentent sous la forme de triangles.
  3. Un dispositif selon la revendication 2, caractérisé en ce que les triangles sont des triangles isocèles.
  4. Un dispositif selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que la liaison entre les éléments (8) des châssis (6) est constituée de plaques (9) soudées, sur lesquelles sont montées des plaques formant brides (10), une plaque courant à angles droits par rapport à la direction longitudinale des barres longitudinales (6).
  5. Un dispositif selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que les extrémités des sources d'énergie sismiques (7) sont pourvues de plaques de montage (15) présentant des trous pour les boulons de fixation (14).
  6. Un dispositif selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que le dispositif est suspendu par les châssis (6) et en ce que les câbles d'alimentation en énergie et utilisés pour la commande des sources d'énergie sont insérés à travers les dispositifs de fixation de châssis.
  7. Un dispositif selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que le dispositif est suspendu dans les raccords de suspension normaux des sources.
  8. Un dispositif selon la revendication 2, caractérisé en ce qu'il est suspendu avec une pointe du triangle tournée vers le bas.
  9. Un dispositif selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que les éléments de cadre (8) ont une section transversale circulaire.
  10. Un dispositif selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que les sources d'énergie sismiques (7) sont des canons à air.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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