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Dokumentenidentifikation EP0527352 24.02.2000
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0527352
Titel Für Siebdruck geeignete Dickfilmpastenzusammensetzung
Anmelder E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Wilmington, Del., US
Erfinder Morrison, Jr., William H., Wilmington, Delaware 19809, US
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69230575
Vertragsstaaten DE, FR, GB
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 17.07.1992
EP-Aktenzeichen 921121927
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 17.02.1993
EP date of grant 19.01.2000
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 24.02.2000
IPC-Hauptklasse H01B 1/20
IPC-Nebenklasse H01C 7/00   H01C 17/06   H01L 49/02   

Beschreibung[en]
Field of Invention

The invention is directed to screen-printable thick film paste compositions and particularly to such compositions which have a reduced tendency to form cracks upon firing.

Background of the Invention

One of the preferred methods for making electronic microcircuits is with thick film technology. Thick film circuits are made by alternatively applying layers of conductor and dielectric to a substrate which is usually alumina. The layers of conductor are connected to each other through small holes in the dielectric filled with conductor. These holes are called vias. The layers are made by printing a thick film paste on a screen printer, drying the layer at low temperature (<200°C) to remove volatile solvents and then firing the layer at high temperature (>600°C) to remove all other noninorganic components and densify the inorganic components. Frequently several layers are printed and dried, then fired together. This is called cofiring.

Thick film pastes are dispersions of inorganic solids in a liquid vehicle phase. This vehicle phase contains predominantly polymers, solvents and other miscellaneous additives. The inorganic solids can be conductive (e.g., gold, silver, copper) or dielectric (e.g., glass, refractory oxides). The polymer in a thick film paste serves at least the following functions: imparts proper printing rheology; provides good adhesion of the dried print to the substrate (alumina or thick film dielectric) before firing and gives enough strength to the unfired composite so it will not crack or chip during handling prior to firing.

New electronic circuits are being designed with finer features so more functionality can be placed in smaller spaces and/or higher circuit transmission speeds can be attained. Circuit makers have also required faster printing speeds to produce circuits at lower cost and in higher volumes. To manufacture these new circuits using thick film technology, dielectric pastes have to print smaller vias (openings between conductor layers) and conductor pastes will have to print finer lines. New generations of thick film paste products need to print with this higher resolution, but also at faster print speeds to meet these market needs. The vehicle (polymer, solvents, other organic additives) controls these printing parameters to a very large extent.

The polymer most commonly used in thick film pastes is ethyl cellulose. The ability to modify printing is restricted if ethyl cellulose is used because the printing is controlled to a great extent by the rheological properties imparted by the polymer to the paste. Most pastes are shear thinning (decreasing viscosity with increasing shear). The rate of recovery of the paste viscosity after the shear induced by the printing process is limited to a narrow range for pastes containing ethyl cellulose. To get resolution of fine features with these pastes, the viscosity of the paste has to be maintained at a high level. Pastes with viscosity in this range can not be printed at high speeds because the viscosity does not get low enough fast enough for efficient transfer of paste through the screen. The paste also tends to be tacky, causing the screen to stick to the printed part, especially at high print speeds. If the viscosity recovery rate of the paste could be controlled independently of the equilibrium viscosity, then much greater latitude would be possible in formulating high resolution, fast printing pastes.

Summary of the invention

The invention is directed to a screen printable thick film paste composition comprising finely divided particles of electrically functional solids being conductive, resistive or dielectric materials and being dispersed in an organic medium wherein said conductive material is a conductive metal selected from base metals, noble metals and mixtures and alloys of Pd, Ag, Au, Pt, Cn and Ni; said resistive material is a resistive oxide being a metal oxide and said dielectric material is a dielectric selected from glasses, glass-ceramics and refractory oxides, and wherein said organic medium comprises

  • (a) 45-90 % wt. of a first solid organic polymer being a polysaccharide selected from sugars, starches and cellulosic polymers, and having a viscosity relaxation rate constant (kr) of not greater than 0.01 dissolved in a volatilizable organic solvent,
  • (b) 55-10 % wt. of a second solid organic polymer being selected from polyacrylates, polymethacrylates, polyesters, polylactones, poly(alkylene carbonates), phenoxy resins, poly(isobutylene), poly(alpha-methyl styrene), poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(vinyl butyral), polyamides, polyethers, poly(phenylene oxide) and poly(vinyl acetate), and having a kr value of at least 0.1 dissolved in a volatilizable organic solvent,

    the proportions of the first and second polymer being such that the kr value of the total paste composition is 0.01-0.1.

A. Electrically Functional Materials

The invention can be used effectively in screen printable thick film pastes utilizing all types of finely divided electrically functional solids. That is, the solids component of the compositions of the invention can be conductive, resistive or dielectric materials. The electric functionality of the solids does not itself affect the ability of the invention to overcome problems associated with printability, shrinkage and cracking. Thus, the invention is applicable to thick film resistor pastes in which the resistive materials may be metal oxides, conductive pastes in which the conductive material is a base or noble metal, and dielectric materials such as glasses, glass-ceramics and various oxides such as BaTiO3. Suitable conductive metals include Pd, Ag, Au, Pt, Cu, Ni and mixtures and alloys thereof.

It will be recognized by those skilled in the thick film art that the precursors of such electrically functional materials may be used as well as the materials themselves. As used in this context, the term "precursor" refers to a material other than the electrically functional material which upon exposure to the firing conditions of the paste is converted to or otherwise changed with respect to electrical functionality. The particle size distribution of the electrically functional amterials is not itself critical with respect to the effectiveness of the invention. But, as a practical matter, it is preferred that the particle size of the solids be in the range of 0.1-10 µm and preferably 0.5-5 µm.

B. Organic Medium

  • 1. In General: The main purpose of the organic medium is to serve as a vehicle for dispersion of the finely divided solids of the composition in such form that it can readily be applied to a ceramic or other substrate. Thus, the organic medium must first of all be one in which the solids are dispersible with an adequate degree of stability. Secondly, the rheological properties of the organic medium must be such that they lend good application properties to the dispersion.

    Most thick film compositions are applied to a substrate by means of screen printing. Therefore, they must have appropriate viscosity so that they can be passed through the screen readily. In addition, they should be thixotropic in order that they set up rapidly after being screened, thereby giving good resolution. While the rheological properties are of primary importance, the organic medium is preferably formulated also to give appropriate wetability of the solids and the substrate; good drying rate, dried film strength sufficient to withstand rough handling and good firing properties. Satisfactory appearance of the fired composition is also important.

    In view of all these criteria, a wide variety of inert liquids has been used as organic medium. The organic medium for most thick film compositions is typically a solution of resin in a solvent and, frequently, a solvent solution containing both resin and thixotropic agent. The solvent usually boils within the range of 130-350°C.

    By far, the most frequently used resin for this purpose has been ethyl cellulose. However, resins such as ethylhydroxyethyl cellulose, wood rosin, mixtures of ethyl cellulose and phenolic resins, polymethacrylates of lower alcohols and monobutyl ether of ethylene glycol monacetate have also been used.

  • 2. Resin Component: The resins for use in the compositions of the invention are a mixture of normally solid organic polymers which have high relaxation rate constants (i.e., fast viscosity relaxation rates) and low relaxation rate constants (i.e., slow viscosity relaxation rates). As used herein, the term "low relaxation rate constant" (low kr) refers to kr values of 0.01 and below, and the term "high relaxation rate constant" (high kr) refers to kr values of 0.1 and above. The high and low kr polymers are used in proportions such that the relaxation rate constant for the paste containing the polymers is 0.01-0.1 and preferably 0.025-0.05. Paste kr values of 0.025 are considered optimum for most pastes which are screen printed rapidly, while kr values of 0.04 are considered optimum for most pastes which are used in very high resolution applications.

    Suitable low kr polymers are polysaccharides selected from sugars, starches and cellulosic polymers. Of these, the cellulosic polymers are preferred. These include such materials as ethyl cellulose, cellulose nitrate, hydroxyethyl cellulose, ethylhydroxyethyl cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose and mixtures and derivatives thereof,

    Virtually all synthetic polymers, on the other hand, have kr values which are considerably above 0.1, some of which are so high they cannot be measured by the below described procedure.

    The low kr polymers will ordinarily constitute 60-90% wt. of the polymer component of the organic medium and the high kr polymers 40-10% wt. It is preferred that the high kr polymers constitute no more than 25% wt. of the polymer component of the organic medium. Suitable high kr polymers are polyacrylates (including polymethacrylates), polyesters, polylactones, poly(alkylene carbonates), phenoxy resins, poly(isobutylene), poly(alpha-methyl styrene), poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(vinyl butyral), polyamides, polyethers, poly(phenylene oxide) and poly(vinyl acetate). Of these, acrylic polymers and copolymers are preferred because of their superior burnout properties and their availability with suitable physical properties at reasonable cost.

  • 3. Other Medium Components: The most widely used solvents for thick film applications are terpenes such as alpha- or beta-terpineol or mixtures thereof with other solvents such as kerosene, dibutylphthalate, butyl Carbitol, dibutyl Carbitol, Carbitol acetate, butyl Carbitol acetate, hexylene glycol and high boiling alcohols and alcohol esters, Various combinations of these and other solvents are formulated to obtain the desired viscosity and volatility requirements for each application.

Among the thixotropic agents which are commonly used are hydrogenated castor oil and derivatives thereof. It is, of course, not always necessary to incorporate a thixotropic agent since the solvent/resin properties coupled with the shear thinning inherent in any suspension may alone be suitable in this regard.

The ratio of organic medium to solids in the dispersions can vary considerably and depends upon the manner in which the dispersion is to be applied and the kind of organic medium used. Normally, to achieve good coverage, the dispersions will contain complementarily by weight 60-90% solids and 40-10% organic medium. Such dispersions are usually of semifluid consistency and are referred to commonly as "pastes".

The pastes are conveniently prepared on a three-roll mill. The viscosity of the pastes is typically within the following ranges when measured at room temperature on Brookfield viscometers at low, moderate and high shear rates: Shear Rate (s -1) Viscosity (Pa&peseta;s) 0.2 100-5000 - 300-2000 Preferred 600-1500 Most Preferred 4 40-400 - 100-250 Preferred 140-200 Most Preferred 384 7-40 - 10-25 Preferred 12-18 Most Preferred
The amount of organic medium (vehicle) utilized is determined mainly by the final desired formulation viscosity and print thickness.

Description of Tests

  • A. Viscosity Relaxation Test: The viscosity relaxation test was run on a Rheometrics Fluid Spectrometer model 8400. A 25 mm radius parallel plate fixture was used. The paste was subjected to 10 s -1 shear for 5 seconds, then the shear was dropped to 0.1 s -1 and the stress measured for up to 300 seconds. A pseudo first order kinetic expression

       where
    B =
    Bi(1-ekrt)
    B =
    observed stress at time t
    Bi =
    equilibrium stress at time infinity in x 10-1 N/m2 (dynes/cm2)
    kr =
    relaxation rate constant in s -1.
    was used to fit the data and determine the two parameters k and Bi.
  • B. Printing Tests: A 4.5 cm by 4.5 cm square of dielectric thick film paste was printed at 20 µm fired thickness. The pattern contained 260 400 µm vias, 200 225 µm vias, and 240 125 µm vias. Image analysis and optical microscopy was used to measure the area and size of the vias. Some of the parts were then fired at 850°C in a belt furnace, and the size of the 400 µm vias was remeasured. The sizes before and after firing were compared.

A 4.5 cm by 4.5 cm square of dielectric thick film paste was printed at 20 µm fired thickness. The pattern was a solid square. The squeegee speed was increased in 1 cm/sec steps, and visual observations were made as to whether the part was sticking to the screen, or paste was being pulled off the part.

A 13.5 cm by 10 cm print of dielectric thick film paste was printed at 20 µm fired thickness. A 5 cm by 5 cm area in the center of the dried but unfired part was examined for small pinholes (≥ 25 µm) on an optical microscope using backlighting at ∼ 50 x. These pinholes were counted.

A complex part of 165 cm by 8 cm was printed with a variety of conductor lines and pads. Over selected areas dielectric was overprinted, and the part was cofired. Under an optical microscope at about 50x the parts were examined for the presence of cracks in the dielectric where it was over conductor. The parts were rated excellent, good, fair or poor, depending on how many cracks in the dielectric were observed and how large they were.

A test pattern containing 250 µm lines and spaces, 125 µm lines and spaces, and 125 µm lines and 250 µm spaces was used for the printing evaluation of the conductors. Lines both parallel and perpendicular to the print direction were on the pattern. An optical microscope was used to measure the width of the printed lines. Both dried and fired prints were measured. The test substrates were 5 cm by 5 cm.

EXAMPLES Examples 1-3

A series of three dielectric thick film pastes was prepared and tested by the method described above to determine the effect of paste kr upon resolution of the dried via holes. The paste contained by weight % 71.4% glass, 4.2% metal oxide and 24.4% organic medium containing 8.3% polymer. These data, which are given in Table 1, show that as paste kr was raised from 0.026 to 0.094, the dried via hole resolution improved significantly from a via area of 27,300 to 36,100 µm2. Example No. 1 2 3 EC/Acrylic Weight Ratio 1.57 1.34 1.15 kr (s -1) 0.026 0.055 0.094 Via Area (µm2) Dried 27300 35400 36100

Examples 4-6

A further series of dielectric thick film pastes was prepared in the above-described manner and tested with respect to both dried and fired via resolution. The paste had the same composition as the one used in Examples 1-3. These data, which are given In Table 2, show that the addition of high kr polymers significantly raised both the dried and fired via resolution of the pastes. The fired via resolution data show, however, that when the kr of the paste approaches 0.1, the benefit of improved via resolution becomes less and above that value, resolution may even be adversely affected. Example No. 4* 5 6 EC/Acrylic Weight Ratio No Acrylic 1.34 1.15 kr (s -1) 0.016 0.055 0.075 Via Area (µm2) Dried 131900 149000 152000 Via Area (µm2) Fired 96100 168100 160000
* Comparative Example

Examples 7-9

A further series of three dielectric pastes was formulated using a second dielectric composition to observe the effect of using high and low kr polymers on paste kr and the effect of paste kr on the resolution of the dried via holes. The paste contained 40.5% glass, 34.7% metal oxides and 24.8% organic medium containing 8.15% polymers. These data, which are given in Table 3, show resolution of the dried vias was improved even when the paste kr value reached 0.140. Example No. 7 8 9* EC/Acrylic Weight Ratio 1.34 1.26 0.93 kr (s -1) 0.045 0.074 0.140 Via Area (µm2) Dried 16400 22300 29700
* Comparative Example

Examples 10-12

A series of three dielectric thick film pastes was prepared in the above-described manner and tested with respect to both dried and fired via resolution. The paste had the same composition as the one used in Examples 6-9. These data, which are given in Table 4, show that the addition of high kr polymers significantly improved the fired via resolution of the pastes, though little or no effect was observed with respect to the dried unfired paste. The data do show, however, that no substantial additional improvement in resolution is obtained when the kr value of the paste exceeds 0.1. Example No. 10* 11 12* EC/Acrylic Weight Ratio No Acrylic 1.26 0.95 kr (s -1) 0.008 0.074 0.140 Via Area (µm2) Dried 141000 142000 140600 Via Area(µm2)Fired 144400 168100 168100
* Comparative Example

Examples 13-16

A series of dielectric thick film pastes was prepared In the above-described manner using the same dielectric as in Examples 9-12. The compositions had different kr values and were tested as to dried via area resolution and were observed with respect to the occurrence of pinholes, degree of cracking and maximum printing speed. These data are given in Table 5. Analysis of the data from these examples shows that the use of mixed high and low kr polymers in the organic medium substantially improved dried via hole resolution and printing speed and reduced the cracking tendencies of the fired paste layers. Also observed was a substantial initial reduction in the number of pinholes in the fired layers. However, this advantage lessened and disappeared as the kr of the paste neared 0.04. Thus, it can be seen that in this particular formulation, the kr value of the paste was rather narrowly critical with respect to pinholing and print speed, but not as to the other properties. Maximum printing speed refers to the speed of the squeegee over the printing screen. Satisfactory printing is obtained so long as the squeegee releases easily from the screen without sticking or skips in the printed conductive pattern. Example No. 13* 14 15 EC/Acrylic Weight Ratio No Acrylic 2.23 1.31 kr (s -1) 0.013 0.027 0.038 Via Area (µm2) Dried 46000 48000 51100 Number Pinholes in 25 cm2 130 50 350 Degree of Cracking Poor Excellent Excellent Maximum Printing Speed c/s 5 >13 7 Example No. 16 EC/Acrylic Weight Ratio 1.31 kr (s -1) 0.047 Via Area (µm2) Dried 53200 Number Pinholes in 25 cm 401 Degree of Cracking Excellent Maximum Printing Speed c/s 5
*Comparative Example

Examples 17-21

A series of conductive thick film pastes was prepared in the manner described above and tested with respect to the resolution of the lines and spaces. The paste contained by weight 78.8% conductive metal, 5.0% metal oxides. 0.7% glass and 15.5% organic medium containing 11.4% polymer(s). The data from these compositions are presented in Table 6 and show that substantial improvements in line/space resolution are obtained even as the kr value of the paste reached 0.1. Example No. 17* 18 19 EC/Acrylic Weight Ratio No Acrylic 1.43 1.24 kr (s -1) 0.021 0.064 0.063 Line/Space (µm) Dried 216/63 126/150 165/122 Line/Space (µm) Fired 193/80 130/125 129/122 Example No. 20 21 EC/Acrylic Weight Ratio 1.04 0.88 kr (s -1) 0.067 0.093 Line/Space (µm) Dried 177/122 185/94 Line/Space (µm) Fired 144/123 138/108
*Comparative Example

In the foregoing examples, the acrylic polymer was Elvacite 2041, a polymethacrylate copolymer made by the Du Pont Company, Wilmington, DE. The solvent in each of the examples was a mixture of terpineol, Carbitol acetate and dibutyl phthalate. In the conductive paste examples, the screen openings were 125 µm.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Siebdruckfähige Dickfilmpastenzusammensetzung, die feine Teilchen aus Feststoffen mit elektrischer Funktion umfaßt, weiche leitfähige, widerstandsbehaftete oder dielektrische Materialien sind und in einem organischen Medium dispergiert sind, wobei das leitfähige Material ein leitfähiges Metall ist, das aus unedlen Metallen, Edelmetallen und Gemischen und Legierungen von Pd, Ag, Au, Pt, Cu und Ni ausgewählt ist, wobei das widerstandsbehaftete Material ein widerstandsbehaftetes Oxid ist, bei dem es sich um ein Metalloxid handelt, und das dielektrische Material aus Gläsern, Glaskeramiken und feuerfesten Oxiden ausgewählt ist und wobei das organische Medium folgendes umfaßt:
    • (a) 45-90 Gew.-% eines ersten festen organischen Polymers, bei dem es sich um ein Polysaccharid handelt, das aus Zuckern, Stärken und celluloseartigen Polymeren ausgewählt ist, und das eine Viskositätsrelaxationsratenkonstante (kr) von nicht mehr als 0,01 hat und das in einem verflüchtigbaren organischen Lösungsmittel gelöst ist;
    • (b) 55-10 Gew.-% eines zweiten festen organischen Polymers, das aus Polyacrylaten, Polymethacrylaten, Polyestern, Polylactonen, Polyalkylencarbonaten, Phenoxyharzen, Polyisobutylen, Poly-α-methylstyrol, Polyvinylalkohol, Poly-vinylbutyral, Polyamiden, Polyethern, Polyphenylenoxid und Polyvinylacetat ausgewählt ist und einen kr-Wert von wenigstens 0,1 hat und das in einem verflüchtigbaren organischen Lösungsmittel gelöst ist;

      wobei die Anteile des ersten und des zweiten Polymers so groß sind, daß der kr-Wert der gesamten Pastenzusammensetzung 0,01-0,1 beträgt.
  2. Zusammensetzung gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei die Feststoffe mit elektrischer Funktion leitfähige Metalle sind.
  3. Zusammensetzung gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei die Feststoffe mit elektrischer Funktion widerstandsbehaftete Oxide sind.
  4. Zusammensetzung gemäß einem der Ansprüche 2 oder 3, wobei feine Teilchen aus einem anorganischen Bindemittel mit den Feststoffen mit elektrischer Funktion gemischt werden.
  5. Zusammensetzung gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei die Feststoffe mit elektrischer Funktion Dielektrika sind.
Anspruch[en]
  1. A screen printable thick film paste composition comprising finely divided particles of electrically functional solids being conductive, resistive or dielectric materials and being dispersed in an organic medium wherein said conductive material is a conductive metal selected from base metals, noble metals and mixtures and allots of Pd, Ag, Au, Pt, Cu and Ni, said resistive material is a resistive oxide being a metal oxide and said dielectric material is selected from glasses, glass-ceramics and refractory oxides, and wherein said organic medium comprises
    • (a) 45-90 % wt. of a first solid organic polymer being a polysaccharide selected from sugars, starches and cellulosic polymers, and having a viscosity relaxation rate constant (kr) of not greater than 0.01 dissolved in a volatilizable organic solvent,
    • (b) 55-10 % wt. of a second solid organic polymer being selected from polyacrylates, polymethacrylates, polyesters, polylactones, poly(alkylene carbonates), phenoxy resins, poly(isobutylene), poly(alpha-methyl styrene), poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(vinyl butyral), polyamides, polyethers, poly(phenylene oxide) and poly(vinyl acetate), and having a kr value of at least 0.1 dissolved in a volatilizable organic solvent,

      the proportions of the first and second polymer being such that the kr value of the total paste composition is 0.01-0.1.
  2. The composition of claim 1 in which the electrically functional solids are conductive metals.
  3. The composition of claim 1 in which the electrically functional solids are resistive oxides.
  4. The composition of either claim 2 or claim 3 in which finely divided particles of inorganic binder are admixed with the electrically functional solids.
  5. The composition of claim 1 in which the electrically functional solids are dielectrics.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Composition de pâte à couche épaisse utilisable pour sérigraphie comprenant des particules finement divisées de solides fonctionnels au niveau électrique, étant des matières conductrices, résistantes ou diélectriques et étant dispersées dans un milieu organique, dans laquelle ladite matière conductrice est un métal conducteur choisi parmi les métaux de base, les métaux nobles et les mélanges et alliages de Pd, Ag, Au, Pt, Cu et Ni; ladite matière résistante est un oxyde résistant étant un oxyde métallique et ladite matière diélectrique est un diélectrique choisi parmi les verres, les vitrocéramiques et les oxydes réfractaires, et dans laquelle ledit milieu organique comprend
    • (a) 45-90% en poids d'un premier polymère organique solide étant un polysaccharide choisi parmi les sucres, les amidons et les polymères cellulosiques et ayant une constante de vitesse de relaxation de la viscosité (kr) non supérieure à 0,01 dissous dans un solvant organique volatilisable,
    • (b) 55-10°C en poids d'un second polymère organique solide étant choisi parmi les polyacrylates, les polymétacrylates, les polyesters, les polylactones, les poly(alkylène carbonates), les résines phénoxy, le poly(isobutylène), le poly(alpha-méthylstyrène), le poly(alcool de vinyle), le poly(vinylbutyral), les polyamides, les polyéthers, le poly(oxyde de phénylène) et le poly(acétate de vinyle) et ayant une valeur kr d'au moins 0,1 dissous dans un solvant organique volatilisable,

      les proportions du premier et du second polymères étant telles que la valeur kr de la composition totale de la pâte est de 0,01-0,1.
  2. Composition selon la revendication 1 dans laquelle les solides fonctionnels au niveau électrique sont des métaux conducteurs.
  3. Composition selon la revendication 1 dans laquelle les solides fonctionnels au niveau électrique sont des oxydes résistants.
  4. Composition selon l'une quelconque des revendications 2 ou 3 dans laquelle les particules finement divisées de liant inorganique sont mélangées avec les solides fonctionnels au niveau électrique.
  5. Composition selon la revendication 1 dans laquelle les solides fonctionnels au niveau électrique sont des diélectriques.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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