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Dokumentenidentifikation EP0668019 09.11.2000
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0668019
Titel Farbstabilisiertes zerkleinertes Fleisch
Anmelder Société des Produits Nestlé S.A., Vevey, CH
Erfinder Villot, Dominique, CH-25222 Helsingborg, CH;
Zander, Christer, S-26725 BJUV, SE
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69426063
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, CH, DE, DK, ES, FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LI, LU, NL, PT, SE
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 17.02.1994
EP-Aktenzeichen 941023509
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 23.08.1995
EP date of grant 04.10.2000
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 09.11.2000
IPC-Hauptklasse A23B 4/023
IPC-Nebenklasse A23B 4/027   

Beschreibung[en]

The present invention relates to a process for stabilising the colour of cured, cooked comminuted meat products during storage.

Light-induced discolourisation of sliced and gas-packed charcuterie products during display in illuminated cabinets in supermarkets, is a frequent problem, due to high levels of oxygen in the packages and is caused by the presence in the cured, cooked charcuterie products of a pink pigment which is not stable to oxygen in the presence of light and which turns brown on storage. The oxygen present in the pack may come from either the production process, the product itself or from the exterior if the film of the package is not an efficient barrier. Acceptable colour stability can be achieved by adding oxygen scavengers such as "Ageless" manufactured by Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company, Inc. to the package. "Ageless" is an oxygen absorber based on iron powder which is produced in small pouches, and effectively binds residual oxygen. In US-A-3780192, there is described a process for accelerating the cure colour in meat by adding iron or an iron salt to the curing medium in the presence of an enediol or diketone reducing agent. It is also known to use encapsulated iron with lipid coatings for food fortification with iron.

Although added ferrous and ferric salts consume oxygen in cured, cooked charcuterie products and protect against discolourisation during display, the products become initially an undesirable yellow.

We have now found, surprisingly, that iron salts encapsulated with a thermoresistant capsule which is permeable to oxygen are capable of stabilising the colour of cured, cooked charcuterie products without the formation of an undesirable yellow colour.

Accordingly, the present invention provides a process of curing comminuted meat which comprises adding an edible iron salt to the curing medium, characterised in that the iron salt is encapsulated with an edible thermoresistant capsule which is permeable to oxygen.

The iron salt is preferably, although not necessarily, a water-soluble salt and may be a ferrous or ferric salt, for instance, a sulphate, chloride, phosphate or fumarate.

The amount of the iron salt (measured as elemental iron) added to the curing medium may be from 10 to 100 ppm, preferably from 15 to 80 ppm and especially from 20 to 50 ppm by weight based on the total weight.

The thermoresistant capsule is preferably made of a material which is impermeable or substantially impermeable to the iron salt and is preferably insoluble or substantially insoluble in cold water, e.g. water at ambient temperature or below, e.g. from 20° to 35°C. By "thermoresistant" in this invention, we mean that the capsule does not break down at the cooking temperature of the meat e.g. from 70° to 80°C. Examples of suitable materials are edible polymers such as substantially cold water insoluble polysaccharides or gums e.g. agar, pectin. The amount of capsule material may be from 60 to 600 ppm and preferably from 120 to 300 ppm by weight, based on the total weight.

The encapsulation of the iron salt may, for example, be performed by conventional encapsulation techniques or by mixing or dispersing the iron salt in a solution or dispersion of the capsule material and drying or setting into a gel according to the nature of the capsule material. The encapsulated iron salt may contain from 0.3 to 3%, preferably from 1 to 2.75% by weight of iron salt (measured as iron), from 2 to 20%, preferably from 4 to 10% by weight of the capsule material and from 85 to 95% by weight of water, each based on the total weight of the gel. If desired, up to 10% by weight of dextrose may be added based on the weight of the gel.

The amount of the encapsulated iron salt added to the curing medium may be from 0.1 to 1.0%, preferably from 0.2 to 0.6% and especially from 0.25 to 0.5% by weight based on the total weight.

Any conventional curing medium may be used e.g. one containing sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, sodium nitrite or potassium nitrite or any mixture thereof together with a reducing agent such as sodium ascorbate or sodium isoascorbate with the addition of sodium chloride, sugar and spices. The curing medium may be used either in the dry form or dissolved in water to form a pickle.

Preferably the encapsulated iron salt is added shortly before the end of the comminution of the meat, preferably together with the reducing agent. The comminution and the curing may conveniently be carried out at a temperature from 2° to 15°C and preferably from 4° to 12°C.

After curing, the comminuted meat is cooked and gas-packed. In the case of a meat sausage, the comminuted meat is filled into casings e.g. under vacuum and then may be dried and smoked before cooking after which it is sliced and gas packed.

The following Examples further illustrate the present invention. Parts and percentages are given by weight unless otherwise stated.

Example 1

A curing medium was prepared consisting of the following ingredients: Ingredients Parts by weight Meat / fat 77.93 Curing Salt * 1.95 Sodium ascorbate 0.04 Sodium tripolyphosphate 0.20 Spices 0.39 Water (as ice) 19.49
* The curing salt consisted of 0.6 parts sodium nitrite and 1.35 parts sodium chloride.

This mixture was placed in a chopper and comminuted to give a sausage mix over a period of 20 minutes.

An encapsulated ferric phosphate was prepared by dispersing 3.5 parts of ferric phosphate and 0.1 part of dextrose into an aqueous solution containing 5 parts of agar and 91.4 parts of water at 60°C and then allowing to set by cooling. The gel formed was cut in small cubes (3x3x3 mm) and added together with 10 parts of sodium ascorbate in an amount of 0.31% to the sausage mix shortly before the end of the chopping cycle at 10°C.

The comminuted meat was vacuum filled into collagen casings having a diameter of 90 mm, dried for 20 minutes at 60°C and cooked at a temperature of 78°C in a cooking chamber until the core temperature was 72°C. Afterwards the sausages were showered with cold water for 60 minutes for cooling and then stored for one day in a chilling room at 2°C. The sausages were cut into slices 1.4 mm thick, and batches containing 10 slices were gas packed in modified atmosphere packages (2 mm headspace, 20% CO2, 80% N2).

In order to determine the colour stability of the sausages, colour measurements were made on opened samples with a Minolta Chromameter:

  • a) directly after packaging (I)
  • b) after 12 days storage in the dark (II), and
  • c) after 12 days storage - 4 days in the dark and 8 days under the light (III) (2000 lux, 13 hours per day)

Comparisons were made with sausages containing no additives (Ref), an equivalent amount of agar alone and iron alone and the results are shown in Table 1 in which the redness of the samples is indicated by a* and the yellowness by b*. It should be noted that:

  • a difference of 1 in redness or yellowness between two samples is not visible, and
  • the ground colour is acceptable when a* appears greater than or equal to b*
Time after packaging Ref. a* / b* Agar alone a* / b* Iron salt in agar a* / b* Iron salt alone a* / b* I 12.1/9.7 12.1/9.6 11.6/9.7 11.3/11.4 II 11.7/9.6 11.9/9.6 11.1/10.8 10.8/13.3 III 5.0/11.5 6.5/11.6 9.9/10.2 10.0/12.6

During these trials the residual oxygen after packaging was abnormally high (1% in the reference after 12 days), which explains the magnitude of the discolouration, and some discolouration in light for the samples with iron. When encapsulated in agar gel, the iron salts provide colour stability in light and produce much less non-light dependent discolouration when compared with iron salt alone. It is apparent that when iron salts are added in encapsulated form, they provide an acceptable colour, stable under light.

After 5 weeks storage, no effect on microbial growth, no or very little effect on the sensory properties and no effect on the rancidity were observed.

Example 2

A similar procedure to that described in Example 1 was followed except that 2.5 parts of ferric phosphate were dispersed into the encapsulating medium. The redness and yellowness (a*/b*) of samples of sausages after 1, 2 and 3 weeks storage compared with a reference sample containing no additive are shown in Table 2. Time after packaging Ref. 1 week 2 weeks 3 weeks I 12.3/9.8 11.4/9.8 11.2/11.1 11.5/10.5 II 11.3/10.1 11.5/10.8 11.3/11.2 11.0/11.5 III 9.7/10.5 10.7/10.5 11.0/11.0 10.9/11.7

Even after 33 days storage in light, the colour of the sausage with encapsulated iron was still stable under the light. During storage, the redness of the whole sausage was very stable and although the yellowness tended to increase the colour was still acceptable.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Verfahren zum Konservieren von zerkleinertem Fleisch, welches Zugabe eines eßbaren Eisensalzes zu dem Härtungsmedium umfaßt, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das Eisensalz in einer eßbaren, wärmebeständigen, für Sauerstoff durchlässigen Kapsel, verkapselt ist.
  2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Eisensalz wasserlöslich ist.
  3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Menge an zu dem Härtungsmedium zugegebenen Eisensalz 10-100 ppm Gewicht elementares Eisen, bezogen auf das Gesamtgewicht, enthält.
  4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die wärmebeständige Kapsel aus einem Material hergestellt ist, das für das Eisensalz undurchlässig ist.
  5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die wärmebeständige Kapsel aus einem in kaltem Wasser im wesentlichen unlöslichen Polysaccharid oder Gum besteht.
  6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die wärmebeständige Kapsel aus Agar hergestellt ist.
  7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Menge an wärmebeständigem Kapselmaterial 60-600 ppm Gewicht, bezogen auf das Gesamtgewicht, ist.
  8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Menge an zu dem Konservierungsmedium zugegebenen, eingekapselten Eisensalz von 0,1-1 Gew.-%, bezogen auf das Gesamtgewicht, ist.
  9. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das eingekapselte Eisensalz kurz vor dem Abschluß der Zerkleinerung des Fleisches zugegeben wird.
  10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei nach dem Konservieren das zerkleinerte Fleisch gekocht und unter Gasschutz verpackt wird.
Anspruch[en]
  1. A process of curing comminuted meat which comprises adding an edible iron salt to the curing medium characterised in that the iron salt is encapsulated with an edible thermoresistant capsule which is permeable to oxygen.
  2. A process according to claim 1 wherein the iron salt is water soluble.
  3. A process according to claim 1 wherein the amount of iron salt added to the curing medium contains from 10 to 100 ppm of elemental iron by weight based on the total weight.
  4. A process according to claim 1 wherein the thermoresistant capsule is made of a material which is impermeable to the iron salt.
  5. A process according to claim 1 wherein the thermoresistant capsule is made of a substantially cold water insoluble polysaccharide or gum.
  6. A process according to claim 1 wherein the thermoresistant capsule is made of agar.
  7. A process according to claim 1 wherein the amount of thermoresistant capsule material is from 60 to 600 ppm by weight based on the total weight.
  8. A process according to claim 1 wherein the amount of the encapsulated iron salt added to the curing medium is from 0.1 to 1.0% by weight based on the total weight.
  9. A process according to claim 1 wherein the encapsulated iron salt is added shortly before the end of the comminution of the meat.
  10. A process according to claim 1 wherein, after curing the comminuted meat is cooked and gas packed.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Procédé de salaison de viande hachée, qui comprend l'addition d'un sel de fer comestible à l'agent de salaison, caractérisé en ce que le sel de fer est encapsulé avec une capsule thermorésistante comestible qui est perméable à l'oxygène.
  2. Procédé suivant la revendication 1, dans lequel le sel de fer est hydrosoluble.
  3. Procédé suivant la revendication 1, dans lequel la quantité de sel de fer ajouté à l'agent de salaison contient 10 à 100 ppm de fer élémentaire en poids, sur la base du poids total.
  4. Procédé suivant la revendication 1, dans lequel la capsule thermorésistante est constituée d'une matière qui est imperméable au sel de fer.
  5. Procédé suivant la revendication 1, dans lequel la capsule thermorésistante est constituée d'un polysaccharide ou d'une gomme pratiquement insoluble dans l'eau froide.
  6. Procédé suivant la revendication 1, dans lequel la capsule thermorésistante est constituée de gélose.
  7. Procédé suivant la revendication 1, dans lequel la quantité de matière de capsule thermorésistante est comprise dans l'intervalle de 60 à 600 ppm en poids, sur la base du poids total.
  8. Procédé suivant la revendication 1, dans lequel la quantité du sel de fer encapsulé ajouté à l'agent de salaison est comprise dans l'intervalle de 0,1 à 1,0 % en poids, sur la base du poids total.
  9. Procédé suivant la revendication 1, dans lequel le sel de fer encapsulé est ajouté peu de temps avant la fin du hachage de la viande.
  10. Procédé suivant la revendication 1, dans lequel, après salaison, la viande hachée est cuite et emballée en présence d'un gaz protecteur.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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