PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP0617206 25.02.1999
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0617206
Titel Selbstjustierende Mutter
Anmelder AlliedSignal Inc., Morristown, N.J., US
Erfinder Tornquist, Gerald E., c/o AlliedSignal Inc., Morristown, NJ 07962-2245, US;
Hruska, Paul E. c/o AlliedSignal Inc., Morristown, NJ 07962-2245, US
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69415843
Vertragsstaaten DE, FR
Sprache des Dokument En
EP-Anmeldetag 23.03.1994
EP-Aktenzeichen 941045635
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 28.09.1994
EP date of grant 13.01.1999
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 25.02.1999
IPC-Hauptklasse F16B 37/00
IPC-Nebenklasse G01P 3/44   G01P 1/00   G01P 3/488   F01D 5/06   F01D 5/02   F16D 1/06   

Beschreibung[en]
TECHNICAL FIELD

This invention relates to a nut used on a shaft to apply a consistent compressive axial force on a plurality of components to position the components and to self position itself to the shaft.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

In many applications, nuts and bolts are used to apply compressive forces on multiple components, securing them in a stacked relation. The compressive force through the components is equal to the tensile force in the bolt which stretches proportionally to the bolt length. A problem occurs when the bolt is placed in a hot environment where it grows due to thermal expansion and relieves the compressive force. This problem can be further compounded by vibration which can help loosen the nut. This is particularly evident when the compressive force is minimal because the friction holding the nut in place is minimal. These detrimental conditions occur in gas turbine engines and other applications and must be overcome because securing the components is critical.

In gas turbine engines, a nut is often used on the end of a threaded shaft to secure and position engine components relative to the shaft. The shaft traditionally has a radial flange extending outward at one end to provide an abutting surface and threads for the nut at the opposite end. The engine components are stacked along the shaft such that the shaft extends through the center of the components. The nut is threaded to the shaft to apply a compressive force through the components which secures them in place relative to the shaft, and thus, pilots the components.

In some engines, such as the one in FIG. 1, the shaft is relatively short, and thus, has little axial deflection when pulled on by the nut. This presents several problems. First, different coefficients of thermal expansion can make the thermal growth of the shaft greater than that of the engine components during hot, operating conditions. Second, the engine components are subject to dynamic radial forces which results in a Poisson axial contraction in the components. These phenomena tend to relieve the securing force and pilot of the engine components. Also, a large axial force is required to maintain the engine components in compression which can create high stresses in the nut threads. Because the shaft and nut threads are at an angle other than 90 degrees to the nut and shaft centerline, the compressive load tends to be unevenly distributed circumferentially on the engine components and the threads tend to axially align at 90 degrees to the centerline. Another serious problem is the entrapment of debris which can cause runnout in both the nut and shaft end such that the nut and shaft end are no longer centered to the engine centerline.

Accordingly, a need exists for a nut that can apply a consistent compressive force on piloted components to allow for shaft and engine component axial deflection mismatch and can reduce thread stresses. A need also exists for a nut that can apply a circumferentially uniform compressive force to the engine components and will not create nut and shaft runnout and will self center the nut in the event of entrapped debris.

SU-A-830025 discloses a nut and bolt for applying compressive force to hold together machinery components. The bolt passes through holes in the components and applies force to one side of the components to be joined. Compressive force is applied to the other side of those components through thrust washers with a conical spring washer outwardly directed from the nut to the thrust washers. The shank of the bolt has a conical collar fitting between the thrust washer and flexible tabs on the underside of the nut and gripping the conical collar.

The present invention provides a nut for applying a compressive force to one or more components mounted on a shaft having a centerline defining an axial direction, to position the components against a fixed surface, comprising:

  • an annular member having means for coupling the annular member to said shaft on the inner diameter of said annular member; and
  • transmitting means for transmitting compressive force from said annular member to said components.

According to the invention, said transmitting means comprise a compliant member integral with said annular member and having a first surface for transmitting said compressive force to said components, said compliant member having a conical portion extending axially from a region of said annular member to said first surface, and extending inwardly from said region to a second surface coaxial with said annular member, and which compliant member is configured to deflect inward to contact said shaft with said second surface when said first surface is transmitting said compressive force, whereby said nut is centered to said shaft.

An object of the invention is to provide a nut which will provide a more uniform compressive load through a plurality of components stacked upon a shaft when the components and the shaft have axial deflection mismatch.

Another object of the invention is to provide a nut which will self center itself to the shaft and prevent shaft and nut runnout.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a nut which will reduce maximum thread stresses.

Still another object of the present invention is to provide a nut that can be used to obtain an engine speed signal.

The present invention meets the above mentioned objects by providing a compliant nut that can provide a more consistent compressive force to engine components through a compliant section which absorbs axial deflection mismatch. The present invention also provides a self centering feature that positions the nut upon compression, reduces thread stresses and prevents nut and shaft runnout. More particularly, the invention is an annular member having threads on the inner diameter for mating with a threaded shaft and having a conical portion extending axially and radially inward from the annular member for abutting engine components and the engine shaft. The conical portion is compliant in the axial direction, and thus, deflects when compressed. Also, the conical portion inner surface deflects radially inward to contact the shaft when the nut is compressed which centers the nut on the shaft, reduces thread stresses and prevents nut and shaft runnout.

Other features present in the compliant nut include a plurality of exciter teeth circumferentially disposed and extending radially from the annular member used to provide a shaft speed signal for engine controls and a plurality of axial spline members extending axially from the annular member on the opposite face from the conical section for mating with torque applying tools and locking mechanisms.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

  • FIG. 1 is a cross section of a gas turbine engine coupling shaft utilizing a nut according to the present invention
  • FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the nut, looking toward the conical portion.
  • FIG. 3 is a cross section of the nut.
  • FIG. 4 is a side view of the back side of the nut.
  • FIG. 5 is a graphical representation of the percent of average thread stress for a nut according to the present invention compared to a conventional nut.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

The following description of the preferred embodiment of the present invention refers to a section of a conventional gas turbine engine that includes a compressor, a combuster and a turbine (all not shown) in fluid communication for providing shaft power to a load compressor 12 and output power at the gearbox shaft 20. Air is compressed in the compressor, then combusted in the combustor with fuel and then expanded over the turbine to provide the shaft power. The shaft power is transferred to the load compressor 12 and shaft 20 through engine shaft 18.

FIG. 1 shows a rotating coupling shaft 10 coupled at one axial end to the load compressor 12 through a curvic coupling 14 and to the engine shaft 18 through threads 16 and is coupled at the other axial end to a gearbox shaft 20 through spline 22. The coupling shaft 10 is radially positioned in a gearbox housing 24 through bearings 36. The bearings 36 require lubrication which is provided through passages 44 in a support member 42. A seal rotor 38 and carbon face seal 40 seal the lubricant from the load compressor 12. The carbon face seal 40 is an annular member with a axially flat surface for abutting the seal rotor 38 and is positioned by support member 42. The seal rotor 38 and bearings 36 are axially positioned by abutting against surface 28 on shaft 10 through a compressive force applied by the nut 30. The nut 30 is coupled to the shaft 10 through threads 32, and when assembled, secures the engine components 36 and 38 through a force of approximately 821 N (3650 lb) in the preferred embodiment.

As shown in FIG.'s 2-4, the nut 30 is comprised of an annular member portion 68 with the threads 32 on the inner diameter. A plurality of axial splines 54 are located circumferentially on the annular member 68 to mate with a tool that torques the nut 30 on the shaft 10 for assembly. A plurality of exciter teeth 52 are circumferentially disposed about the outer surface of the annular member 68 and extend perpendicularly therefrom. As seen in FIG. 1, a sensing device 46 extends radially in from the engine outer housing (not shown) and uses the exciter teeth 52 to measure the engine rotational speed.

By using the nut 30 to provide the engine speed, the controls can be moved to the gearbox housing 24 for better accessibility and component temperature control.

The nut 30 also has an annular compliant section 60 which is conically shaped and extends axially and radially inward toward the engine centerline from the annular member 68 so as to form an inverse V shape therewith and forming a circumferential channel 66. The compliant section 60 has an axially flat end with surface 62 at the radially inner end for contacting the engine components 36 and 38 and applying the compressive force thereon. When the nut 30 is threaded onto the shaft, the compliant section 60 acts as a spring and deflects axially toward the annular member 68 more than the shaft 10 stretches. Thus, the difference in deflection of the engine components 36 and 38 and the shaft 10 during engine operation can be reacted through deflection in the compliant section 60 and the compressive force exerted on the engine components 36 and 38 will remain proportional to the spring rate of the compliant section 60. In the preferred embodiment, the thickness t of the compliant portion 60 is approximately 1/3 of its axial extension 1. This thickness provides a sufficiently stiff compliant section 60 to apply the compressive force desired and provides a small radial deflection to prevent gouging of the shaft 10. The stiffness or spring rate of the compliant portion 60 can be tailored by simply thinning or thickening the compliant portion 60.

The compliant portion 60 also has an inner surface 64 that encircles the shaft 10 with little or no clearance therebetween before any load has been applied. In the preferred embodiment, the inner surface 64 is sized with a line-to-line clearance with the shaft 10, but greater compliancy in the compliant portion 60 would require greater clearance between the inner surface 64 and the shaft 10 to prevent gouging into the shaft 10. When the nut 30 is torqued onto the shaft 10, the inner surface 64 deflects radially inward to contact the shaft 10. By clamping the inner surface 64 on the shaft 10, the nut 30 is self centered on the shaft and any misaligning moment, caused by the nut threads 32 or any entrapped debris, is reacted through the radial loads in the inner surface 64 rather than through the axial loads in surface 62 which would create runnout in the nut 30 and shaft 10.

The clamping of the inner surface 64 also creates a radially outward force that is transferred through the compliant section 60 to the annular member 68. This force pulls radially outward on the annular member 68, relieving the compressive force in the first few threads of threads 32 as illustrated by FIG. 5. FIG. 5 graphically depicts the percent of average stress for stresses in a conventional nut, line 100, and stresses in the present invention nut, line 101. A conventional nut is used in the comparison as the closest prior art the applicants are presently aware of. The stresses were calculated for the conventional nut using data from "Controlling Fastening Reliability and Cost", Assembly Engineering, Jan 1973, p 27 and the stresses in the nut 30 were calculated using a finite element model of the nut. Each point on the lines depicts the percent of average stress for a thread root where the first thread root is represented by the furthest point to the right. FIG. 5 indicates that the present invention tends to decrease the stresses in the first few thread roots by more evenly distributing the compressive load over the threads.

In FIG. 3, the conical angles C1 and C2 in the preferred embodiment are approximately 30 and 44 degrees respectively from the radial direction RD which is perpendicular to the nut and engine centerline. As one skilled in the art can appreciate, as the angles C1 and C2 approach 90 degrees, the axial stiffness of the compliant section increases and as the angles approach 0 degrees, the axial stiffness of the compliant section 60 decreases as long as the compliant section 60 is spaced apart from the annular member 68. Conversely, as the angles C1 and C2 approach 0 degrees, radial stiffness increases so that the radial force through the inner surface 64 to center the nut 30 becomes increasingly stiffer. Thus, angles C1 and C2 must be less than 90 degrees and are preferably between about 45 degrees and 0 degrees.

Preferably, surface 62 has a slight angle A as shown in FIG. 3 that is less than about 1 degree. The angle A allows the surface 62 to align flat against the compressed engine components, namely the bearing 36 inner race. Similarly, surface 64 also has a slight angle B that is less than about 1 degree so that the surface will lay flat against the shaft 10 upon nut compression. Both angles A and B should be changed inversely proportionally to changes in the stiffness of the compliant section 60.

The nut 30 is preferably made from stainless steel 17-4 which provides good material properties through the gearbox operating temperatures of less than -18 to +204°C (0 to 400 degrees Fahrenheit). Of course, other stainless steels or A286 could be used in this application and Inco 718 could be used for hot applications. The nut 30 is preferably manufactured by bottle boring such that material is removed between the annular ring 68 and the compliant section 60 creating the annular channel therebetween. However, alternative processes are available, such as casting an integral nut 30 or bonding a compliant section 60 to an annular member 68.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Mutter (30) zum Ausüben einer Druckkraft auf eine oder mehrere Komponenten (36, 38), die auf einer Welle (10) angebracht sind, deren Mittellinie eine Axialrichtung definiert, um die Komponenten gegen eine feststehende Fläche zu positionieren, mit folgendem:
    • einem ringförmigen Glied (68) mit Mitteln (32) an seinem Innendurchmesser zum Verbinden des ringförmigen Glieds mit der Welle; und
    • Übertragungsmitteln zum Übertragen der Druckkraft von dem ringförmigen Glied auf die Komponenten,
       dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Übertragungsmittel ein nachgiebiges Glied (60) umfassen, das mit dem ringförmigen Glied (68) einstückig ausgebildet ist und eine erste Fläche (62) zur Übertragung der Druckkraft auf die Komponenten aufweist, wobei das nachgiebige Glied einen konischen Teil aufweist, der sich axial von einem Bereich des ringförmigen Glieds zur ersten Fläche (62) und von dem Bereich nach innen zu einer zweiten Fläche (64), die mit dem ringförmigen Glied koaxial ist, erstreckt, und wobei das nachgiebige Glied so konfiguriert ist, daß es sich nach innen biegt, um die Welle mit der zweiten Fläche zu berühren, wenn die erste Fläche die Druckkraft überträgt, wodurch die Mutter auf die Welle zentriert wird.
  2. Mutter nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das ringförmige Glied (68) eine Radialrichtung definiert und sich der konische Teil an einem ersten Winkel von weniger als 90 Grad von der Radialrichtung nach innen erstreckt.
  3. Mutter nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der erste Winkel ca. 45 Grad beträgt.
  4. Mutter nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die zweite Fläche (64) einen ersten Durchmesser und die Welle (10) einen zweiten Durchmesser aufweist, wobei der erste Durchmesser größer oder gleich dem zweiten Durchmesser ist, bevor die Druckkraft über die erste Fläche übertragen wird.
  5. Mutter nach Anspruch 4, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die zweite Fläche (64) einen zweiten Winkel von weniger als 1 Grad von der Axialrichtung aufweist.
  6. Mutter nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die erste Fläche einen dritten Winkel von weniger als 1 Grad von der Radialrichtung aufweist.
  7. Mutter nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Verbindungsmittel (32) an dem ringförmigen Teil mehrere Gewindegänge am Innendurchmesser umfassen, um die Mutter an der Welle zu befestigen.
  8. Mutter nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7, gekennzeichnet durch mehrere um den Umfang des ringförmigen Teils angeordnete und sich radial davon erstreckende Erregerzahnglieder (52) zur Bereitstellung eines Mutter-Umdrehungsgeschwindigkeitssignals.
Anspruch[en]
  1. A nut [30] for applying a compressive force to one or more components [36,38] mounted on a shaft [10] having a centerline defining an axial direction, to position the components against a fixed surface, comprising:
    • an annular member [68] having means [32] for coupling the annular member to said shaft on the inner diameter of said annular member; and
    • transmitting means for transmitting compressive force from said annular member to said components
    characterized in that said transmitting means comprise a compliant member [60] integral with said annular member [68] and having a first surface [62] for transmitting said compressive force to said components, said compliant member having a conical portion extending axially from a region of said annular member to said first surface [62], and extending inwardly from said region to a second surface [64] coaxial with said annular member, and which compliant member is configured to deflect inward to contact said shaft with said second surface when said first surface is transmitting said compressive force, whereby said nut is centered to said shaft.
  2. A nut according to Claim 1 characterized in that said annular member [68] defines a radial direction and said conical portion extends inward at a first angle of less than 90 degrees from said radial direction.
  3. A nut according to Claim 2 characterized in that said first angle is approximately 45 degrees.
  4. A nut according to any one of Claims 1 to 3 characterized in that said second surface [64] has a first diameter and said shaft [10] has a second diameter, said first diameter being greater than or equal to said second diameter, before said compressive force is transmitted through said first surface.
  5. A nut according to Claim 4 characterized in that said second surface [64] has a second angle of less than 1 degree from said axial direction.
  6. A nut according to Claim 1 characterized in that said first surface has a third angle of less than 1 degree from said radial direction.
  7. A nut according to any one of Claims 1 to 6 characterized in that the coupling means [32] on said annular portion comprise a plurality of threads on the inner diameter for securing said nut to said shaft.
  8. A nut according to any one of Claims 1 to 7 characterized by a plurality of exciter teeth members [52] circumferentially disposed on and radially extending from said annular portion for providing a nut rotational speed signal.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Ecrou (30) pour appliquer une force de compression à un ou plusieurs composants (36, 38) montés sur un arbre (10) ayant un axe central définissant une direction axiale, afin de positionner les composants contre une surface fixe, comprenant:
    • un organe annulaire (68) ayant un moyen (32) pour accoupler l'organe annulaire audit arbre sur le diamètre intérieur dudit organe annulaire; et
    • un moyen de transmission pour transmettre la force de compression dudit organe annulaire auxdits composants
       caractérisé en ce que ledit moyen de transmission comprend un organe conformable (60) faisant partie intégrante dudit organe annulaire (68) et ayant une première surface (62) pour transmettre ladite force de compression auxdits composants, ledit organe conformable ayant une portion conique s'étendant axialement depuis une région dudit organe annulaire jusqu'à ladite première surface (62), et s'étendant vers l'intérieur depuis ladite région jusqu'à une deuxième surface 64 coaxiale avec ledit organe annulaire, lequel organe conformable est configuré pour se déformer vers l'intérieur pour mettre en contact ledit arbre avec ladite deuxième surface lorsque ladite première surface transmet ladite force de compression, ledit écrou étant centré sur ledit arbre.
  2. Ecrou selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que ledit organe annulaire (68) définit une direction radiale et ladite portion conique s'étend vers l'intérieur suivant un premier angle de moins de 90 degrés par rapport à ladite direction radiale.
  3. Ecrou selon la revendication 2, caractérisé en ce que ledit premier angle est d'environ 45 degrés.
  4. Ecrou selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, caractérisé en ce que ladite deuxième surface (64) a un premier diamètre et ledit arbre (10) a un deuxième diamètre, ledit premier diamètre étant supérieur ou égal audit deuxième diamètre, avant que ladite force de compression ne soit transmise par le biais de ladite permière surface.
  5. Ecrou selon la revendication 4, caractérisé en ce que ladite deuxième surface (64) a un deuxième angle de moins de 1 degré par rapport à ladite direction axiale.
  6. Ecrou selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que ladite première surface a un troisième angle de moins de 1 degré par rapport à ladite direction radiale.
  7. Ecrou selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6, caractérisé en ce que le moyen d'accouplement (32) sur ladite portion annulaire comprend une pluralité de filets sur le diamètre intérieur pour fixer ledit écrou audit arbre.
  8. Ecrou selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7, caractérisé par une pluralité d'organes de dents excitatrices (52) disposées circonférentiellement sur ladite portion annulaire et s'étendant radialement depuis celle-ci, pour fournir un signal de vitesse de rotation de l'écrou.






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A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
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E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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