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Dokumentenidentifikation EP0801605 20.05.1999
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0801605
Titel SCHABLONE ZUM ERSTELLEN VON ZEICHNUNGEN MIT VIRTUELLEM TIEFENEFFEKT UND VERFAHREN ZU IHRER VERWENDUNG
Anmelder Araujo de Souza, Mauricio, Pinheiros, Sao Paulo, BR
Erfinder Araujo de Souza, Mauricio, Pinheiros, Sao Paulo, BR
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69602075
Vertragsstaaten DE, ES, FR, IT
Sprache des Dokument En
EP-Anmeldetag 04.01.1996
EP-Aktenzeichen 969002120
WO-Anmeldetag 04.01.1996
PCT-Aktenzeichen BR9600001
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 9620838
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 11.07.1996
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 22.10.1997
EP date of grant 14.04.1999
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 20.05.1999
IPC-Hauptklasse B43L 13/20
IPC-Nebenklasse B44F 7/00   

Beschreibung[en]

The present invention refers to a stencil especially developed for making drawings and/or other characters, which are viewed so as to obtain a virtual-depth effect, as well as to a method for using said stencil.

More specifically, the present invention refers to a stencil especially suitable for making drawings of comic-strip characters, from which a virtual-depth effect can be obtained.

For a better understanding of the stencil of the present invention, it is necessary to explain the basic concepts applied to develop it, taken in a more general plane of human point of view.

The existence of different levels of depth in space is noticed when the pictures recorded by the two human eyes are gathered together by the brain. These pictures have a minor difference from one another, which determines the distance of the objects with respect to the viewpoint.

Similar drawings, disposed in horizontal line and with different distances from each other, viewed with the focus in the front or behind the paper give the impression of being on different levels of depth.

If one looks with the focus farther ahead, beyond the surface of the paper, the greater the distance between the drawings, the closer they will seem to be. When the focus is placed in front of the paper, the opposite takes place.

The first procedure described, i.e. focusing beyond the paper, is also called "parallel" viewing form, since the idea is that we will see the picture on the left with the left eye and the picture on the right with the right eye (maintaining the viewing axes of the two eyes nearly parallel to each other), until the brain can resolve the two pictures as being a single one.

The other procedure, i.e. focusing in front of the paper, consists in viewing the picture on the right with the left eye and the figure on the left with the right eye, until the two pictures overlap each other, crossing the viewing axes of the two eyes.

These two modes of viewing present some variations, which are the various levels of possible focuses.

It is easier to "cross" the viewing axes ("crossing one's eyes") than to "open" them. It is easy to look at the tip of one's nose, but difficult simultaneously to look at two objects which are at a distance greater than the distance between the eyes, unless one is far away. This causes a parameter to be established, whereby, so as to facilitate the "parallel" viewing form, the distance between the pictures should not be greater than the distance between the eyes.

Since the average distance between the eyes and the paper for reading is of about 25 cm, the ideal is that the distance between the pictures should not be greater than 45 mm, because, starting from this average to obtain the effect, it is necessary to move the paper away from the eyes.

Identical drawings arranged side by side with different distances from one another will produce the impression of being on different planes of depth when viewed by one of these procedures, while slightly modified drawings can produce different results. For instance, two triangles are drawn side by side, the one on the left being equilateral and the one on the right being isosceles, with the same height. By using the parallel procedure of viewing, the right side of the virtual triangle (which is formed between the two) seems to be closer than the left side. By changing the positions, the effect is reversed.

In addition to the above concepts, it is to be noted that the perception of depth is due to the fact that the pictures recorded by the two eyes are different but blend together, since each eye occupies a different point in space.

The impression of depth can be simulated in several ways, as for instance by "cheating" the brains by using two or more drawings arranged side by side.

There are two basic ways of looking, in order to perceive the effect; either by focusing beyond the paper, with the viewing axes of the two eyes converging ("parallel" mode), or by focusing in front of the paper, with the view axes diverging ("crossed" mode). These two forms also present variations, which are the various possible levels of focus. Generically, the effect obtained with one mode is opposite to that obtained with the other mode. If in the "parallel" mode a picture seems to be closer, in the "crossed" mode it will seem to be farther away.

Identical pictures arranged side by side can simulate different planes, depending upon the distance between each other. In the "parallel" mode of viewing, the smaller the distances, the closer the pictures will seem to be, while in the "crossed" mode of viewing the opposite takes place.

Similar pictures (with minor differences between each other) side by side will give the impression of continuous depth, not divided into planes, if they are either below or above other alignments, which should have some kind of difference from each other.

According to the present invention, a stencil for making drawings which present a virtual-depth effect, comprising a base piece provided with letter elements and/or graphic elements and/or wholly or partially preformed drawing elements, all of which are cut out therein, the cut-out elements being traceable for reproduction on a determined surface, the base piece having a plurality of markings indicating intervals of linear distance, is characterised in that the linear distance between successive markings increases gradually from one interval to the next.

The present invention also refers to the manner of using such a stencil to obtain the virtual-depth effect, as will become clear in the following description.

The present invention will now be described in greater detail, by way of example, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

  • Figure 1 schematically illustrates two possible levels of viewing focus, in partial perspective;
  • Figures 2a and 2b represent schemes of obtaining the virtual image;
  • Figures 3a and 3b represent an example of obtaining different results of the image from equilateral triangles (right), drawn side by side;
  • Figure 4 shows a stencil according to the present invention;
  • Figure 5 shows a drawing made with the stencil of figure 4;
  • Figure 6 illustrates another stencil produced in accordance with the characteristics of the present invention; and
  • Figure 7 illustrates a drawing made by using the stencil of figure 6.

Figure 1 shows how similar pictures arranged linearly at different distances from each other can be viewed. Line (a) represents the line of the first focus, where the pictures "match" sequencially, and line (b) represents the line of the second focus, where the pictures "match" alternately.

Figures 2a and 2b show the results obtained using the two ways of viewing the drawings, as described above. Therein we can see the formation of the virtual image (V.I.) either behind the plane (P), according to the "parallel" mode of viewing, or in front of the plane (P), according to the "crossed" mode of viewing, respectively.

Figures 3a and 3b show the obtention of different results from slightly modified drawings. Note that in Figure 3a, by the parallel mode of viewing, the right side of the triangle in virtual image (the third one which appears) seems to be closer. When viewing from the opposite side, the contrary takes place, that is to say, the left side seems to be closer.

Figures 4 and 6 show two examples of the stencil for making drawings to be viewed in accordance with a virtual form, of the present invention, which constitutes a base piece 1 of any shape and made preferably of plastics or any other suitable material, with letters 2 and/or graphic elements 3 and/or wholly or partly preformed drawings 4, all of them cut out therein, which are used for tracing on a surface such as paper or the like.

In order to enable the combination of drawings which can be seen as if they were on planes of different depth (virtual image), base piece 1 has linearly arranged markings (m) at progressively smaller intervals, that is to say, the first interval between markings (m) is larger than the second interval, which is larger than the third interval, and so on.

By taking the line of such markings (m) as a base line, it is possible to repeat the drawings (letters, characters, signs, pictures, etc.) so that they are aligned with progressively increasing or decreasing distances between them, which results in an impression of depth when they are viewed with the eyes focused either in front or behind the surface on which they are drawn. When the focus behind the drawning surface, the smaller the distance between the pictures, the closer they will seem to be. When it is in front, the opposite occurs.

According to the pattern adopted in the stencil of the present invention, smaller intervals result in greater depth between the pictures.

The basic method of using the stencil of the present invention is as follows:

  • (a) draw a straight line on a sheet of paper to serve as a base for alignment;
  • (b) position the stencil for tracing at least one of the cut-out elements of the stencil;
  • (c) traced at least one of the cut-out elements of the stencil onto the paper;
  • (d) take note of the position of the stencil along the base line, using one of the markings (m) on the stencil;
  • (e) displace the stencil (and thus the cut-out element being traced) along the base line until the adjacent marking (m) coincides with the position noted in step (d);
  • (f) trace the cut-out element of step (c) onto the paper; and
  • (g) repeat steps (d) to (f) as often as desired. If all possibilities of the stencil are used, there will then be six drawings the distances between which decrease from left to right.

When the pictures on the right are viewed with the focus beyond the surface of the paper, they seem to be closer, and those on the left seem to be progressively further away. In order to maintain the figures in the same plane, it is enough to use constant distances between them, repeating the same intervals. In this case, transfer the drawing, note must be taken of the point, the stencil should be displaced linearly until the next point coincides with the point noted, the drawing should transfered to the new position, the first point should be noted again and the operation may then be repeated as many times as desired. Linearity of the displacements must always be maintained for new lines which you wish to create.

In the case of characters, as shown in Figure 6, the stencil may also have a plurality of indicia (m') on either side of each marking (m) on base piece 1. This assists the user as a guide when displacing specific areas of the drawing (letters, characters etc.), for instance the eyes, the nose, the ears, etc. In this case, the parts of the picture that are desired to be maintained on regular planes should first be drawn, note of the intervals being taken. Next, using the smaller indicia (m'), the drawing elements can be displaced progressively, so as to move them closer or farther away, as desired.

Some examples of drawings with the obtention of a virtual-depth effect, which have been produced by using the stencil of the present invention, containing letters, signs, characters and comic-strip characters, are illustrated in Figures 5 and 7.

It should be noted that, in scenes where identical pictures are repeated, attention should be paid to the distances used. For instance, a picture 15 mm wide repeated linearly with spacings of 20 mm, when close to another line of drawings with spacings of 30mm, as illustrated in Figure 8, causes a specific depth effect which is different from that when close to another line where the spacings are the double, namely 40 mm, as illustrated in Figure 9. In this case, the two lines seem to be on the same plane. This difference occurs because the common possible focus between 20 mm and 30 mm takes place at a determined distance, when the pictures "match" with those which are immediately beside them, whereas when the distances are 20 mm and 40 mm, the pictures with distance of 20 mm "match" alternately, that is to say, at the same point as those of 40 mm, in order to come into focus.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Eine Schablone zur Anfertigung von Zeichnungen, die einen virtuellen Tiefe-Effekt zeigen, bestehend aus einem Unterlagenteil (1), der mit Buchstabenelementen (2) und/oder graphischen Elementen (3) und/oder entweder völlig oder teilweise angefertigten Zeichnungselementen (4) versehen ist, wobei alle die Elemente darin ausgeschnitten sind, wobei die genannten Elemente zwecks Wiedergabe auf einer bestimmten Oberfläche gezeichnet werden können und wobei der genannte Unterlagenteil (1) eine eine lineare Entfernungszwischenräume andeutende Vielzahl von Markierungen aufweist, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die lineare Entfernung zwischen aufeinanderfolgenden Markierungen (m) ausgehend von einem Zwischenraum zum nächsten nach und nach zunimmt.
  2. Eine Schablone nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die genannte Unterlagenteil (1) mit einer Vielzahl von Andeutungen (m') versehen ist, die auf jeder Seite jeder der Markierungen (m) linear angeordnet sind.
  3. Verfahren zur Benutzung einer Schablone nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass es aus folgenden Schritten besteht:
    • (a) eine gerade Linie ziehen, die als Unterlage für Ausrichtung;
    • (b) die Schablone positionieren, um zumindest eines der genannten ausgeschnittenen Elemente der Schablone zu ziehen;
    • (c) das genannte zumindest eines der genannten Elemente der Schablone ziehen;
    • (d) die Position der Schablone längs der genannten Unterlage aufschreiben, indem man die Markierungen aufder Schablone benutzt;
    • (e) die Schablone auf die Unterlage hin so weit verschieben, bis die Markierung neben der genannten Markierung mit der beim Schritt (d) aufgeschriebenen Position zusammenfällt;
    • (f) das genannte ausgeschnittene Element oder die Elemente des Schrittes (c) ziehen; und
    • (g) die Schritte (d) bis (f) so oft wiederholen, wie gewünscht wird.
Anspruch[en]
  1. A stencil for making drawings which present a virtual-depth effect, comprising a base piece (1) provided with letter elements (2) and/or graphic elements (3) and/or wholly or partially preformed drawing elements (4), all of which are cut out, therein, said cut-out elements being traceable for reproduction on a determined surface, and said base piece (1) having a plurality of markings indicating intervals of linear distance, characterised in that the linear distance between successive markings (m) increases gradually from one interval to the next.
  2. A stencil in accordance with claim 1, characterized in that said base piece (1) is provided with a plurality of indicia (m') linearly arranged on each side of each one of said markings (m).
  3. A method for using a stencil in accordance with the claim 1 or 2, characterized by comprising the steps of:
    • (a) drawing a straight line to serve as a base for alignment;
    • (b) positioning the stencil for tracing at least one of the said cut-out elements of the stencil;
    • (c) tracing at least one of the said cut-out elements of the stencil;
    • (d) taking note of the position of stencil along said base line, using one of the markings on the stencil;
    • (e) displacing the stencil in the direction of the base line until a marking adjacent to the said one marking coincides with the position noted in step (d);
    • (f) tracing the said cut-out element or elements of step (c); and
    • (g) repeating steps (d) to (f) as often as desired.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Un moule pour faire des dessins qui présentent un effet virtuel de profondeur, lequel inclut une pièce de base (1) munie d'éléments de lettres (2) et/ou éléments graphiques (3) et/ou éléments de dessin (4) totalement ou partiellement réalisés, tous y étant découpés, lesdits éléments pouvant être tracés pour reproduction sur une surface donnée, et la pièce de base (1) ayant une pluralité de marques indiquant des intervalles de distance linéaire, caractérisé en ce que la distance linéaire entre des marques successives (m) augmente graduellement d'un intervalle au suivant.
  2. Un moule selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que ladite pièce de base (1) est munie d'une pluralité d'indications (m') linéairement disposés de chaque côté de chacune desdites marques (m).
  3. Une méthode pour utiliser un moule selon la revendication 1 ou 2, caractérisée en ce qu'elle comprend les étapes de:
    • (a) tracer une ligne droite qui permettre la base pour l'alignement;
    • (b) positioner le moule pour tracer au moins un desdits éléments découpés du moule;
    • (c) tracer au moins un desdits éléments du moule;
    • (d) prendre note de la position du moule le long da ladite ligne de base, en utilisant l'une des marques sur le moule;
    • (e) déplacer le moule dans la direction de la ligne de base, jusqu'à la marque adjacente à ladite marque coïncident avec la position noté dans l'étape (d);
    • (f) tracer ledit élément découpé ou les éléments découpés de l'étape (c); et
    • (g) répéter les étapes (d) à (f) aussi fréquemment qu'on le désire.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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