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Dokumentenidentifikation EP0697256 24.02.2000
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0697256
Titel INTERMITTIERENDE BESCHICHTUNGSMETHODE UND GERÄT DAFÜR
Anmelder Fuji Electrochemical Co. Ltd., Tokio/Tokyo, JP;
Hirano Tecseed Co. Ltd., Nara, JP
Erfinder HARADA, Yoshiro, Shizuoka 431-04, JP;
YAMAMOTO, Kohei, Shizuoka 431-04, JP;
HIRONAKA, Kazuhiko, Shizuoka 432, JP;
KOBARA, Hiroshi, Shizuoka 431-04, JP;
MATSUI, Eiji, Osaka 581, JP;
OKADA, Kaoru, Nara 630, JP;
YOSHIKAWA, Takenobu, Nara 635, JP
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69422708
Vertragsstaaten DE, FR, GB
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 28.02.1994
EP-Aktenzeichen 949076996
WO-Anmeldetag 28.02.1994
PCT-Aktenzeichen JP9400319
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 3031
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 31.08.1995
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 21.02.1996
EP date of grant 19.01.2000
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 24.02.2000
IPC-Hauptklasse B05C 1/08
IPC-Nebenklasse B05D 1/28   B05C 1/16   

Beschreibung[en]
TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to a process and an apparatus for coating a slurry coating material onto a continuous base sheet with given thickness, and particularly to a process and an apparatus for intermittently coating a slurry coating material to alternately form coated areas and uncoated areas, each having a predetermined length on a base sheet.

BACKGROUND ART

In mass production of, for example, spiral electrode type lithium batteries, the following intermittent coating technique is required. In manufacturing of the batteries, a band-shaped hoop material of a copper or an aluminum foil of approximately 400 mm wide and 10 µm thick, is employed as a base sheet for current collectors for those batteries. Slurry mixture containing electrode active material as main component is used as coating material. The coating material is applied onto the base sheet, for example, over areas, each having a length of 30 cm with a certain thickness in such a manner that the coating material is not applied at all to the subsequent areas, each having a length of 5 cm, thereby the coated areas and the uncoated areas, each having the above-mentioned length, are alternately formed on the continuous base sheet. Finally, the base sheet is cut into a plurality of electrode sheets for the batteries at the uncoated areas. Each electrode sheet is wound with the other electrode sheet, which constitutes another electrode, with a separator therebetween. Then, the wound electrode body is assembled in a battery case.

One of prevalent processes for carrying out such an intermittent coating employs a coating apparatus called a reverse roll coater as shown in Figs. 10 to 12.

In Fig. 10, the coating apparatus includes, as principal portions, a supplying drum 10 for supplying a base sheet 3, an intermittent coating portion 20 for intermittently applying coating material 6 onto the base sheet 3, a drying furnace 21 for drying the coated material 6 and a take-up roll 22 for taking up the base sheet 3 having passed through the drying furnace 21. As shown in Fig. 11, the base sheet 3 supplied from the supplying drum 10 is guided to the intermittent coating portion 20, through guide rolls 11a, 11b and feed rolls 9, 9, then a guide roll 8.

In the intermittent coating portion 20, as shown in Fig. 12, a coating roll 1 (hereinafter referred to as a C-roll) is rotated at a predetermined speed in a direction indicated by an arrow a, whereas a backing roll 2 (hereinafter referred to as a B-roll) is rotated in a direction opposite to that of the C-roll 1 (i.e., in a direction indicated by an arrow b). The base sheet 3 is allowed to travel in a direction indicated by an arrow c along the B-roll 2 and to pass between the C-roll 1 and the B-roll 2.

An adjuster called a doctor roll 4 (hereinafter referred to as a D-roll) is fixedly (i.e., non-rotatably) mounted above the C-roll 1 at a predetermined distance spaced apart from the C-roll 1. The coating material 6 accumulated in a hopper 5 is deposited onto a peripheral surface of the C-roll 1, then passes through a region of minimum distance between the C-roll 1 and the D-roll 4, whereby the amount of the coating material 6 applied to the base sheet 3 is controlled at a certain value (in other word, thickness) corresponding to the minimum distance.

A coating layer 6a controlled to the predetermined thickness by the distance between the C-roll 1 and the D-roll 4 is transferred onto the base sheet 3 when the base sheet 3 passes between the B-roll 2 and the C-roll 1. In this manner, a coating layer 6b is continuously formed onto the base sheet 3 with a controlled constant thickness.

In order to form uncoated areas intermittently, there is mounted an intermittent moving mechanism for moving the B-roll 2 in a direction perpendicular to a rotational axis thereof. Thus, the B-roll 2 is displaced in a direction indicated by an arrow d at every given interval, until it is sufficiently spaced apart from the C-roll 1, so that the coating layer 6a is not transferred from the C-roll 1 onto the base sheet 3. After a lapse of a predetermined time, the B-roll 2 is moved in a direction indicated by an arrow e back to its original position, and the coating layer 6a on the C-roll 1 is again transferred to the base sheet 3. By repeating these operations, the above-described intermittent coating can be achieved. Thus, the intermittently coated base sheet 3 is led to the drying furnace 21 through the guide roll 7. Eventually, the base sheet 3 is taken up by the take-up roll 22 after passing the drying furnace 21.

However, the above-mentioned existing intermittent coating process may suffer from a problem that it might be almost impossible to accurately apply the coating layer because of an unstable traveling of the base sheet 3 due to the movement of the B-roll 2 during a transient period from a coating step to an uncoating step. When the B-roll 2 is displaced from the C-roll 1, the base sheet is loosened between the guide roll 7 and 8 since those guide rolls are fixedly disposed. A certain tension is applied to the base sheet 3 by the take-up roll 22, therefore, this looseness usually disappears in short time (for example, in less than half a second). However, since the distances between the B-roll 2 and both the guide rolls 7 and 8 are short respectively, the deflection angle of the base sheet 3 spanning these rollers 2, 7 and 8, at the contacting points with the rollers 7 and 8, becomes relatively large. Then, the resuming of the B-roll 2 sometimes causes wrinkles or folds around the loosened portion of the base sheet 3. Due to these wrinkles and/or folds, the coating material 2 cannot be uniformly applied to the base sheet 3. This may unpreferably result in occurrence of ununiform coating onto the sheet 3. In the mass-production line for the aforementioned spiral type electrode batteries, for example, the following deficiencies may lie due to the ununiformity of the coating. Firstly, a paste tends to partially drop off from the sheet at the thick coated portions. Secondly, at the thin coated portions, a current collector made of a metal foil may be often broken apart by excessive partial rolling. Furthermore, the above ununiform coating may cause winding disorder in the step of winding the sheet-shaped electrode with a separator into a spiral shape. These phenomena will prevent efficient manufacturing of the batteries. Additionally, even after assembled as complete batteries, optimal electric capacity balance will not be obtained and, specifically for spiral lithium secondary batteries, active material will not be efficiently available at the above ununiformly coated portions. When there are thick coated portions only on the positive electrode sheet in the secondary batteries, the capacity of the negative electrode becomes relatively smaller than that of the positive electrode. As a result, dendrites may grow at those portions of the negative electrode when the batteries are charged and those dendrites may cause short-circuiting between both electrodes.

The present invention has been accomplished under such a technical background, and it is an object of the present invention to provide an intermittent coating process and an apparatus therefor, which secures stable travel of the base sheet without unpreferable deformation and prevents ununiform coating due to wrinkles or folds on the sheet 3 over the entire coated area.

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION

To achieve the above objects, an intermittent coating process according to the first invention of the present invention, comprises the steps of passing a base sheet between a C-roll and a B-roll while the sheet contacting both rolls for depositing a slurry coating material on the C-roll and transferring the slurry coating material onto the base sheet, coating the material onto the sheet intermittently by displacing the B-roll away from the C-roll with a predetermined interval, passing the base sheet along the upper surface of a first guide roll, then through a drying furnace, and taking up the base sheet by a take-up roll, wherein the first guide roll is moved along with the B-roll when the B-roll is intermittently displaced away from the C-roll.

Preferably, the base sheet is passed between the C-roll and the B-roll while the sheet is in contact with the C-roll and the B-roll after the sheet is passed along the rear peripheral portion of the second guide roll and the second guide roll is moved along with the B-roll and the first guide roll when the B-roll is intermittently displaced from the C-roll.

More preferably, the base sheet is passed along the second guide roll after passed along a feed roll located substantially perpendicularly below the second guide roll.

According to the second invention of the present invention, an intermittent coating apparatus comprises a C-roll and a B-roll placed in proximity each other, means for transferring a slurry coating material applied on the C-roll by passing the sheet between the both rolls while the rolls are in contact with the sheet, means for intermittently coating the coating material onto the base sheet by means for intermittently displacing the B-roll away from the C-roll, and a drying furnace and a take-up roll at the downstream of the B-roll along the traveling path of the base sheet, wherein a first guide roll is disposed between the B-roll and the drying furnace which is pressed against the base sheet, the first guide roll and the B-roll are mounted in an integral frame, the frame can be intermittently moved by the intermittent moving means.

Preferably, a second guide roll is disposed at the upstream of the B-roll along the traveling path of the base sheet, the base sheet is introduced into the backing roll along the rear peripheral portion of the second guide roll, and the first and the second guide rolls and the B-roll are installed in the integral frame.

More preferably, a feed roll is disposed at the upstream of the second guide roll substantially perpendicularly below the second guide roll.

According to the above-mentioned intermittent coating process and the apparatus therefor of the present invention, the distance between the first guide roll and the B-roll is maintained constant and there would be no looseness at the base sheet between the both rolls because the first guide roll is moved along with the B-roll when the B-roll is displaced away from the C-roll. On the other hand, the base sheet would be loosened at the downstream of the second guide roll between the second guide roll and the guide roll in the drying furnace located at the downstream of the first guide roll because the B-roll and the first guide roll are simultaneously moved backward. However, the base sheet, to which loosening has occurred, is swung backward around the guide roll located in the drying furnace when the base sheet is moved backward by the tension of the take-up roll. Since the deflection angle of the base sheet is very small, occurrence of wrinkles or folds on the base sheet is prevented, thus the coating accuracy to the base sheet is improved.

Furthermore, there would be no loosening to the base sheet between the B-roll and the second guide roll when the base sheet travels along the second guide roll and passed between the C-roll and the B-roll while the both rolls are in contact with the base sheet and the second guide roll is moved along with the B-roll and the first guide roll when the B-roll is intermittently displaced away from the C-roll. Therefore, the base sheet can be conveyed stably and the coating accuracy is improved because no wrinkles nor folds occur to the base sheet.

Additionally, in case that the base sheet is passed along the feed roll located substantially perpendicularly below the second guide roll, then passed along the second guide roll, the change in the distance between the feed roll and the second guide roll is relatively small compared to the distance change when the feed roll is not situated substantially perpendicularly below the second guide roll. Therefore, since the base sheet is not loosened between the feed roll and the second guide roll, the base sheet can be conveyed smoothly and the coating accuracy is improved because no wrinkles or folds occur to the base sheet.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

  • Fig. 1 shows a partial construction of an intermittent coating process and an apparatus therefor, according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • Fig. 2 is a schematic view of principal portions of the intermittent coating process and the apparatus therefor, according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • Fig. 3 is an elevation view of principal portions of the intermittent coating process and the apparatus therefor, according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • Fig. 4 is a first illustration showing the construction and the operation of the intermittent coating process and the apparatus therefor, according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • Fig. 5 is a second illustration showing the construction and the operation of the intermittent coating process and the apparatus therefor, according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • Fig. 6 is a third illustration of the construction and the operation of the intermittent coating process and the apparatus therefor according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • Fig. 7 is a fourth illustration of the construction and the operation of the intermittent coating process and the apparatus therefor according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • Fig. 8 is a fifth illustration of the construction and the operation of the intermittent coating process and the apparatus therefor according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • Fig. 9 is a sixth illustration of the construction and the operation of the intermittent coating process and the apparatus therefor according to the preferred embodiment of the present invention;
  • Fig. 10 shows an existing intermittent coating process;
  • Fig. 11 shows a partial construction of the existing intermittent coating process and an apparatus therefor; and
  • Fig. 12 shows an existing intermittent coating process.

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION

Figs. 1 to 9 respectively show the intermittent coating process and the apparatus therefor according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention. The components and/or operational processes included in those figures, which are the same as or corresponding to those appeared in the above-mentioned figures, i.e., Figs. 10 to 12, are provided with the same symbols for simplification.

As shown in Fig. 1 through Fig. 3, the intermittent coating process and the apparatus therefor of the present invention, comprises an intermittent moving mechanism 30 for moving a movable frame 31, in which a first guide roll 7, a second guide roll 8 and a B-roll 1 are mounted, in horizontal direction (in the direction of arrows e-d) when the B-roll 2 is displaced away from the C-roll 1.

A feed roll 9 is disposed substantially perpendicularly below the second guide roll 8 and the distance D2 between the feed roll 9 and the second guide roll 8 is set ninety (90) to two hundred and ten (210) times as long as the traveling distance D1 of the B-roll 2 (which is equivalent to the traveling distance of the movable frame 31) away from the C-roll 1.

As shown in Figs. 2 and 3, the movable frame 31 is disposed so as to straddle a wall portion 36a of a fixed frame 36. More precisely, the movable frame 31 includes a horizontal base plate 31c, to which an inner wall 31a and an outer wall 31b are integrally secured so that the wall portion 36a of the fixed frame 36 is located between the walls 31a and 31b. A grooved block 31d is fixed to the base plate 31c at the bottom thereof. The groove formed on the grooved block 31d is slidably mated with a guide rail 32 fixed on the fixed frame 36. A bearing plate 31e is perpendicularly installed on the horizontal base plate 31c. The B-roll 2 is rotatably supported by the bearing plate 31e. On the rear surface of the bearing plate 31e is integrally secured an L-shaped arm 31f extending backwardly. The first guide roll 7 is rotatably supported at the upper rear end portion of the arm 31f. The second guide roll 8 is also rotatably supported by the inner wall 31a of the movable frame 31. On the lower rear surface of the outer wall 31b is mounted an end portion of a piston rod 33a of an air cylinder 33 secured to the fixed frame 36. The air cylinder 33 is a principal portion of the intermittent moving mechanism 30 of the present invention. At the rear end of the air cylinder 33 is attached a stroke adjusting screw 34 of the piston rod 33a. A stopper 35 is secured on the outer side surface of the fixed frame 36 at the symmetrical location as the air cylinder 33 about the movable frame 31. The C-roll 1 is rotatably supported by an elevated wall of the fixed frame 36 above the stopper 35.

As described above, the B-roll 2, the first guide roll 7 and the second guide roll 8 are attached to the moving frame 31, so that those rolls 2, 7 and 8 can move as an integrated moving block against the fixed frame 36. When compressed air is sent into the front end portion of the air cylinder 33 and, at the same time, the rear end portion is depressurized, the piston rod 33a is pulled into the cylinder 33 to move the movable frame 31 and the rolls 2, 7 and 8 mounted therein backward by a certain distance. Thus, a gap is formed between the C-roll 1 and the B-roll 2. On the other hand, when compressed air is sent into the rear end portion of the air cylinder 33 and the front end portion thereof is depressurized, the piston rod 33a is pushed out and moved up to the point where the movable frame 31 contacts with the stopper 35. At this point of the piston rod 33a, the C-roll 1 is urged to the B-roll 2 with the base sheet 3 therebetween.

In the above-mentioned construction of the present invention, as shown in Figs. 4 and 5, the base sheet 3 is passed between the C-roll 1 and the B-roll 2 while the sheet 3 is in contact with the both rolls 1 and 2 at the step for forming coated areas on the sheet 3. During the same step, the distance between the C-roll 1 and the D-roll 4 is set at its largest. A thick coating layer 6a on the C-roll 1, which is defined by the gap between the C-roll 1 and the D-roll 4, is transferred to the base sheet 3 to be a coating layer 6b of constant thickness.

Prior to forming uncoated areas, as shown in Fig. 6, the D-roll 4 moves in the direction of the arrow f to approach the C-roll 1. By the gap reduced by the movement of the D-roll 4, a coating layer 6c on the C-roll 1 becomes very thin. When the leading edge of this thin coating layer 6c reaches the point where the coating material is transferred to the base sheet 3, the B-roll 2 is displaced away from the C-roll 1 while the movable frame 31 is moved in the direction of the arrow d by the air cylinder 33 as shown in Fig. 7. Then, the B-roll 2 is separated from the C-roll 1 at the same time the transient portion from the thick coating layer 6a to the thin layer 6c comes to the transferring point on the C-roll 1. Through the steps described above, the ending edge of the coating layer 6b formed on the base sheet 3 is clearly defined.

As mentioned above, the first guide roll 7 and the second guide roll 8 are moved with the B-roll 2 because the rolls 7, 8 and the B-roll 2 are mounted in the same movable frame 31. Thus, the base sheet 3 is not loosened between the B-roll 2 and both the first guide roll 7 and the second guide roll 8.

Furthermore, as shown in Fig. 1, since the feed roll 9 is disposed substantially perpendicularly below the second guide roll 8 and the distance D2 between the second guide roll 8 and the feed roll 9 is ninety (90) to two hundred and ten (210) times as long as the traveling distance D1 of the B-roll 2 when the B-roll 2 is spaced apart from the C-roll 1, the base sheet 3 is neither loosened between the feed roll and the second guide roll.

Therefore, no wrinkles nor folds occur to the base sheet 3 because the sheet 3 smoothly travels without any deformation and error in traveling accuracy. It should be noted that the D-roll 4 has returned to the original position by this time, where the distance from the C-roll 1 is larger by moving in the direction of the arrow g.

A predetermined length of an uncoated area is formed during the transition period from the state of Fig. 7 to the state of Fig. 8. When the thick coating layer 6a again comes to the transferring position on the C-roll 1, the B-roll 2 returns to the position where the distance from the C-roll 1 is smaller while the movable frame 31 moves in the direction of the arrow c. At this time, formation of a coated area on the base sheet 3 is started by transfer of the coating layer 6a on the C-roll 1. Through the operations described above, predetermined intermittent coating is achieved.

In the above-mentioned preferred embodiment of the present invention, the first and second guide rolls 7 and 8, and the B-roll 2 are mounted in the movable frame 31 and these three rolls are moved together. However, the second guide roll 8 may be mounted on the fixed frame 36 and the first guide roll 7 and the B-roll 2 may be mounted on the movable frame 31, without limiting the scope of the present invention within the preferred embodiment. In this case, as the B-roll 2 and the first guide roll 7 move backward simultaneously, the distance between the B-roll 2 and the first guide roll 7 is maintained constant, thus the base sheet 3 therebetween is not loosened. When the B-roll 2 and the first guide roll 7 move backward, the base sheet 3 is loosened at the downstream of the second guide roll 8, specifically between the second guide roll 8 and the guide roll in the drying furnace at the downstream of the first guide roll 7. However, even when a loosening occurs, the base sheet 3 subsequently moves backward by the tension of the take-up roll located at the downstream and the base sheet 3 is pulled backward around the guide roll in the drying furnace. Therefore, the deflection angle of the base sheet 3 at the first guide roll 7 is very small, thus, occurrence of wrinkles or folds on the base sheet 3 is prevented.

Furthermore, in the above-mentioned preferred embodiment of the present invention, the moving direction of the movable frame 31 is described as a horizontal one. However, the moving direction may be obliquely upward or obliquely downward directions unlike those in the preferred embodiment. These moving directions other than horizontal one can be obtained by installing the guide rail 32 obliquely.

INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY

As discussed above, according to the intermittent coating process and the apparatus therefor of the present invention, the B-roll and the first guide roll are mounted in the same frame and the first guide roll is moved with the frame when the B-roll is moved. When the base sheet is loosened at this time of displacement of the B-roll and subsequently moved backward by the tension of the take-up roll, the base sheet is swung backward at the guide roll in the drying furnace. Since the deflection angle of the base sheet is very small, occurrence of wrinkles on the base sheet is prevented.

Furthermore, in case that the second guide roll is disposed below the B-roll and the base sheet is introduced into the B-roll along the rear peripheral portion of the second guide roll, and the first and the second guide rolls are moved along with the movement of the B-roll, the base sheet may not be loosened between the second guide roll and the B-roll when moving backward. Thus, no wrinkles would occur to the base sheet during coating.

In case that the feed roll is disposed perpendicularly below the second guide roll, the distance from the feed roll to the second guide roll is set ninety (90) to two hundred and ten (210) times as long as the traveling distance of the B-roll at the displacement of the B-roll away from the C-roll, loosening of the base sheet between the feed roll and the second guide roll may be substantially prevented at the time of displacement of the B-roll.


Anspruch[en]
  1. An intermittent coating process, comprising the steps of:

       passing a base sheet between a coating roll and a backing roll while said coating roll and said backing roll are in contact with said base sheet to deposit a slurry coating material onto said coating roll and transferring said slurry coating material to said base sheet;

       coating said coating material on said base sheet intermittently by moving said backing roll intermittently away from said coating roll;

       passing said base sheet along an upper surface of a first guide roll and then through a drying furnace;

       taking up said base sheet by a take-up roll, wherein

       said first guide roll is moved along with said backing roll when said backing roll is intermittently moved away from said coating roll.
  2. The intermittent coating process as set forth in claim 1, wherein said intermittent movement of said first guide roll is made in the horizontal direction when said first guide roll is moved along with said backing roll.
  3. The intermittent coating process as set forth in claim 1 or 2, wherein said base sheet is passed along a rear peripheral portion of a second guide roll and then between said coating roll and said backing roll while said base sheet is in contact with said both coating and backing rolls, and said second guide roll is moved along with both said backing roll and said first guide roll when said backing roll is intermittently moved away from said coating roll.
  4. The intermittent coating process as set forth in claim 3, wherein said base sheet is passed along a feed roll disposed substantially perpendicularly below said second guide roll, and then passed along said second guide roll.
  5. The intermittent coating process as set forth in claim 4, wherein a distance between said feed roll and said second guide roll is set ninety (90) to two hundred and ten (210) times as long as the traveling distance of said backing roll when said backing roll is moved away from said coating roll.
  6. The intermittent coating process as set forth in any one of claims 1 through 5, wherein said coating material includes electrode active material as main component.
  7. The intermittent coating process as set forth in any one of claims 1 through 6, wherein said base sheet comprises a band-shaped hoop material including a metal foil.
  8. An intermittent coating apparatus, comprising:

       a coating roll and a backing roll disposed in proximity each other;

       a base sheet passed between said coating roll and said backing roll while said coating and backing rolls are in contact with said base sheet;

       a slurry coating material transferred to said base sheet, said coating material deposited on said coating roll;

       means for moving said backing roll away from said coating roll intermittently, thereby coating said coating material onto said base sheet intermittently;

       a drying furnace disposed along said base sheet at the downstream of said backing roll; and

       a take-up roll disposed along said base sheet at the downstream of said drying furnace, wherein

       a first guide roll is disposed between said backing roll and said drying furnace, said first guide roll pressed to said base sheet;

       said first guide roll and said backing roll are mounted in a frame; and

       said frame is moved intermittently by said means for moving intermittently.
  9. The intermittent coating apparatus as set forth in claim 8, wherein a second guide roll is disposed along said base sheet at the upstream of said backing roll;

       said base sheet is introduced to said backing roll along the rear peripheral portion of said second guide roll;

       said first guide roll and said second guide roll and said backing roll are mounted in said frame.
  10. The intermittent coating apparatus as set forth in claim 10, wherein a feed roll is disposed substantially perpendicularly below said second guide roll along said base sheet at the upstream of said second guide roll.
  11. The intermittent coating apparatus as set forth in claim 10, wherein a distance between said feed roll and said second guide roll is set ninety (90) to two hundred and ten (210) times as long as the traveling distance of said backing roll when said backing roll is moved away from said coating roll.
  12. The intermittent coating apparatus as set forth in any one of claims 8 through 11, wherein said frame is moved by said means for moving intermittently in a horizontal direction.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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