PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP0710151 24.02.2000
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0710151
Titel METHODE ZUR VERBESSERUNG DER OXYDATION UND AMMOXYDATIONSKATALYSATOREN
Anmelder BP America Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, US
Erfinder BREMER, L., Noel, Kent, US;
BRAZDIL, C., Linda, Highlands Hts., US;
BRAZDIL, F., James, Highlands Hts., US;
CAVALCANTI, A., Fernando, South Euclid, US
Vertreter Lederer, Keller & Riederer, 80538 München
DE-Aktenzeichen 69422716
Vertragsstaaten DE, ES, GB, IT, NL
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 05.08.1994
EP-Aktenzeichen 949245849
WO-Anmeldetag 05.08.1994
PCT-Aktenzeichen US9408840
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 5895
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 02.03.1995
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 08.05.1996
EP date of grant 19.01.2000
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 24.02.2000
IPC-Hauptklasse B01J 21/02
IPC-Nebenklasse B01J 21/06   B01J 23/14   B01J 23/16   B01J 23/22   B01J 27/02   B01J 27/14   C07C 5/48   B01J 23/18  

Beschreibung[en]

This invention in one aspect relates to a method of making an improved catalyst and to the catalyst so made. In another aspect the invention relates to the oxidation and ammoxidation of paraffins, olefins and aromatic compounds.

Catalysts containing vanadium and antimony in oxide form, and usually containing tin or titanium, or both, as part of the metal oxide catalyst are normally calcined before using a catalyze the ammoxidation of paraffins, olefins and various aromatics; such calcination is above 750°C and activates the composition to make effective ammoxidation catalysts.

US 5 258 543 describes a method for the ammoxidation of olefins. The process involves a catalyst which is calcined above 750°C, and then used in an ammoxidation reaction at between 350°C and 700°C.

US 4 784 979 discloses an ammoxidation catalyst which is calcined in an oven at 810°C for 1 hour, cooled to 500°C and then taken from the oven.

It has now been found that such catalyst can be even further activated to increase the activity of conversion of the feedstock and the selectivity of conversion to a nitrile by the heat treatment of the catalyst previously activated by calcining at a temperature above 750°C, wherein the heat treatment is at an effective temperature at least 50°C below the highest calcination temperature. It would be understood that the calcined catalyst is at a temperature below the effective temperature before the heat treatment is effected.

In a broad aspect of the method of the invention we have found that heat treating a catalyst calcined at a calcining temperature above 750°C at a temperature which is at least 500°C and at least 50°C below the calcining temperature is improved in its activity for converting the feed, such as propane or propylene to acrylonitrile.

In a now preferred embodiment of the method for making as even more active catalyst, the catalyst which has been calcined at a temperature above 750°C and thereafter heat treated at the lower temperature, is contacted with a liquid believed to be a solvent for some minute quantity of a deleterious (generally well less than 1% of the composition) compound containing V and Sb in oxide form, and the bulk of the "solvent" separated from the catalyst.

In this aspect of the invention there can be used various "solvents" that have been used to so treat such V and Sb catalysts in oxide form following calcination above 750°C. These include water, aqueous solutions of acids or bases, such as phosphoric, sulfuric and acetic acids and NH3 and NaOH solutions, and the hydroxy compounds of U.S. patent 5,094,989: cyclohexanol; cyclopentanol; a monohydroxy, acyclic hydrocarbon having 1-8 C atoms; and a dihydroxy, acyclic hydrocarbon having 2-4 carbon atoms.

The catalyst to which the improved method applies contains the elements and relative amounts indicated by the formula: VvSbmAaDdOx wherein

  • A is present and is Sn and/or Ti;
  • D when present is one or more of Li, Mg, Na, Ca, Sr, Ba, Co, Fe, Cr, Ga, Ni, Zn, Ge, Nb, Zr, Mo, W, Cu, Te, Ta, Se, Bi, Ce, In, As, B, Al and Mn;

    and wherein
  • all of the elements of said formula except oxygen are present as cations, and
  • v is 1
  • m is 0.5-10
  • a is up to 10
  • d is up to 10
  • x is determined by the oxidation state of the cations present

In a more specific aspect of the invention the catalyst to which the method applies has the relation v + m + a > 0.5d.

The process for improving the catalysts is most often applied to such foregoing catalysts wherein a is ≤ v + m .

In the above formula the phrase "when present" means that D may be zero.

The highest calcination temperature of the catalysts above 750°C before the relatively low temperature heat treatment step of the process of the invention can be as high as 1200°C, but is usually over 705°C and up to 1050°C, most often up to 905°C.

The present catalyst is useful for the oxidation and ammoxidation of paraffins, olefins and aromatic compounds in a reaction zone. In particular, in this aspect of the invention especially useful reactions include the ammoxidation of propane with NH3 and O2 to acrylonitrile, the ammodiation of propylene with NH3 and O2 to acrylonitrile, the ammoxiation of a methyl pyridine with O2 and NH3 to the corresponding cyanopyridine, and the ammoxidation of m-xylene with O2 and NH3 to isophthalonitrile.

The following specific examples are illustrative only and are not to be considered in any way limiting.

Catalyst Example 1

27.42g of V2O5 powder was added to a solution consisting of 100 ml of 30% H2O2 in 900 ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. After the reaction of the V2O5 powder was complete, 61.22g of Sb2O3 and 2.40g of fumed TiO2 (Degussa P-25) powder were added. The beaker was convered with a watch glass and the mixture was stirred and heated for about 3 hours. 89.52 g of 10.1% SnO2 sol (Nalco Chemical Co.) was added to the foregoing dispersion. The mixture was stirred in an uncovered beaker with heating in order to reduce the volume to 300 ml by evaporation of water. It was then dried in an oven at 120°C. Thereafter it was calcined for 8 hours at 650°C, cooled and then crushed and sieved to 20-35 mesh. A portion of this catalyst was calcined for 3 hours at 810°C. It was then contacted with isobutanol using about 6.25 ml of isobutanol per gram of catalyst by placing the catalyst in a coarse glass frit funnel, pouring the isobutanol over the catalyst, stirring the catalyst in the isobutanol in order to spread the catalyst evenly over the bottom of the funnel, then allowing the isobutanol to pass through the funnel without suction. This was done a total of three times. After the last of the isobutanol had passed through the funnel, the catalyst was heated in an oven at 120°C to remove the residual isobutanol on the catalyst. The catalyst was then heat treated in an oven at 500°C for 3 hours according to the invention.

The calcined catalyst was then contacted with isobutanol using about 6.25 ml of isobutanol per gram of catalyst by placing the catalyst in a coarse glass frit funnel, pouring the isobutanol over the catalyst, stirring the catalyst in the isobutanol in order to spread the catalyst evenly over the bottom of the funnel, and then allowing the isobutanol to pass through the funnel without suction. This was done a total of two times. After the last of the isobutanol had passed through the funnel, the catalyst was heated in an oven at 120°C to remove the residual isobutanol on the catalyst.

The catalyst was used to ammoxidize propane using a 3/8 inch O.D. titanium metal fixed bed reactor equipped with a preheat leg and immersed in a temperature controlled molten salt bath. 4.0 g of catalyst were placed in the reactor. Results of all ammoxidation runs are shown in Tables 1 and 2 as are the feed ratios and temperatures.

Catalyst Example 2

27.42g of V2O5 powder was added to a solution consisting of 100 ml of 30% H2O2 in 900 ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. After the reaction of the V2O5 powder was complete, 61.22 g of Sb2O3, 2.4 g of fumed TiO2 (Degussa P-25) powder were added. The beaker was covered with a watch glass and the mixture was stirred and heated for about 3 hours. 89.52 g of 10.1% SnO2 sol (Nalco Chemical Co.) was added to the foregoing dispersion. The mixture was stirred in an uncovered beaker with heating in order to reduce the volume to 300 ml by evaporation of water. It was then dried in an oven at 120°C. Thereafter it was calcined for 8 hours at 650°C, cooled and then crushed and sieved to 20-35 mesh. A portion of this catalyst was calcined for 3 hours at 810°C. It was then contacted with isobutanol using about 6.25 ml of isobutanol per gram of catalyst by placing the catalyst in a coarse glass frit funnel, pouring the isobutanol over the catalyst, stirring the catalyst in the isobutanol in order to spread the catalyst evenly over the bottom of the funnel, then allowing the isobutanol to pass through the funnel without suction. This was done a total of three times. After the last of the isobutanol had passed through the funnel, the catalyst was heated in an oven at 120°C to remove the residual isobutanol on the catalyst. The catalyst was then heat treated in an oven at 650°C for 3 hours according to the invention.

The calcined catalyst was then contacted with isobutanol using about 6.25 ml of isobutanol per gram of catalyst by placing the catalyst in a coarse glass frit funnel, pouring the isobutanol over the catalyst, stirring the catalyst in the isobutanol in order to spread the catalyst evenly over the bottom of the funnel, and then allowing the isobutanol to pass through the funnel without suction. This was done a total of two times. After the last of the isobutanol had passed through the funnel, the catalyst was heated in an oven at 120°C to remove the residual isobutanol on the catalyst.

The catalyst was used to ammoxidize propane using a 3/8 inch O.D. titanium metal fixed bed reactor equipped with a preheat leg and immersed in a temperature controlled molten salt bath. 4.0 g of catalyst were placed in the reactor.

Catalyst Example 3

27.42g of V2O5 powder was added to a solution consisting of 100 ml of 30% H2O2 in 900 ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. After the reaction of the V2O5 powder was complete, 61.22 g of Sb2O3, 2.4 g of fumed TiO2 (Degussa P-25) powder were added. The beaker was covered with a watch glass and the mixture was stirred and heated for about 3 hours. 89.52 g of 10.1 % SnO2 sol (Nalco Chemical Co.) was added to the foregoing dispersion. The mixture was stirred in an uncovered beaker with heating in order to reduce the volume to 300 ml by evaporation of water. It was then dried in an oven at 120°C. Thereafter it was calcined for 8 hours at 650°C, cooled and then crushed and sieved to 20-35 mesh. A portion of this catalyst was calcined for 3 hours at 810°C. It was then contacted with isobutanol using about 6.25 ml of isobutanol per gram of catalyst by placing the catalyst in a coarse glass frit funnel, pouring the isobutanol over the catalyst, stirring the catalyst in the isobutanol in order to spread the catalyst evenly over the bottom of the funnel, then allowing the isobutanol to pass through the funnel without suction. This was done a total of three times. After the last of the isobutanol had passed through the funnel, the catalyst was heated in an oven at 120°C to remove the residual isobutanol on the catalyst. The catalyst was then heat treated in an oven at 650°C for 3 hours according to the invention.

The calcined catalyst was then contacted with isobutanol using about 6.25 ml of isobutanol per gram of catalyst by placing the catalyst in a coarse glass frit funnel, pouring the isobutanol over the catalyst, stirring the catalyst in the isobutanol in order to spread the catalyst evenly over the bottom of the funnel, and then allowing the isobutanol to pass through the funnel without suction. This was done a total of three times. After the last of the isobutanol had passed through the funnel, the catalyst was heated in an oven at 120°C to remove the residual isobutanol on the catalyst.

The catalyst was used to ammoxidize propane using a 3/8 inch O.D. titanium metal fixed bed reactor equipped with a preheat leg and immersed in a temperature controlled molten salt bath. 4.5 g of catalyst were placed in the reactor.

Comparative Catalyst Example A

27.42g of V2O5 powder was added to a solution consisting of 100 ml of 30% H2O2 in 900 ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. After the reaction of the V2O5 powder was complete, 61.22g of Sb2O3 and 2.40g of fumed TiO2 (Degussa P-25) powder were added. The beaker was covered with a watch glass and the mixture was stirred and heated for about 3 hours. 89.52g of 10.1% SnO2 sol (Nalco Chemical Co.) was added to the foregoing dispersion. The mixture was stirred in an uncovered beaker with heating in order to reduce the volume to 300 ml by evaporation of water. It was then dried in an oven at 120°C. Thereafter it was calcined for 8 hours at 650°C, cooled and then crushed and sieved to 20-35 mesh. A portion of this catalyst was calcined for 3 hours at 810°C.

The calcined catalyst was then contacted with isobutanol using about 6.25 ml of isobutanol per gram of catalyst by placing the catalyst in a coarse glass frit funnel, pouring the isobutanol over the catalyst, stirring the catalyst in the isobutanol in order to spread the catalyst evenly over the bottom of the funnel, then allowing the isobutanol to pass through the funnel without suction. This was done a total of three times. After the last of the isobutanol had passed through the funnel, the catalyst was heated in an oven at 120°C to remove the residual isobutanol on the catalyst.

The catalyst was used to ammoxidize propane using a 3/8 inch O.D. titanium metal fixed bed reactor equipped with a preheat leg and immersed in a temperature controlled molten salt bath. 2.5g of catalyst were placed in the reactor. Results are summarized in Table 1.

Catalyst Example 4

27.44g V2O5 was added to a solution consisting of 100ml 30% H2O2 in 900ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. The mixture was stirred without heating for about 6 hours to produce a deep red sol/gel. It was then stirred overnight at room temperature. 61.26g Sb2O3 was then added and the resulting mixture was heated to boiling and allowed to boil with a watch glass covering the beaker for about 3 hours. Water was periodically added to the beaker to keep the mixture stirring and the volume of the mixture constant. During the heating the mixture turned green then gray then gray-black. At this point 84.56g of a 10.7 weight percent tin oxide sol and 2.4g of TiO2 were added and the mixture was evaporated to near dryness on the hot plate with constant stirring. The resulting paste was then dried at 120°C overnight. The dried material was heat treated at 650°C for 8 hours then ground and screened and the 20-35 mesh particles were collected. A portion of the 20-35 mesh particles was heat treated at 810°C for 3 hours. A portion of the 810°C calcined particles was washed three times with isobutanol by using about 50ml of isobutanol per 8 grams of catalyst. The particles were placed in a coarse glass frit funnel, covered with isobutanol and the isobutanol was allowed to pass through the glass frit without suction. The resulting material was then placed in an oven at 120°C for several hours to remove residual isobutanol. The composition was then heat treated for 3 hours at 650°C and washed and heated as in Catalyst Example 3. As will be seen by reference to Table 1, an improvement was effected in yield and selectivity by the later 650°C heat treatment, compared to Comparative Catalyst Example B.

Comparative Catalyst Example B

27.44g V2O5 was added to a solution consisting of 100ml 30% H2O2 in 900ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. The mixture was stirred without heating for about 6 hours to produce a deep red sol/gel. It was then stirred overnight at room temperature. 61.26g Sb2O3 was then added and the resulting mixture was heated to boiling and allowed to boil with a watch glass covering the beaker for about 3 hours. Water was periodically added to the beaker to keep the mixture stirring and the volume of the mixture constant. During the heating the mixture turned green then gray then gray-black. At this point 84.56g of a 10.7 weight percent tin oxide sol and 2.4g of TiO2 were added and the mixture was evaporated to near dryness on the hot plate with constant stirring. The resulting paste was then dried at 120°C overnight. The dried material was heat treated at 650°C for 8 hours then ground and screened and the 20-35 mesh particles were collected. A portion of the 20-35 mesh particles was heat treated at 810°C for 3 hours. A portion of the 810°C calcined particles was washed three times with isobutanol by using about 50ml of isobutanol per 8 grams of catalyst. The particles were placed in a coarse glass frit funnel, covered with isobutanol and the isobutanol was allowed to pass through the glass frit without suction. This was done three times. The resulting material was then placed in an oven at 120°C for several hours to remove residual isobutanol.

Catalyst Example 5

27.44g V2O5 was added to a solution consisting of 100ml 30% H2O2 in 900ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. The mixture was stirred without heating for about 6 hours to produce a deep red sol/gel. It was then stirred overnight at room temperature. 61.26g Sb2O3 was then added and the resulting mixture was heated to boiling and allowed to boil with a watch glass covering the beaker for about 3 hours. Water was periodically added to the beaker to keep the mixture stirring and the volume of the mixture constant. During the heating the mixture turned green then gray then gray-black. At this point 84.56g of a 10.7 weight percent tin oxide sol and 2.4g of TiO2 were added and the mixture was evaporated to near dryness on the hot plate with constant stirring. The resulting paste was then dried at 120°C overnight. The dried material was heat treated at 650°C for 8 hours then ground and screened and the 20-35 mesh particles were collected. A portion of the 20-35 mesh particles was heat treated at 810°C for 3 hours. A portion of the 810°C calcined particles was heat treated according to the invention for 3 hours at 650°C and was washed with isobutanol by using about 50ml of isobutanol per 8 grams of catalyst. The particles were placed in a coarse glass frit funnel, covered with isobutanol and the isobutanol was allowed to pass through the glass frit without suction. This was done a total of three times. The resulting material was then placed in an oven at 120°C for several hours to remove residual isobutanol.

It will be seen by reference to Table 1 that the post heat treatment for 3 hours at 650°C was an improvement in comparison to both comparative catalyst examples B and C.

Comparative Catalyst Example C

27.44g V2O5 was added to a solution consisting of 100ml 30% H2O2 in 900ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. The mixture was stirred without heating for about 6 hours to produce a deep red sol/gel. It was then stirred overnight at room temperature. 61.26g Sb2O3 was then added and the resulting mixture was heated to boiling and allowed to boil with a watch glass covering the beaker for about 3 hours. Water was periodically added to the beaker to keep the mixture stirring and the volume of the mixture constant. During the heating the mixture turned green then gray then gray-black. At this point 84.56g of a 10.7 weight percent tin oxide sol and 2.4g of TiO2 were added and the mixture was evaporated to near dryness on the hot plate with constant stirring. The resulting paste was then dried at 120°C overnight. The dried material was heat treated at 650°C for 8 hours then ground and screened and the 20-35 mesh particles were collected. A portion of the 20-35 mesh particles was calcined at 810°C for 3 hours. This was designated Comparative Catalyst Example C. Results of testing this catalyst in the ammoxidation of propane are shown in Table 1.

Catalyst Example 6

27.44g V2O5 was added to a solution consisting of 100ml 30% H2O2 in 900ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. The mixture was stirred without heating for about 6 hours to produce a deep red sol/gel. It was then stirred overnight at room temperature. 61.26g Sb2O3 was then added and the resulting mixture was heated to boiling and allowed to boil with a watch glass covering the beaker for about 3 hours. Water was periodically added to the beaker to keep the mixture stirring and the volume of the mixture constant. During the heating the mixture turned green then gray then gray-black. At this point 84.56g of a 10.7 weight percent tin oxide sol and 2.4g of TiO2 were added and the mixture was evaporated to near dryness on the hot plate with constant stirring. The resulting paste was then dried at 120°C overnight. The dried material was heat treated at 650°C for 8 hours then ground and screened and the 20-35 mesh particles were collected. A portion of the 20-35 mesh particles was calcined at 810°C for 3 hours and then heat treated according to the invention at 650°C for 3 hours. As will be seen in Table 1, there is an improvement in the yield and selectivity in the ammoxidation of propane brought about by the final lower temperature heat treatment at 650°C. Compare the results with the results when using Comparative Catalyst Example C.

Catalyst Example 7

27.44g V2O5 powder was added to a solution consisting of 100ml 30% H2O2 in 900ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. After the reaction of the V2O5 powder was complete, 61.26 g of Sb2O3 was added. The beaker was covered with a watch glass and the mixture was stirred and heated for about 3 hours. 84.56 g of 10.7% SnO2 sol (Nalco Chemical Co.) and 2.40 g of TiO2 powder were added to the foregoing dispersion. The mixture was stirred in an uncovered beaker with heating in order to reduce the volume by evaporation of water. When the mixture could no longer be stirred, it was dried in an oven at 120°C. Thereafter it was calcined for 8 hours at 650°C, cooled and then crushed and sieved to 20-35 mesh. A portion of this catalyst was calcined for 3 hours at 810°C then heat treated at 650°C for an additional 3 hours.

The calcined catalyst was then contacted with isobutanol using about 6.25 ml of isobutanol per gram of catalyst by placing the catalyst in a coarse glass frit funnel, pouring the isobutanol over the catalyst, stirring the catalyst in the isobutanol in order to spread the catalyst evenly over the bottom of the funnel, then allowing the isobutanol to pass through the funnel without suction. This was done a total of three times. After the last of the isobutanol had passed through the funnel, the catalyst was heated in an oven at 120°C to remove the residual isobutanol on the catalyst.

The catalyst was used to ammoxidize propane using a 3/8 inch O.D. titanium metal fixed bed reactor equipped with a preheat leg and immersed in a temperature controlled molten salt bath. 8.14 g of catalyst were placed in the reactor. Results are summarized in Table 1.

Catalyst Example 8

27.29g V2O5 powder was added to a solution consisting of 100ml 30% H2O2 in 900ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. After the reaction of the V2O5 powder was complete, 56.85 g of Sb2O3 was added. The beaker was covered with a watch glass and the mixture was stirred and heated for about 3 hours. 42.25 g of 10.7% SnO2 sol (Nalco Chemical Co.) and 2.40 g of TiO2 powder were added to the foregoing dispersion. The mixture was stirred in an uncovered beaker with heating in order to reduce the volume by evaporation of water. When the mixture could no longer be stirred, it was dried in an oven at 120°C. Thereafter it was calcined for 8 hours at 650°C, cooled and then crushed and sieved to 20-35 mesh. A portion of this catalyst was calcined for 3 hours at 810°C then at 650°C for an additional 3 hours.

The calcined catalyst was then contacted with isobutanol using about 6.25 ml of isobutanol per gram of catalyst by placing the catalyst in a coarse glass frit funnel, pouring the isobutanol over the catalyst, stirring the catalyst in the isobutanol in order to spread the catalyst evenly over the bottom of the funnel, then allowing the isobutanol to pass through the funnel without suction. This was done a total of three times. After the last of the isobutanol had passed through the funnel, the catalyst was heated in an oven at 120°C to remove the residual isobutanol on the catalyst.

The catalyst was used to ammoxidize propane using a 3/8 inch O.D. titanium metal fixed bed reactor equipped with a preheat leg and immersed in a temperature controlled molten salt bath. 8.285 g of catalyst were placed in the reactor. Results are summarized in Table 1.

Catalyst Example 9

27.42g V2O5 powder was added to a solution consisting of 100ml 30% H2O2 in 900ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. After the reaction of the V2O5 powder was complete, 61.22 g of Sb2O3 and 2.40 g of fumed TiO2 (Degussa P-25) powder were added. The beaker was covered with a watch glass and the mixture was stirred and heated for about 3 hours. 84.50 g of 10.7% SnO2 sol (Nalco Chemical Co.) was added to the foregoing dispersion. The mixture was stirred in an uncovered beaker with heating in order to reduce the volume by evaporation of water. When the mixture could no longer be stirred, it was dried in an oven at 120°C. Thereafter it was calcined for 8 hours at 650°C, cooled and then crushed and sieved to 20-35 mesh. A portion of this catalyst was calcined for 3 hours at 810°C then at 650°C for an additional 3 hours.

The calcined catalyst was then contacted with isobutanol using about 6.25 ml of isobutanol per gram of catalyst by placing the catalyst in a coarse glass frit funnel, pouring the isobutanol over the catalyst, stirring the catalyst in the isobutanol in order to spread the catalyst evenly over the bottom of the funnel, then allowing the isobutanol to pass through the funnel without suction. This was done a total of three times. After the last of the isobutanol had passed through the funnel, the catalyst was heated in an oven at 120°C to remove the residual isobutanol on the catalyst.

The catalyst was used to ammoxidize propane using a 3/8 inch O.D. titanium metal fixed bed reactor equipped with a preheat leg and immersed in a temperature controlled molten salt bath. 7.50 g of catalyst were placed in the reactor. Results are summarized in Table 1.

Comparative Catalyst Example D

27.42g V2O5 powder was added to a solution consisting of 100ml 30% H2O2 in 900ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. After the reaction of the V2O5 powder was complete, 61.22 g of Sb2O3 and 2.40 g of fumed TiO2 (Degussa P-25) powder were added. The beaker was covered with a watch glass and the mixture was stirred and heated for about 3 hours. 84.50 g of 10.7% SnO2 sol (Nalco Chemical Co.) was added to the foregoing dispersion. The mixture was stirred in an uncovered beaker with heating in order to reduce the volume by evaporation of water. When the mixture could no longer be stirred, it was dried in an oven at 120°C. Thereafter it was calcined for 8 hours at 650°C, cooled and then crushed and sieved to 20-35 mesh. A portion of this catalyst was calcined for 3 hours at 810°C.

The calcined catalyst was then contacted with isobutanol using about 6.25 ml of isobutanol per gram of catalyst by placing the catalyst in a coarse glass frit funnel, pouring the isobutanol over the catalyst, stirring the catalyst in the isobutanol in order to spread the catalyst evenly over the bottom of the funnel, then allowing the isobutanol to pass through the funnel without suction. This was done a total of three times. After the last of the isobutanol had passed through the funnel, the catalyst was heated in an oven at 120°C to remove the residual isobutanol on the catalyst.

The catalyst was used to ammoxidize propane using a 3/8 inch O.D. titanium metal fixed bed reactor equipped with a preheat leg and immersed in a temperature controlled molten salt bath. 7.125 g of catalyst were placed in the reactor. Results are summarized in Table 1.

Catalyst Example 10

27.29g V2O5 powder was added to a solution consisting of 100ml 30% H2O2 in 900ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. After the reaction of the V2O5 powder was complete, 56.85 g of Sb2O3 was added. The beaker was covered with a watch glass and the mixture was stirred and heated for about 3 hours. 84.51 g of 10.7% SnO2 sol (Nalco Chemical Co.) and 2.40 g of TiO2 powder were added to the foregoing dispersion. The mixture was stirred in an uncovered beaker with heating in order to reduce the volume by evaporation of water. When the mixture could no longer be stirred, it was dried in an oven at 120°C. Thereafter it was calcined for 8 hours at 650°C, cooled and then crushed and sieved to 20-35 mesh. A portion of this catalyst was calcined for 3 hours at 810°C then at 650°C for an additional 3 hours.

The calcined catalyst was then contacted with isobutanol using about 6.25 ml of isobutanol per gram of catalyst by placing the catalyst in a coarse glass frit funnel, pouring the isobutanol over the catalyst, stirring the catalyst in the isobutanol in order to spread the catalyst evenly over the bottom of the funnel, then allowing the isobutanol to pass through the funnel without suction. This was done a total of three times. After the last of the isobutanol had passed through the funnel, the catalyst was heated in an oven at 120°C to remove the residual isobutanol on the catalyst.

The catalyst was used to ammoxidize propane using a 0.5 inch O.D. titanium metal fixed bed reactor equipped with a preheat leg and immersed in a temperature controlled fluidized sand bath. 8.151 g of catalyst were mixed with 4 ml of quartz chips (20-35 mesh particle size) and placed in the reactor. Results are summarized in Table 1.

Catalyst Example 11

27.42g V2O5 powder was added to a solution consisting of 100ml 30% H2O2 in 900ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. After the reaction of the V2O5 powder was complete, 61.22 g of Sb2O3 was added. Then 0.38 g of LiOH&peseta;H2O was added. The beaker was covered with a watch glass and the mixture was stirred and heated for about 3 hours. 84.50 g of 10.7% SnO2 sol (Nalco Chemical Co.) and 2.40 g of TiO2 powder were added to the foregoing dispersion. The mixture was stirred in an uncovered beaker with heating in order to reduce the volume by evaporation of water. When the mixture could no longer be stirred, it was dried in an oven at 120°C. Thereafter it was calcined for 8 hours at 650°C, cooled and then crushed and sieved to 20-35 mesh. A portion of this catalyst was calcined for 3 hours at 810°C then at 650°C for an additional 3 hours.

The calcined catalyst was then contacted with isobutanol using about 6.25 ml of isobutanol per gram of catalyst by placing the catalyst in a coarse glass frit funnel, pouring the isobutanol over the catalyst, stirring the catalyst in the isobutanol in order to spread the catalyst evenly over the bottom of the funnel, then allowing the isobutanol to pass through the funnel without suction. This was done a total of three times. After the last of the isobutanol had passed through the funnel, the catalyst was heated in an oven at 120°C to remove the residual isobutanol on the catalyst.

The catalyst was used to ammoxidize propane using a 3/8 inch O.D. titanium metal fixed bed reactor equipped with a preheat leg and immersed in a temperature controlled molten salt bath. Results are shown in Table 2, and can be compared to results shown using Comparative Catalyst Example E.

Comparative Catalyst Example E

27.42g V2O5 powder was added to a solution consisting of 100ml 30% H2O2 in 900ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. After the reaction of the V2O5 powder was complete, 61.22 g of Sb2O3 was added. Then 0.38 g of LiOH&peseta;H2O was added. The beaker was covered with a watch glass and the mixture was stirred and heated for about 3 hours. 84.50 g of 10.7% SnO2 sol (Nalco Chemical Co.) and 2.40 g of TiO2 powder were added to the foregoing dispersion. The mixture was stirred in an uncovered beaker with heating in order to reduce the volume by evaporation of water. When the mixture could no longer be stirred, it was dried in an oven at 120°C. Thereafter it was calcined for 8 hours at 650°C, cooled and then crushed and sieved to 20-35 mesh. A portion of this catalyst was calcined for 3 hours at 810°C.

The calcined catalyst was then contacted with isobutanol using about 6.25 ml of isobutanol per gram of catalyst by placing the catalyst in a coarse glass frit funnel, pouring the isobutanol over the catalyst, stirring the catalyst in the isobutanol in order to spread the catalyst evenly over the bottom of the funnel, then allowing the isobutanol to pass through the funnel without suction. After the last of the isobutanol had passed through the funnel, the catalyst was heated in an oven at 120°C to remove the residual isobutanol on the catalyst.

Catalyst Example 12

27.42g V2O5 powder was added to a solution consisting of 100ml 30% H2O2 in 900ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. After the reaction of the V2O5 powder was complete, 61.22 g of Sb2O3 was added. Then 0.13 g of LiOH&peseta;H2O was added. The beaker was covered with a watch glass and the mixture was stirred and heated for about 3 hours. 84.50 g of 10.7% SnO2 sol (Nalco Chemical Co.) and 2.40 g of TiO2 powder were added to the foregoing dispersion. The mixture was stirred in an uncovered beaker with heating in order to reduce the volume by evaporation of water. When the mixture could no longer be stirred, it was dried in an oven at 120°C. Thereafter it was calcined for 8 hours at 650°C, cooled and then crushed and sieved to 20-35 mesh. A portion of this catalyst was calcined for 3 hours at 810°C then at 650°C for an additional 3 hours.

The calcined catalyst was then contacted with isobutanol using about 6.25 ml of isobutanol per gram of catalyst by placing the catalyst in a coarse glass frit funnel, pouring the isobutanol over the catalyst, stirring the catalyst in the isobutanol in order to spread the catalyst evenly over the bottom of the funnel, then allowing the isobutanol to pass through the funnel without suction. This was done a total of three times. After the last of the isobutanol had passed through the funnel, the catalyst was heated in an oven at 120°C to remove the residual isobutanol on the catalyst.

The catalyst was used to ammoxidize propane using a 3/8 inch O.D. titanium metal fixed bed reactor equipped with a preheat leg and immersed in a temperature controlled molten salt bath. Results are shown in Table 2, and can be compared to results shown using Comparative Catalyst Example F.

Comparative Catalyst Example F

27.42g V2O5 powder was added to a solution consisting of 100ml 30% H2O2 in 900ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. After the reaction of the V2O5 powder was complete, 61.22 g of Sb2O3 was added. Then 0.13 g of LiOH-H2O was added. The beaker was covered with a watch glass and the mixture was stirred and heated for about 3 hours. 84.50 g of 10.7% SnO2 sol (Nalco Chemical Co.) and 2.40 g of TiO2 powder were added to the foregoing dispersion. The mixture was stirred in an uncovered beaker with heating in order to reduce the volume by evaporation of water. When the mixture could no longer be stirred, it was dried in an oven at 120°C. Thereafter it was calcined for 8 hours at 650°C, cooled and then crushed and sieved to 20-35 mesh. A portion of this catalyst was calcined for 3 hours at 810°C.

The calcined catalyst was then contacted with isobutanol using about 6.25 ml of isobutanol per gram of catalyst by placing the catalyst in a coarse glass frit funnel, pouring the isobutanol over the catalyst, stirring the catalyst in the isobutanol in order to spread the catalyst evenly over the bottom of the funnel, then allowing the isobutanol to pass through the funnel without suction. This was done a total of four times. After the last of the isobutanol had passed through the funnel, the catalyst was heated in an oven at 120°C to remove the residual isobutanol on the catalyst.

Catalyst Example 13

21.95g V2O5 powder was added to a solution consisting of 100ml 30% H2O2 in 900ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. After the reaction of the V2O5 powder was complete, 49.01 g of Sb2O3 was added. The beaker was covered with a watch glass and the mixture was stirred and heated for about 3 hours. 71.67 g of 10.7% SnO2 sol (Nalco Chemical Co.) and 1.92 g of TiO2 powder were added to the foregoing dispersion. 66.7 g silica sol (Nissan N-30); 30 weight percent silica, were then added. The mixture was stirred in an uncovered beaker with heating in order to reduce the volume by evaporation of water. When the mixture could no longer be stirred, it was dried in an oven at 120°C. Thereafter it was calcined for 8 hours at 650°C, cooled and then crushed and sieved to 20-35 mesh. A portion of this catalyst was calcined for 3 hours at 810°C then at 650°C for an additional 3 hours.

The calcined catalyst was then contacted with isobutanol using about 6.25 ml of isobutanol per gram of catalyst by placing the catalyst in a coarse glass frit funnel, pouring the isobutanol over the catalyst, stirring the catalyst in the isobutanol in order to spread the catalyst evenly over the bottom of the funnel, then allowing the isobutanol to pass through the funnel without suction. This was done a total of three times. After the last of the isobutanol had passed through the funnel, the catalyst was heated in an oven at 120°C to remove the residual isobutanol on the catalyst.

The catalyst was used to ammoxidize propane using a 3/8 inch O.D. titanium metal fixed bed reactor equipped with a preheat leg and immersed in a temperature controlled molten salt bath. 3.0 g of catalyst were placed in the reactor. The results shown in Table 2 can be compared to the results using Comparative Catalyst Example G.

Comparative Catalyst Example G

21.95g V2O5 powder was added to a solution consisting of 100ml 30% H2O2 in 900ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. After the reaction of the V2O5 powder was complete, 49.01 g of Sb2O3 was added. The beaker was covered with a watch glass and the mixture was stirred and heated for about 3 hours. 71.67 g of 10.7% SnO2 sol (Nalco Chemical Co.) and 1.92 g of TiO2 powder were added to the foregoing dispersion. 66.7 g silica sol (Nissan N-30); 30 weight percent silica, were then added. The mixture was stirred in an uncovered beaker with heating in order to reduce the volume by evaporation of water. When the mixture could no longer be stirred, it was dried in an oven at 120°C. Thereafter it was calcined for 8 hours at 650°C, cooled and then crushed and sieved to 20-35 mesh. A portion of this catalyst was calcined for 3 hours at 810°C.

The calcined catalyst was then contacted with isobutanol using about 6.25 ml of isobutanol per gram of catalyst by placing the catalyst in a coarse glass frit funnel, pouring the isobutanol over the catalyst, stirring the catalyst in the isobutanol in order to spread the catalyst evenly over the bottom of the funnel, then allowing the isobutanol to pass through the funnel without suction. This was done a total of three times. After the last of the isobutanol had passed through the funnel, the catalyst was heated in an oven at 120°C to remove the residual isobutanol on the catalyst.

The catalyst was used to ammoxidize propane using a 3/8 inch O.D. titanium metal fixed bed reactor equipped with a preheat leg and immersed in a temperature controlled molten salt bath. 3.0 g of catalyst were placed in the reactor. Results are summarized in Table 2.

Catalyst Example 14

27.42g V2O5 powder was added to a solution consisting of 100ml 30% H2O2 in 900ml of water in a 2 liter beaker. After the reaction of the V2O5 powder was complete, 61.22 g of Sb2O3 was added. The beaker was covered with a watch glass and the mixture was stirred and heated for about 3 hours. 43.89 g of 20.6% SnO2 sol (Nalco Chemical Co.) and 2.40 g of TiO2 powder were added to the foregoing dispersion. The mixture was stirred in an uncovered beaker with heating in order to reduce the volume by evaporation of water. When the mixture could no longer be stirred, it was dried in an oven at 120°C. Thereafter it was calcined for 8 hours at 650°C, cooled and then crushed and sieved to 20-35 mesh. A portion of this catalyst was calcined for 3 hours at 810°C then heat treated at 650°C for an additional 8 hours.

The heat treated catalyst was then contacted with isobutanol using about 6.25 ml of isobutanol per gram of catalyst by placing the catalyst in a coarse glass frit funnel, pouring the isobutanol over the catalyst, stirring the catalyst in the isobutanol in order to spread the catalyst evenly over the bottom of the funnel, then allowing the isobutanol to pass through the funnel without suction. This was done a total of three times. After the last of the isobutanol had passed through the funnel, the catalyst was heated in an oven at 120°C to remove the residual isobutanol on the catalyst.

The catalyst was used to ammoxidize propane using a 3/8 inch O.D. titanium metal fixed bed reactor equipped with a preheat leg and immersed in a temperature controlled molten salt bath. 5 g of catalyst were placed in the reactor. Results are summarized in Table 2. Example No. (3) Catalyst Example No. Mole Ratios C3/NH3/O2/H2O (6) Temp. °C CT Secs (4) Percent Propane Conversion Propane: Mole % Conversion to (2) AN % Selectivity (1) AN 15 1 5/1/2.8/1 460 2.5 15.6 9.6 61.7 16 (5) A (5) 5/1/2.8/1 " 1.7 14.7 9.0 60.9 17 2 5/1/2.8/1 " 3.2 13.8 9.0 65.1 18 3 5/1/2.8/1 " 3.2 14.6 9.6 65.6 19 4 5/1/2.8/1 " 3.7 15.1 9.5 62.7 20 (5) B (5) 5/1/2.8/1 " 1.7 14.9 9.1 61.3 21 5 5/1/2.8/1 " 3.6 14.5 9.3 64.2 22 (5) C (5) 5/1/2.8/1 " 0.9 15.5 8.3 53.8 23 6 5/1/2.8/1 " 1.2 15.2 8.9 58.7 C3/NH3/O2/N2/H2O 24 7 3/1.29/3.01/10.34/2.0 480 4.4 30.6 18.2 59.5 25 8 3/1.29/3.01/10.34/2.0 " 4.8 31.4 18.3 58.1 26 9 3/1.29/3.01/10.34/2.0 " 3.7 30.6 17.6 57.5 27 (5) D (5) 3/1.29/3.01/10.34/2.0 " 2.2 29.7 16.2 54.7 C3/NH3/O2/N2 28 10 5/1.33/3.31/10.81 460 2.9 17.6 11.6 66.3 29 10 3/1.49/3.16/12.39 " 7.5 31.4 18.0 57.4
(1) Selectivity based on propane (2) AN is Acrylonitrile (3) Propane Ammoxidation runs (4) Contact Time, Seconds (5) Control Example (6) C3 is Propane Example No. (3) Catalyst Example No. Mole Ratios C3/NH3/O2/H2O (6) Temp. °C CT Secs (4) Percent Propane Conversion Propane: Mole % Conversion to (2) AN % Selectivity (1) AN 30 11 5/1/2.8/1 460 2.0 15.4 9.7 62.8 31 (5) E (5) " " 0.7 14.9 8.9 59.8 32 12 " " 2.1 14.5 9.1 62.7 33 (5) F (5) " " 1.0 15.4 9.2 59.7 34 13 " " 4.1 17.0 10.1 59.6 35 (5) G (5) " " 1.9 14.3 8.3 57.7 36 14 " " 4.0 14.9 9.5 63.5
(1) Selectivity based on propane (2) AN is Acrylonitrile (3) Propane Ammoxidation runs (4) Contact Time, Seconds (5) Control Example (6) C3 is Propane

While the invention has been explained in relation to its preferred embodiments, it is to be understood that various modifications thereof will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon reading the specification. Therefore, it is to be understood that the invention disclosed herein is intended to cover such modifications as fall within the scope of the appended claims.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Verfahren zur Verbesserung eines Ammoxidationskatalysators, der vorher zur Bildung eines aktiven Katalysators bei einer Calcinierungstemperatur oberhalb 750°C calciniert wurde, wobei der calcinierte Katalysator die Elemente und relativen Mengen aufweist, gemäß der Formel VvSbmAaDdOx worin
    • A vorliegt und Sn und/oder Ti darstellt;
    • D, falls vorliegend, ein oder mehrere von Li, Mg, Na, Ca, Sr, Ba, Co, Fe, Cr, Ga, Ni, Zn, Ge, Nb, Zr, Mo, W, Cu, Te, Ta, Se, Bi, Ce, In, As, B, Al und Mn darstellt;

      und worin
    • alle der Elemente der Formel, ausgenommen Sauerstoff, als Kationen vorliegen und
    • v 1 ist,
    • m 0,5-10 ist,
    • a bis zu 10 ist,
    • d bis zu 10 ist,
    • x durch den Oxidationszustand der vorliegenden Kationen bestimmt wird, wobei das Verfahren Wärmebehandlung des Katalysators bei einer wirksamen Temperatur, die mindestens 500°C beträgt und mindestens 50°C unter der Calcinierungstemperatur liegt, vor der Verwendung des Katalysators in einer Ammoxidationsreaktion bei dieser wirksamen Temperatur umfaßt.
  2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, worin v + m + a >0,5d ist.
  3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 oder Anspruch 2, wobei a ≤ v + m ist.
  4. Verfahren nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, wobei der durch Wärme behandelte Katalysator anschließend mit einer Flüssigkeit, ausgewählt aus Wasser, wässerigen Lösungen von Säuren oder Basen, Cyclohexanol, Cyclopentanol, einem acyclischen Monohydroxy-Kohlenwasserstotf mit 1-8 C-Atomen und einem acyclischen Dihydroxy-Kohlenwasserstoft mit 2-4 Kohlenstoffatomen in Kontakt gebracht wird.
  5. Verfahren nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Calcinierungstemperatur im Bereich oberhalb 750°C und bis zu 1050°C liegt.
  6. Ammoxidation in einer Reaktionszone, ausgewählt aus: der Ammoxidation von Propan mit NH3 und O2 zu Acrylnitril, der Ammoxidation von Propylen mit NH3 und O2 zu Acrylnitril, der Ammoxidation eines Methylpyridins mit NH3 und O2 zu dem entsprechenden Cyanopyridin und der Ammoxidation von m-Xylol mit NH3 und O2 zu Isophthalonitril, wobei die ausgewählte Ammoxidation in Anwesenheit eines Katalysators bewirkt wird, der sich aus dem Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5 ergibt.
  7. Ammoxidation von Propan in einer Reaktionszone mit O2 und NH3 zur Herstellung von Acrylnitril, bewirkt in Anwesenheit eines Katalysators, der sich aus dem Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5 ergibt.
  8. Katalysator, erhältlich durch das Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5.
Anspruch[en]
  1. A process for improving an ammoxidation catalyst previously calcined at a calcining temperature above 750°C to form an active catalyst wherein said calcined catalyst has the elements and relative amounts indicated by the formula VvSbmAaDdOx wherein
    • A is present and is Sn and/or Ti;
    • D when present is one or more of Li, Mg, Na, Ca, Sr, Ba, Co, Fe, Cr, Ga, Ni, Zn, Ge, Nb, Zr, Mo, W, Cu, Te, Ta, Se, Bi, Ce, In, As, B, Al and Mn;

      and wherein

      all of the elements of said formula except oxygen are present as cations, and
    • v is 1
    • m is 0.5-10
    • a is up to 10
    • d is up to 10
    • x is determined by the oxidation state of the cations present, said process comprising heat treating said catalyst at an effective temperature which is at least 500°C and at least 50°C below said calcining temperature prior to using said catalyst in an ammoxidation reaction at said effective temperature.
  2. A process according to claim 1 wherein v + m + a > 0.5d .
  3. A process according to claim 1 or claim 2 wherein a is ≤ v + m .
  4. A process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the heat treated catalyst is subsequently contacted with a liquid selected from water; aqueous solutions of acids or bases; cyclohexanol; cyclopentanol; a monohydroxy, acyclic hydrocarbon having 1-8C atoms; and a dihydroxy, acyclic hydrocarbon having 2-4 carbon atoms.
  5. A process according to any one of the preceding claims wherein said calcination temperature is in the range over 750°C and up to 1050°C.
  6. The ammoxidation in a reaction zone selected from: the ammoxidation of propane with NH3 and O2 to acrylonitrile; the ammoxidation of propylene with NH3 and O2 to acrylonitrile; the ammoxidation of a methyl pyridine with NH3 and O2 to the corresponding cyanopyridine; and the ammoxidation of m-xylene with NH3 and O2 to isophthalonitrile, wherein the selected ammoxidation is effected in the presence of a catalyst resulting from the process of any one of claims 1 to 5.
  7. The ammoxidation of propane in a reaction zone with O2 and NH3 to produce acrylonitrile effected in the presence of a catalyst resulting from the process of any one of claims 1 to 5.
  8. A catalyst obtainable by the process of any one of claims 1 to 5.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Un procédé d'amélioration d'un catalyseur d'ammoxydation précédemment calciné à une température de calcination supérieure à 750°C pour former un catalyseur actif, dans lequel ledit catalyseur calciné a les éléments et quantités relatives indiqués par la formule VvSbmAaDdOx dans laquelle
    • A est présent et est Sn et/ou Ti ;
    • D, lorsque présent, est un ou davantage parmi : Li, Mg, Na, Ca, Sr, Ba, Co, Fe, Cr, Ga, Ni, Zn, Ge, Nb, Zr, Mo, W, Cu, Te, Ta, Se, Bi, Ce, In, As, B, Al et Mn ;

      et dans lequel

      tous les éléments de ladite formule, exception faite de l'oxygène, sont présents sous forme de cations, et
    • V est 1
    • m est 0,5 à 10
    • a est jusqu'à 10
    • d est jusqu'à 10
    • x est déterminé par l'état d'oxydation des cations présents, ledit procédé comportant le traitement thermique dudit catalyseur à une température efficace d'au moins 500°C et qui est inférieure de 50°C au moins à ladite température de calcination avant d'utiliser ledit catalyseur dans une réaction d'ammoxydation à ladite température efficace.
  2. Un procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel v + m + a > 0,5d .
  3. Un procédé selon la revendication 1 ou la revendication 2, dans lequel a est ≤ v + m .
  4. Un procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le catalyseur traité thermiquement est ensuite mis en contact avec un liquide sélectionné parmi : eau, solutions aqueuses d'acides ou de bases, cyclohexanol, cyclopentanol, un hydrocarbure monohydroxy-acyclique ayant entre 1 et 8 atomes de carbone et un hydrocarbure dihydroxy-acyclique ayant entre 2 et 4 atomes de carbone.
  5. Un procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la température de calcination est dans la plage de plus de 750°C à jusqu'à 1050°C.
  6. L'ammoxydation dans une zone de réaction est sélectionnée parmi : l'ammoxydation du propane avec NH3 et O2 jusqu'à l'acrylonitrile, l'ammoxydation du propylène avec NH3 et O2 jusqu'à l'acrylonitrile ; l'ammoxydation d'une pyridine de méthyle avec NH3 et O2 jusqu'à la cyanopyridine correspondante et l'ammoxydation du m-xylène avec NH3 et O2 jusqu'à l'isophtalonitrile, dans lequel l'ammoxydation sélectionnée est réalisée en présence d'un catalyseur résultant du procédé de l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5.
  7. L'ammoxydation du propane dans une zone de réaction avec O2 et NH3 pour produire de l'acrylonitrile, effectuée en présence du catalyseur résultant du procédé de l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5.
  8. Un catalyseur pouvant être obtenu par le procédé de l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5.






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