PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP0637789 04.05.2000
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0637789
Titel Leistungsfaktorregeleinrichtung für einen offline-Schalter basierend auf einem in einer Viertelperiode gemittelten Leistungsfluss
Anmelder AT & T Corp., New York, N.Y., US
Erfinder Farrington, Richard William, Mesquite, Texas 75149, US;
Jacobs, Mark Elliott, Dallas, Texas 75248, US;
Wilkinson, William Perry, Rockwall, Texas 75087, US
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69423678
Vertragsstaaten DE, FR, GB
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 27.07.1994
EP-Aktenzeichen 943055632
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 08.02.1995
EP date of grant 29.03.2000
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 04.05.2000
IPC-Hauptklasse G05F 1/70
IPC-Nebenklasse H02M 7/217   H02J 3/18   

Beschreibung[en]

This invention relates to power factor enhancement systems.

Control of power factor at the input of a power circuit, powered off of an AC power line typically designated as an off line switcher (OLS), is critical to both the integrity of the AC power line as well as the efficient operation and transient response of the power circuit itself. In theory the power factor can attain a unity value by forcing the input current waveform to conform exactly to a sinusoidal waveform in phase with the fundamental of the sinusoidal voltage waveform input. Many techniques have been advanced to achieve this current waveform control. Some of the earlier techniques use passive networks with reactive components to shape the input current waveform. As power factor and other operating requirements of the power supply become more demanding the trend has been toward the use of active power factor control networks to control the input current waveform.

Active power factor control networks typically sense input and output signal parameters of the power circuit and utilize a rectifier followed by a boost, buck, buck-boost, SEPIC or similar power trains connected between the AC line and the power circuit to enhance the power factor. The boost power train includes a power switch selectively switched or pulse width modulated in response to these signal parameters to force the input current to conform to a desired or programmed current waveform. In a particular illustrative arrangement disclosed in U. S. patent 4,412,277 a rectified input AC voltage waveform is multiplied with an error voltage representing the deviation of the output voltage from a regulated value. The resulting control signal is scaled to provide a programmed AC current waveform ip. This waveform is used to control the modulation of a pulse driving the power switch of the boost power train to provide the desired input current waveform and hence advance the power factor value more closely to a unity value.

An improved power factor control arrangement disclosed in U. S. patent 4,677,366 uses an instantaneous rms value of the input AC voltage as a control variable to provide a suitable transient response to changes in the amplitude of the waveform of the AC line voltage. This control arrangement includes a feed-forward control, added to accommodate rapid changes occurring in the rms value of the input AC voltage. This feed-forward arrangement scales the programmed current ip, inversely by the square of the rms input voltage.

A problem with these existing arrangements is the effects of ripple voltage due to rectification and other causes superimposed on the sensed voltage waveforms. This ripple voltage in the sensed signals is a spurious signal which is superimposed on the error voltages used to control the boost converter. This prevents an accurate determination of the waveform of the programmed current ip, and creates undesirable side effects in the operation of the control circuitry. Present techniques advanced to deal with this ripple voltage slow the response time of the power factor control circuitry.

Another problem with existing arrangements to enhance power factor is the slow response time of output voltage regulation control loops to output load transients. Existing arrangements to address this problem include output power as a feed-forward variable in the feed-forward control loop controlling the power switch of the power train. A key variable in the effect of the output power on the control process is the energy stored in the output capacitor of the power train.

A controller designed to accurately accommodate changes in output power has been implemented as a digital controller and is disclosed in the disclosure entitled "A Digital Controller for a Unity Power Factor Controller" Mitwalli et al, Workshop on Computers in Power Electronics, Berkley, CA, August, 1992. This controller is based on modeling instantaneous power flows and is based on knowledge of the value of the power train's output capacitance. It additionally requires complex real time calculations to achieve satisfactory operation.

EP-A-0498553 describes a power converter that accepts an input voltage Vi, absorbs an input current ii, and delivers output power Po, which is equal to the input power Pin. Based on this relationship, a control law is derived which ignores any internal storage elements in the power converter. An exemplary derivation is provided that results in an adaptive control process that regulates a constant output voltage from a power converter which depends on a multiplicative gain parameter K. Also provided are derivations disclosing how to regulate, alternatively, a constant output current or an output voltage that is proportional to an input voltage. A simple time-varying value, such as the instantaneous values of the input voltage and current, are used as an input to the control process.

According to this invention there is provided a power factor enhancement system as claimed in claim 1.

A power factor control system for an off line switching power supply (OLS) is operative trough the generation of substantially ripple-free estimates of control input parameters (a squared peak input voltage ε2m , output voltage and load power) and by the use of these substantially ripple-free signals controls a boost, buck, buck-boost, SEPIC or other OLS type converter to enhance power factor at the input to the OLS. The generation of these parameters allows the derivation of a programmed current ip, used to control the waveform of the actual input current. The control procedure is based on a quarter cycle avenged power basis that takes advantage of the energy stored in the output capacitor of the convener which is significant compared with the amount of energy that is drawn from the AC line during a quarter cycle of the AC voltage waveform.

The input power to the OLS is derived from the rms values of the input voltage and current on a quarter cycle time scale. Given the output power and its deviations in power due to load changes and error in the desired output voltage, the programmed current ip, is determined by deriving an input conductance of the OLS and combining it with the input voltage.

Brief Description of the Drawing

In the Drawing:

  • FIG. 1 is a schematic of a ripple-free ε2m estimating circuit forming part of the invention;
  • FIG. 2 is a schematic of a power system with enhanced power factor embodying the invention;
  • FIG. 3 is a signal flow diagram for describing a control process of the power system of FIG.2 with enhanced power factor;
  • FIG. 4 is a schematic of a circuit for determining the absolute magnitude of a voltage;
  • FIG. 5 is a schematic of a digital implementation of a power factor controller;
  • FIG. 6 is a schematic of another arrangement of a power system with enhanced power factor embodying the invention;
  • FIG. 7 is a schematic of another arrangement of a power system with enhanced power factor embodying the invention; and
  • FIG. 8 is a schematic of a power processing circuit suitable for use with the power factor enhancement components and arrangements of FIGS. 1-7.

Detailed Description

An estimating circuit for determining specified input parameters to the rectifier of a power factor enhanced power system, as shown in the FIG. 1, takes the input AC voltage and extracts values representing the square of its peak, and the in-phase time varying value of the fundamental. The input AC voltage Emsin(ωt) is directly applied to the input terminal 101 of a controlled harmonic oscillator 110. The controlled harmonic oscillator 110 responds to the input AC voltage on lead 101 and generates an AC sinusoidal voltage εmsin(ωt) on its output lead 102. The controlled harmonic oscillator 110 may comprise any circuitry comprising integrators connected to generate both a sinusoidal fundamental of the input AC voltage both in phase with it and a component displaced from it by π/2.

The two derived signals displaced in phase by π/2 are coupled respectively to the signal squaring circuits 111 and 112. The outputs of the squaring circuits 111 and 112 are summed in the summing circuit 113 to produce the peak square value ε2m on lead 114. The form of the summed output signal is a ripple-free magnitude governed in accord with the equation: cos2 (&thetas;) + sin2 (&thetas;) = 1 where &thetas; is any value determined by the circuitry.

The outputs of the two squaring circuits 111 and 112 are also coupled to an operational amplifier 115 which, by controlling the integrator gains, derives a value for the frequency ω of the fundamental at lead 116.

A detailed description of an estimator suitable for application here is disclosed in U.S. patent no. 5450029.

A power processing system, shown in FIG. 2 includes a power factor control system to enhance power factor at the input of an off line switching circuit shown schematically as a rectifier followed by a boost converter. The AC line supplying the voltag e Em sin(ωt) is connected to the input lead 201 which in turn applies this voltage to a full-wave rectifier 205 and to an estimator 210, such as is shown in FIG. 1.

The output of the rectifier 205, as schematically shown in the FIG. 2, is coupled to a switching type converter 230, such as a boost,buck or buck-boost type DC/DC converter, whose power switch is pulse width modulated to generate a DC voltage having a time-varying current related to the AC voltage waveform input at lead 201. The power switch is controlled by the controller 235 which responds to the programmed current parameters supplied by the estimator 210. Controller 235 may be embodied as an IC circuit which responds to the programmed current ip to produce a pulse width modulated drive signal for driving the converter's power switch to achieve intended power factor and regulation results. IC circuits to respond to an input signal such as ip are available commercially.

The estimator 210 supplies the parameter εm sin(ωt) on lead 251 and the parameter ε2m on lead 232. Additional parameters are fed back in response to signals sensed at the circuit output, mainly the output voltage on output lead 241, sensed by lead 229 and the output current Iload sensed by the current sensor 231 on lead 241.

The sensed output current Iload is multiplied with the output voltage Vout sensed on lead 233 in the multiplier 225 and the resulting product representing the output power of the DC-to-DC converter 230 is applied to the summing circuit 224. The output voltage sensed on lead 229 is applied to the gain control impedances 227 and 228 and the inverting input of the operational amplifier 226. A reference voltage is applied to its non-inverting input of the operational amplifier 226. Its output on lead 234 is representative of an error in the output power, δ Pout, of the converter, This value δ Pout is applied to the summing circuit 224.

The signal on lead 242 (i.e. the output of summing circuit 224) is applied to the numerator input of a dividing circuit 222. The peak square voltage value ε2m on lead 232 is applied to the denominator input of the dividing circuit 222.

The output of the dividing circuit 222 is combined with the εm sin(ωt) output, on lead 251, of the estimator 210 in the multiplier 221. The output of the multiplier is scaled by scaling circuit 223 to form its absolute magnitude and applied to the controller 235. The output of the rectifier 205 is directly connected to the controller 235 via lead 215.

The operation of the circuit in FIG. 2 can be understood by discussing the theoretical basis underlying its operation. The underlying principle is the equating of the average input power to the rectifier 205 to the average output power from the rectifier 205, in combination with an accounting for the imperfect efficiency η of the power conversion process (i.e., efficiency is less than 100%). The efficiency η is a ratio of the average output power to the average input power. η &peseta; Pin,avg = Pout η &peseta; Erms&peseta; Irms = Pout Satisfying the equation (2) requires that the power factor be unity at the input to the rectifier. The time interval for the averaging process for both Equation (1) and Equation (2) is any positive integer multiple of a quarter cycle of the input AC sinusoidal waveform.

A control law for the programmed current ip, corresponding to Equation (2) may be formulated. This control law, which is based on a quarter-cycle averaged basis, is: ip = 2(Poutmsin(ωt) / (η&peseta;ε2m) This uses the following relationship for sinusoidal waveforms: ε 2m = 2&peseta;ε2rms .

For practical converters of the boost or similar type for high power factor applications, η is about 0.93 to 0.98, and is relatively constant under substantial variations in load power.

Thus Equation 3 allows the development of a control strategy to compute the programmed current ip, based on knowledge of the rms value of the input voltage and the output power, or a filtered value of the output power.

A controlled conductance value G for the rectifier is defined such that the instantaneous value of the programmed current ip is given by: ip = G&peseta;ein where the value G is: G = 2&peseta;Pout / (η&peseta;ε2m) and where ein is the instantaneous value of the input voltage, or, preferably, the instantaneous value of the fundamental harmonic εm sin (ωt) of the input voltage. For a sinusoidal input voltage and for constant load power, G is constant and ip is sinusoidal. In addition, the determination of G is "well conditioned", i.e., it does not require division of small uncertain numbers by other small uncertain numbers. In practice, Equation (3) or, equivalently, Equation (5) is not sufficient for a complete control process because it is almost always required that the output voltage from the power supply be regulated to a predetermined voltage such as 400 volts. Accordingly, Equation (3) is modified to include a "power increment" δPout to reflect the error between the desired (or reference) output voltage Vref and the actual output voltage, Vout. ip = 2(Pout + δPout)&peseta;εm sin(ωt) / (η&peseta;ε2m) The purpose of Equation (7) is to use the output power Pout to control the principal portion of the controlled conductance G, and to use δPout as a small increment to regulate the output voltage. Thus, the OLS can have the capability to respond quickly to large step changes in output power, with the feedback term δPout only accounting for modeling errors.

Specific design is required for the signal processing elements that provide the inputs for the determination of the controlled conductance G. First, the estimate of the peak-squared voltage or equivalently, the rms-squared value of the AC input voltage should be substantially ripple free and should respond quickly to changes in amplitude of the waveform of the AC input voltage. The preferred method as well as other alternatives for determining the peak-squared value of the AC input voltage are described in U.S. patent no. 5450029.

Second, the estimate of output power should also be substantially ripple free during steady-state operation, and it too should respond quickly to changes in the load. The preferred approach for loads that draw constant power in the steady state is to multiply the rectifier output voltage by the output current. Commercially available analog ICs such as the MC1495 or AD532 can be used. An alternative is to rely on the pre-regulated, known value of the rectifier output voltage (i.e. the reference voltage applied to the operational amplifier 226 in FIG. 2) and to scale the measured OLS output current to estimate the output power, (i.e the current sensing circuit 231 in FIG. 2) with filtering supplied, as necessary, to reduce ripple. Ripple contributes to unwanted periodic variations in the derived value G that can cause distortion of the programmed current ip.

Third, the feedback term δPout should also be substantially ripple free. Filtering, to eliminate the ripple, is required. The filtering selected must be consistent with stability requirements of the feedback loop in which it is embedded. This filter may be embodied in circuitry using the same observer technique described in our co-pending application referenced hereinabove. Such a design is also used in the estimator 210 which estimates the rms value of the input AC waveform. This low pass filter using observer techniques estimates a dc (i.e. ripple free) component of the output voltage or output current. A two state variable model of the 100 or 120 Hz ripple can be used to estimate the ripple, which is then subtracted from the output voltage or output current

FIG. 3 shows the signal flow control, required for the controller 235 and supplied as shown by the output portion of the estimator of FIG. 1, for a control process described by Equation (7). The output voltage is sensed at output lead 241 and summed in summer 305 with a reference voltage applied to lead 306. The summed output is applied to the low pass filter 301. Filter 301 is a low-pass filter for sensing output voltage error and includes the required gain and phase shaping networks necessary to assure system feedback stability. The detailed required characteristics of the LPF 301 are readily apparent to persons skilled in the art

The output of filter 301 is representative of error in output voltage at lead 241. The required output power change (i.e. required by the voltage change) denoted δ Pout is applied to a summer 224. The estimated steady state power is derived by multiplying the output voltage and the output current in the multiplier 225. The estimated steady state power is summed with the δ Pout by the summer 224. If gain and phase control of the output of multiplier 225 is desired an optional low pass filter 243 may be inserted between the multiplier 225 and the summer 224, as shown in the FIG. 2.

The output of summer 224 is applied to the numerator input "n" of the divider 222. The peak squared voltage ε2m output of the estimator 220 is applied to the denominator input "d" of the divider 222. The resultant of the division is the required OLS conductance "G" and is supplied on the lead 219 and designated as the value "G".

In the FIG. 3 the value of εm sin(ωt) on lead 214 is applied to the multiplier 221 whose other input is the value "G". The multiplier combines the two inputs to derive the programmed current value ip.

As a further practical consideration, it is necessary that the absolute magnitude of the programmed current be supplied to the controller if the input voltage to the boost or similar type switching regulator is already rectified by a diode bridge. This function is provided by the scaling circuit 223 shown in the FIG. 2. This circuitry to derive the absolute magnitude value can be implemented by an operational amplifier and comparator as shown in FIG. 4. This circuitry includes the operational amplifier 401 having its inverting input 402 connected to receive the ip output of the multiplier 215 shown in the FIG. 3. This value of ip, is also applied to the inverting input port of an operational amplifier 411. Its non-inverting input is connected to an FET device 410 whose control electrode 413 is controlled by the output of the operational amplifier 401. The FET device 410, whose conductance is switched with the sign of the amplitude of ip on lead 402, connects the non-inverting input of amplifier 411 to ground. Thus the conductance of FET 410 is switched depending on whether operational amplifier 401 is saturated positive or negative, in determining whether operational amplifier 411 is inverting or non-inverting. Resistors 421 and 422 are equal, suitable values being about 10K ohms. The resistance of resistor 423 should be about 500 times larger than the on-resistance of FET 410. The output of lead 420 represents the absolute magnitude of ip.

Several approaches can be used to implement a controller based on Equation 7. One method uses analog multipliers and dividers to perform the nonlinear operations such as squaring, multiplication and division, and operational amplifiers for summing and subtracting. One implementation of this method has been described above. Another approach, such as shown in the FIG. 5 implements the controller with digital technology by using a microcontroller 510 such as an 80C51-type which can include multiplexed analog-to-digital conversion on the same integrated circuit to compute the slowly varying quantities such as the controlled conductance G. Quickly varying quantities such as ip can be formed using a multiplying digital-to-analog converter (DAC) 520 such as the DAC1022. Thus, the multiplying DAC 520 conveniently multiplies a quickly varying analog signal (i.e., εm &peseta; sin(ωt) ) by a slowly varying digital signal, i.e., the digital representation of the controlled conductance G, to form the quickly varying output, ip on lead 521.

The inputs εmsin(ωt) , εmcos(ωt) , V0 and I0 are applied to the sample and hold circuit 501. The sampled values are applied either directly or via operational amplifiers to form the absolute value of the signals which are applied to the microprocessor 510. The processed output of the microprocessor 510 is applied to the digital to analog converter 520 and from thence to the circuitry for deriving the absolute magnitude ip.

A power factor enhancement system shown in the FIG. 6 is similar to that of the FIG. 2 system. In the system of FIG. 6 the input terminal 201 is directly connected to the multiplier 221 via lead 202. In this arrangement the waveform of the input AC voltage is assumed to be essentially free from distortion.

Another variant of the power factor enhancement system is shown in the FIG. 7 in which the rectified sine wave output of the rectifier 205 is applied to the multiplier 221.

The power factor control system of the invention allows the utilization of many various configurations of the OLS. For example an OLS in which the boost convener and rectification are merged into one unitary circuit combining both functions is shown in FIG. 8. Such a circuit arrangement allows a minimization of circuit components incurring a loss as compared with a combination of a separate rectifier with a separate power converter for wave shaping as a power factor enhancing circuit. The circuit of FIG. 8 accepts an AC line voltage at the input terminals 801 and 802. This AC voltage is applied to the junction nodes 811 and 812 of a diode bridge circuit 805 which includes the diodes 806, 807, 808 and 809. A bidirectional power switch 803 selectively connects the two junction nodes 811 and 812. The output nodes 817 and 818 of the bridge are connected to the output terminals 821 and 822. A charge storage capacitor 813 shunts the output terminals 821 and 822.

The power switch 803 is driven by the output of the controller to pulse width modulate the rectified current to control the waveform of this signal and the voltage at the output terminals 821 and 822.

This arrangement may be readily substituted for the rectifier converter arrangement of the FIG. 2 with the control drive applied directly to the bidirectional power switch 803.


Anspruch[de]
  1. System zur Verbesserung des Leistungsfaktors, mit:
    • einem Eingang (201) zum Annehmen einer Wechselspannungskurvenform ein;
    • einer mit dem Eingang verbundenen Modulationsschaltung (230) zum Modulieren der Wechselspannungskurvenform mit einem Leistungsschalter und mit einem Wirkungsgrad vom Eingang zum Ausgang von η;

      gekennzeichnet durch:
    • einen Abschätzer (210), der so geschaltet ist, daß er die Wechselspannungskurvenform ein am Eingang empfängt und ein Signal erzeugt, das ein Quadrat eines Spitzenbetrags ε2m der Wechselspannungskurvenform darstellt;
    • ein mit einem Ausgang der Modulationsschaltung (230) verbundenes Strom-/Spannungsdetektionsmittel (231, 233) zum Erzeugen eines Signais, das eine Leistungsausgangsgröße Pout darstellt;
    • ein mit einem Ausgang der Modulationsschaltung (230) verbundenes Spannungsdetektionsmittel (229, 228, 226) zum Erzeugen eines Signals, das einen Fehler δPout in der Ausgangsleistung der Schaltung darstellt; und
    • ein Regelsystem (222, 224, 221, 223, 235) zum Ableiten eines Werts, der einen Leitwert G darstellt,

      wobei der Wert G G = 2&peseta;(Pout + δPout) / (η&peseta;ε2m) beträgt, und zum Erzeugen eines modulierten Impulssignals zum Ansteuern des Leistungsschalters als Reaktion auf die Ausgangssignale des Abschätzers, des Stromdetektionsmittels und des Spannungsdetektionsmittels, zur Erzeugung eines programmierten Stroms ip, wobei ip = G&peseta;ein gilt.
  2. System nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Spannungsdetektionsmittel einen Operationsverstärker (226) umfaßt, der so geschaltet ist, daß er eine Ausgangsspannung mit einer Bezugsspannung summiert.
  3. System nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Regelsystem folgendes umfaßt:
    • ein Mittel zum Summieren (224) der Leistungs-Ausgangsdifferenz δPout mit der Leistungsausgangsgröße Pout; und
    • ein Mittel zum Dividieren (222) des Signals, das ein Quadrat eines Spitzenbetrags ε2m der Wechselspannungskurvenform darstellt, durch das Ausgangssignal des Mittels zum Summieren.
  4. System nach Anspruch 3, mit einem Mittel zum Multiplizieren (221) des Ausgangssignals des Mittels zum Dividieren mit einem Signal, das die Wechselspannungskurvenform darstellt.
Anspruch[en]
  1. A power factor enhancement system, comprising:
    • an input (201) for accepting an AC voltage waveform ein;
    • a modulating circuitry (230) connected to the input for modulating the AC voltage waveform with a power switch and having an input to output efficiency of η;

      CHARACTERIZED BY:
    • an estimator (210) connected to receive the AC voltage waveform (ein) at the input and generate a signal representative of a square of a peak magnitude of the AC voltage waveform ε2m ;
    • current/voltage detection means (231, 233) connected to an output of the modulating circuitry (230) for generating a signal representative of a power output Pout;
    • voltage detection means (229, 228, 226) connected to an output of the modulating circuitry (230) for generating a signal representative of an error, δPout, in the output power of the circuitry; and
    • a control system (222, 224, 221, 223, 235) for deriving a value representative of a conductance G

      where the value G is: G = 2&peseta;(Pout + δPout) / (η&peseta;ε2m) and generating a modulated pulse signal for driving the power switch in response to the outputs of the estimator, the current detection means and the voltage detection means to generate a programmed current ip where ip = G&peseta;ein
  2. A system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the voltage detection means comprises an operational amplifier (226) connected to sum an output voltage with a reference voltage.
  3. A system as claimed in claim 1, wherein

    the control system comprises:
    • means for summing (224) the power output difference δPout with the power output Pout, and
    • means for dividing (222) the signal representative of a square of a peak magnitude of the AC voltage waveform ε2m with the output of the means for summing.
  4. A system as claimed in claim 3, comprising means for multiplying (221) the output of the means for dividing with a signal representative of the AC voltage waveform.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Système de rehaussement de facteur de puissance, comprenant:
    • une entrée (201) pour accepter une forme d'onde de tension C.A. eentrée;
    • un circuit (230) connecté à l'entrée pour moduler la forme d'onde de tension C.A. avec un commutateur de puissance et obtenir un rendement d'entrée/sortie de η;

      caracterisé par:
    • un circuit d'estimation (210) connecté en vue de recevoir la forme d'onde de tension C.A. (eentrée) au niveau de l'entrée et générer un signal représentatif d'un carré d'une grandeur crête de la forme d'onde de tension C.A.ε2m ;
    • un moyen de détection de courant/tension (231, 233) connecté à une sortie du circuit de modulation (230) pour générer un signal représentatif d'une sortie de puissance Psortie;
    • un moyen de détection de tension (229, 228, 226) connecté à une sortie du circuit de modulation (230) pour générer un signal représentatif d'une erreur, δPsortie, de la puissance de sortie du circuit; et
    • un système de commande (222, 224, 221, 223, 235) pour dériver une valeur représentative d'une conductance G

      où la valeur G est: G = 2.(Psortie+δPsortie) / (η.ε2m) et générer un signal d'impulsion modulée pour attaquer le commutateur de puissance en réponse aux sorties du circuit d'estimation, du moyen de détection de courant et du moyen de détection de tension en vue de générer un courant programmé ip, où ip = G.eentrée
  2. Système selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le moyen de détection de tension comprend un amplificateur opérationnel (226) connecté pour additionner une tension de sortie à une tension de référence.
  3. Système selon la revendication 1, dans lequel

    le système de commande comprend:
    • un moyen pour additionner (224) la différence de sortie de puissance δPsortie à la sortie de puissance Psortie, et
    • un moyen pour diviser (222) le signal représentatif d'un carré d'une grandeur crête de la forme d'onde de tension C.A. ε2m par la sortie du moyen pour additionner.
  4. Système selon la revendication 3, comprenant un moyen pour multiplier (221) la sortie du moyen pour diviser par un signal représentatif de la forme d'onde de tension C.A.






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