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Dokumentenidentifikation EP0574558 26.09.1996
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0574558
Titel STÄNDERLUFTDROSSEL
Anmelder General Electric Co., Schenectady, N.Y., US
Erfinder HOLMES, Carl, Alfred, Erie, PA 16509, US
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69212996
Vertragsstaaten DE, ES, FR, GB, IT, SE
Sprache des Dokument En
EP-Anmeldetag 30.10.1992
EP-Aktenzeichen 929241552
WO-Anmeldetag 30.10.1992
PCT-Aktenzeichen US9209307
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 9313584
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 08.07.1993
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 22.12.1993
EP date of grant 21.08.1996
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 26.09.1996
IPC-Hauptklasse H02K 9/02
IPC-Nebenklasse H02K 3/50   H02K 3/24   

Beschreibung[en]
Background of the Invention Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to structures for directing the air flow in an electric motor, and in particular to structures for directing the air flow through the stator of an electric motor.

Brief Description of the Related Art

As shown in Fig. 2, the stator 10 of a typical electric motor is formed by a series of coils 12 held in a solid body 14, e.g., a series of metal plates laminated together. The coils are held in position relative to one another by a tie ring 16.

The stator 10 is cooled by air blowing past the stator 10, through any available air channels in the stator 10 and through the gap between the stator 10 and the rotor 17, as shown generally by the arrows A. Only the ends 18 of the coils are directly exposed to the air flow, and while a chamfer 19 helps direct air towards the ends 18, very little of the air actually passes through the ends 18 due to the high flow resistance through the ends. Instead, most of the air flows around the outside surface of the coil ends.

One proposal to overcome this problem has been disclosed in DE-B-1146581 in which baffles are used to redirect the airflow.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention seeks to improve the cooling efficiency of the air flow through a stator by providing a simple, effective structure to force more of the air flowing through the stator to actually pass through the coil ends.

According to the invention there is provided an electric motor comprising: a) an annular stator having a plurality of stator coils circumferentially spaced thereabout and a stator body in which said stator coils are embedded, ends of the stator coils extending out of the stator body and said stator body having at least one air passage extending therethrough; b) a stator frame supporting and surrounding the stator and having an annular shoulder formed therein; c) a rotor rotatably mounted inside said stator; d) a plurality of rotor supports for rotatably supporting said rotor; e) an annular air baffle having a substantially U-shaped cross-section mounted adjacent to an end of said stator with a radially outer edge of said air baffle being loosely held between said annular shoulder and said rotor supports; and f) a felt pad between said air baffle and said coils; characterized by: g) a plurality of glass ties extending through an inner side of said air baffle, through said felt pad and around said coils to hold said air baffle, felt pad (46) and coils together.

Brief Description of the Drawings

The invention will now be described in further detail, by way of example, with reference to the drawings in which:

  • Fig. 1 is a cross sectional view of part of an electric motor including an air baffle according to the present invention.
  • Fig. 2 is a cross sectional view similar to part of Fig. 1, but showing a structure according to the prior art.
  • Fig. 3 is a detail of Fig. 1.
  • Fig. 4 is a perspective view of a portion of the air baffle and stator of the electric motor of Fig. 1, unwrapped into a nearly straight line for clarity of illustration.

Detailed Description of the Preferred Embodiments

Fig. 1 is a cross-sectional view of the upper part of an electric motor having an air baffle according to the present invention. The motor includes a stator 20 and a rotor 22. The stator 20 is supported by a stator frame 24. A plurality of circumferentially spaced rotor supports 26 (only one of which is shown in the drawing) are mounted to the stator frame 24 to support the rotor 22 prior to being mounted, for example, to a diesel engine.

The stator 20 is formed by a plurality of circumferentially spaced coils 28 and a body 30, e.g., a series of metal plates laminated together. The main part of each coil 28 preferably is embedded inside the stator body 30 to be thermally connected thereto, with only the end portions 32 of each coil 28 exposed outside of the stator body 30. Preferably, the stator body 30 also is provided with a plurality of air passages 34 through which air can flow to cool the stator body 30 (and thereby cool the coils 28).

According to the present invention, an air baffle 40 is provided at the air outlet end of the stator 20. The air baffle 40 extends between the stator frame 24 and the end portions 32 of the coils 28, so that air flowing through the air passages 34 must also pass through the coil end portions 32 to exit the motor.

As best seen in Figs. 3 and 4, the air baffle 40 preferably is an annular fiberglass composite structure, with a substantially U-shaped cross-section for strength and flexibility. Fiberglass is well suited for this purpose, since it is stiff, can withstand significant heat build-up and is easily formed into a suitable shape.

The radially outer edge 42 of the air baffle 40 is flared out so it is substantially in a radial plane. This outer edge then is loosely held in an annular gap between the rotor supports 26 and a shoulder 44 formed in the stator frame 24. With this mounting, the air baffle 40 can move back and forth in and rotate around the annular gap, so it is both free to rotate and to move longitudinally to a limited degree.

A felt pad 46 is positioned between the radially inner side 48 of the air baffle 40 and the coils 28. Glass ties 50 extend through holes in the inner side 48 of the air baffle 40 and the felt pad 46 to tie around the coil end portions 32. The ties 50 can be used with every coil 28, or with just a selected number of coils 28 (as shown in Fig. 4). As will be apparent, with this structure the air baffle 40 serves to hold the coils 28 in position relative to one another, so that the prior art tie ring 16 may be eliminated.

After the coils 28, air baffle 40, felt pad 46 and glass ties 50 are completely assembled into the motor, they preferably are coated with varnish (which for clarity has not been shown in the drawings) to protect the, stiffen them and further bind them together. In some applications, it may be necessary to provide one or more drain holes 52 for excess varnish to drain out, since the air baffle 40 prevents the varnish from flowing out through the end of the motor. However, the prior art chamfer 19 can be eliminated, so a stator frame according to the present invention is less costly to make than a stator frame according to the prior art.

According to a further aspect of the invention, felt spacers 54 are placed between the end portions 32 of the coils to help maintain them in position. These spacers 54 are placed in a staggered or serpentine arrangement (best seen in Fig. 4) so that at most one side of any part of the coil end portions 32 is covered by felt (and therefore insulated from the cooling air flow).

In a further preferred embodiment, additional spacers 56 are placed between the coil end portions 32 and pressed against the felt pad 46. Frictional engagement between these spacers 56 and the felt pad 46 will help hold the coil end portions 32 in position. When varnish is applied, it will soak through both felt pads and further strengthen the connection.

In operation, air is forced to flow through the gap between the stator and the rotor and through any other available openings in the stator, e.g., between the coils 28 or through the air passages 34. The air can be driven by any suitable means, e.g., due to motion of a vehicle in which the motor is mounted, due to a fan mounted to the motor rotor, or due to a fan elsewhere with air then ducted to the motor.

A small amount of the air may still be able to flow past rather than through the end portions 32 of the coils, as shown in Fig. 1 by the arrow B. However, the bulk of the air will be forced by the air baffle 40 to flow through the end portions 32 of the coils, as shown by the arrows C, thereby enhancing coil cooling.

Tests of the invention have been run using a motor of the type used on a diesel-electric locomotive equipped with a prototype of the air baffle described herein. Adding the air baffle resulted in a temperature decrease of 29°C for the stator coils, and lowered hot spot temperatures in the felt spacers between the coils by 50°C, even though air flow through the motor was reduced from the usual 4.25 m3/s. (9000 standard cubic feet per minute (SCFM)) to 4.01 m3/s. (8500 SCFM). Adequate cooling was provided even upon further reduction in air flow to 3,61 m3/s. (7650 SCFM) because of the improved cooling efficiency resulting from use of the air baffle.

In an alternative to the above described embodiments, brackets or some similar structure could be used to loosely hold the outer edge of the air baffle in place, instead of the shoulder 44 and rotor support 26 described. Similarly, the air baffle could have a variety of shapes, and could be mounted to the coils in many different ways. Specifically, the "U" shaped cross section and fiberglass material of the air baffle are not the only geometry and/or material that could perform the described functions. Nor is it necessary that the baffle be of one piece construction as a segmented multi-piece design could also work. In fact, the initial test prototype was such a segmented design. Rather than being arranged in a completely non-overlapping fashion, the felt spacers 54 could slightly overlap without unduly hindering the cooling effects (though maximum cooling would be attained with no such overlap). Accordingly, this invention is intended to embrace all such alternatives, modifications and variations which fall within the scope of the appended claims.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Elektrischer Motor enthaltend:
    • a. einen ringförmigen Stator (20) mit mehreren Statorspulen (28), die auf dem Umfang im Abstand um ihn herum angeordnet sind, und einem Statorkörper (30), in den die Statorspulen (28) eingebettet sind, wobei sich die Enden (32) der Statorspulen (28) aus dem Statorkörper (30) heraus erstrecken und der Statorkörper (30) wenigstens einen Luftkanal (34) aufweist, der sich durch ihn hindurch erstreckt,
    • b. einen Statorrahmen (24), der den Stator (20) haltert und umgibt und eine darin ausgebildete ringförmige Schulter (44) aufweist,
    • c. einen Rotor (22), der innerhalb des Stators (20) drehbar angebracht ist,
    • d. mehrere Rotorstützen (26) zum drehbaren Stützen des Rotors (22),
    • e. eine ringförmiger Luft-Leitanordnung (40), die einen im wesentlichen U-förmigen Querschnitt hat und benachbart zu einem Ende des Stators (20) angebracht ist, wobei ein radial äußerer Rand (42) der Luft-Leitanordnung (40) zwischen der ringförmiger Schulter (44) und den Rotorstützen (26) lose gehalten ist, und
    • f. ein Filzkissen (46) zwischen der Luft-Leitanordnung (40) und den Spulen (28), dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß
    • g. mehrere Glasbänder (50) sich durch eine Innenseite der Luft-Leitanordnung (40), durch das Filzkissen (46) und um die Spulen (28) herum erstrecken, um die Luft-Leitanordnung (40), das Filzkissen (46) und die Spulen (28) zusammenzuhalten.
  2. Elektrischer Motor nach Anspruch 1, wobei mehrere Filz-Abstandshalter (56) zwischen den Spulen (28) vorgesehen sind und gegen das Filzkissen (46) anliegen.
  3. Elektrischer Motor nach Anspruch 1, wobei zwischen den Spulen (28) mehrere Filz-Abstandshalter (54) vorgesehen sind, die serpentinenförmig so angeordnet sind, daß der Abstandshalter auf der einen Seite von einer Spule (28) mit dem Abstandshalter (54) auf der gegenüberliegenden Seite der Spule (28) nicht ausgerichtet ist.
  4. Elektrischer Motor nach Anspruch 1, wobei ein Lacküberzug auf der Luft-Leitanordnung (40), dem Filzkissen (46), den Glasbändern (50) und den Spulen (28) vorgesehen ist.
  5. Elektrischer Motor nach Anspruch 4, wobei ein Abflußloch (52) in dem Statorrahmen (24) ausgebildet ist, damit überschüssiger Lack aus dem Motor abfließen kann, wenn der Lacküberzug aufgebracht wird.
Anspruch[en]
  1. An electric motor comprising:
    • a. an annular stator (20) having a plurality of stator coils (28) circumferentially spaced thereabout and a stator body (30) in which said stator coils (28) are embedded, ends (32) of the stator coils (28) extending out of the stator body (30) and said stator body (30) having at least one air passage (34) extending therethrough;
    • b. a stator frame (24) supporting and surrounding the stator (20) and having an annular shoulder (44) formed therein;
    • c. a rotor (22) rotatably mounted inside said stator (20);
    • d. a plurality of rotor supports (26) for rotatably supporting said rotor (22);
    • e. an annular air baffle (40) having a substantially U-shaped cross-section mounted adjacent to an end of said stator (20) with a radially outer edge (42) of said air baffle (40) being loosely held between said annular shoulder (44) and said rotor supports (26); and
    • f. a felt pad (46) between said air baffle (40) and said coils 28); characterized by:
    • g. a plurality of glass ties (50) extending through an inner side of said air baffle (40), through said felt pad (46) and around said coils (28) to hold said air baffle (40), felt pad (46) and coils (28) together.
  2. The electric motor of claim 1, further comprising a plurality of felt spacers (56) between said coils (28) and abutting against said felt pad (46).
  3. The electric motor of claim 1, further comprising a plurality of felt spacers (54) between said coils (28), said spacers (54) being arranged in a serpentine fashion so that the spacer on one side of a coil (28) is out of alignment with the spacer (54) on the opposite side of the coil (28).
  4. The electric motor of claim 1, further comprising a varnish coating on said air baffle (40), felt pad (46), glass ties (50) and coils (28).
  5. The electric motor of claim 4, wherein a drain hole (52) is formed in said stator frame (24) to allow excess varnish to drain out of said motor when said varnish coating is applied.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Moteur électrique comprenant :
    • a. un stator annulaire (20) comportant une pluralité d'enroulements de stator (28) espacés dans le sens de la circonférence autour de ce dernier et un corps de stator (30) dans lequel lesdits enroulements de stator (28) sont noyés, les extrémités (32) des enroulements de stator (28) dépassant dudit corps de stator (30) et ledit corps de stator (30) comportant au moins un passage d'air (34) qui le traverse,
    • b. une carcasse de stator (24) qui supporte et entoure le stator (20) et dans laquelle est formé un épaulement annulaire (44),
    • c. un rotor (22) monté de façon à pouvoir tourner à l'intérieur dudit stator (20),
    • d. une pluralité de supports de rotor (26) servant à soutenir ledit rotor (22) de façon à ce qu'il puisse tourner,
    • e. un déflecteur d'air (40), annulaire, ayant une section sensiblement en forme de U, monté pour être adjacent à une extrémité dudit stator (20), un bord radialement extérieur (42) dudit déflecteur d'air (40) étant maintenu avec jeu entre ledit épaulement annulaire (44) et lesdits supports de rotor (26), et
    • f. un coussin de feutre (46) placé entre ledit déflecteur d'air (40) et lesdits enroulements (28),
    caractérisé par :

       g. une pluralité d'attaches de verre (50) qui s'étendent à travers le côté intérieur dudit déflecteur d'air (40), à travers ledit coussin de feutre (46) et autour desdits enroulements (28) pour maintenir ledit déflecteur d'air (40), ledit coussin de feutre (46) et lesdits enroulements (28) ensemble.
  2. Moteur électrique selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre une pluralité d'entretoises de feutre (56) placées entre lesdits enroulements (28) et butant contre ledit coussin de feutre (46).
  3. Moteur électrique selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre une pluralité d'entretoises de feutre (56) placées entre lesdits enroulements (28), lesdites entretoises (54) étant disposées à la façon d'un serpentin de telle sorte que l'entretoise se trouvant sur un côté d'un enroulement (28) n'est pas alignée avec l'entretoise (54) se trouvant sur le côté opposé de l'enroulement (28).
  4. Moteur électrique selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre un revêtement de vernis sur ledit déflecteur d'air (40), ledit coussin de feutre (46), lesdites attaches de verre (50) et lesdits enroulements (28).
  5. Moteur électrique selon la revendication 4, dans lequel un trou d'évacuation (52) est formé dans ladite carcasse de stator (24) pour permettre au vernis en excès de s'écouler hors du moteur quand ledit revêtement de vernis est appliqué.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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