PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP0745262 26.09.2002
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0745262
Titel HOCHLEISTUNGSSCHALTER MIT BEDIENUNGSGESTAENGE UND KONISCHE DURCHFUEHRUNG
Anmelder ABB Power T & D Co. Inc., Raleigh, N.C., US
Erfinder MEYER, R., Jeffry, Greensburg, US;
FREEMAN, B., Willie, Irwin, US;
JOHNSON, S., David, Greensburg, US
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69527833
Vertragsstaaten CH, DE, FR, GB, IT, LI
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 07.02.1995
EP-Aktenzeichen 959109356
WO-Anmeldetag 07.02.1995
PCT-Aktenzeichen PCT/US95/01552
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0095022158
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 17.08.1995
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 04.12.1996
EP date of grant 21.08.2002
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 26.09.2002
IPC-Hauptklasse H01H 33/42
IPC-Nebenklasse H01H 33/02   

Beschreibung[en]
Field of the Invention

The present invention relates generally to.electrical switching devices. More particularly, the invention relates to a synchronous independent pole operation linkage for use in a high voltage alternating current circuit breaker.

Background of the Invention

A preferred application for the present invention is in high voltage alternating current (AC) three phase circuit breakers and reclosers, the latter being a type of circuit breaker. Therefore, the background of the invention is described below in connection with such devices. However, it should be noted that, except where they are expressly so limited, the claims at the end of this specification are not intended to be limited to applications of the invention in a high voltage three phase AC circuit breaker.

A high voltage circuit breaker is a device used in the distribution of three phase electrical energy. When a sensor or protective relay detects a fault or other system disturbance on the protected circuit, the circuit breaker operates to physically separate current-carrying contacts in each of the three phases by opening the circuit to prevent the continued flow of current. A recloser differs from a circuit breaker in that a circuit breaker opens a circuit and maintains the circuit in the open position indefinitely, whereas a recloser may automatically open and reclose the circuit several times in quick succession to allow a temporary fault to clear and thus, avoid taking the circuit out of service unnecessarily.

The major components of a circuit breaker or recloser include the interrupters, which function to open and close one or more sets of current carrying contacts housed therein; the operating or driving mechanism, which provides the energy necessary to open or close the contacts; the arcing control mechanism and interrupting media, which create an open condition in the protected circuit; one or more tanks for housing the interrupters; and the bushings, which carry the high voltage electrical energy from the protected circuit into and out of the tank(s). In addition, a mechanical linkage connects the interrupters and the operating mechanism.

Circuit breakers may differ in the overall configuration of these components. However, the operation of most circuit breakers is substantially the same regardless of their configurations. For example, a circuit breaker may include a single tank assembly which houses all of the interrupters. U.S. Patent No. 4,442,329, April 10, 1984, "Dead Tank Housing for High Voltage Circuit Breaker Employing Puffer Interrupters," discloses an example of the single tank configuration. Alternatively, a separate tank for each interrupter may be provided in a multiple tank configuration. An example of a multiple tank configuration is depicted in Figure 1.

As shown in Figure 1, the circuit breaker assembly 1 includes three cylindrical metal tanks 3. The three cylindrical tanks 3 form a common tank assembly 4 which is preferably filled with an inert, electrically insulating gas such as SF6. The tank assembly 4 shown in Figure 1 is referred to as a "dead tank" in that it is at ground potential. Each tank 3 houses an interrupter (not shown). The operation of the interrupter is described below. The interrupters are provided with terminals which are connected to respective spaced bushing insulators. The bushing insulators are shown as bushing insulators 5a and 6a for the first phase; 5b and 6b for the second phase; and 5c and 6c for the third phase. Associated with each pole or phase is a current transformer 7.

SF6 breaker bushings are an integral part of the breaker, both electrically and mechanically. They are not designed or used as general purpose apparatus bushings. SF6 breaker bushings are designed to support and insulate high voltage line connections and carry power into the grounded tank of the circuit breaker.

In high voltage circuit breakers, the pairs of bushings for each phase are often mounted so that their ends have a greater spacing than their bases to avoid breakdown between the exposed conductive ends of the bushings. One means for achieving the desired spacing has been to use conical bushings such that the terminal ends of the bushings have smaller diameters than their respective bases. For example, Figure 1A shows a high voltage circuit breaker with conical bushings 90a-c and 92a-c. The conical bushings are angled away from each other to provide an adequate air gap (AG) between their ends so that in the event of a flashover or significant current leakage, the resulting breakdown is grounded in the dead tank. Therefore, it is desirable that the spacing between the terminal portions of the bushings, i.e., air gap, be greater than the length of the bushing. As circuit breakers become more compact, the size and spacing of the bushings become a critical design feature of the circuit breaker.

A longitudinal cross section of a typical conical bushing is shown in Figure 1B A high voltage conductor 100 is surrounded by an insulator 101 with weather sheds 102. The conductor 100 is electrically coupled between an interrupter and the protected circuit. The insulator 101 of the SF6 breaker bushing is shaped and sized to accommodate an internal grading shield 103 which optimizes dielectric strength (internally and externally). The shield 103 is uniquely shaped to grade the voltage field in the air along the exterior length of the bushing as well as inside where the bushing conductor 100 enters the grounded tank. The bushing conductor 100, running through the hollow, SF6-filled insulator 101, creates a radial stress through the bushing. This stress is higher at the entrance to the grounded tank. Therefore, the shield 103 reduces the stress on the insulator to improve the reliability of the bushing. The weather sheds 102 on the external surface of the bushing resist the effects of rain and surface dirt to maintain good dielectric conditions.

Traditionally, bushing insulators have been made from porcelain or a cast epoxy. Typically, the weather sheds are designed so that water rolls off the sheds keeping the underside of the sheds substantially dry. However a significant portion of the insulator surface can become wet or degraded by environmental pollution. The resulting weakening of the dielectric can cause leakage and flashover conditions.

An additional drawback of porcelain or cast epoxy bushings is that they are relatively brittle and, therefore, subject to damage from external condition that can cause them to shatter so that the SF6 contained therein explodes. To provide an optimal insulator and a safe and reliable housing for the bushing conductor, the porcelain and cast epoxy insulators are produced with a relatively thick wall (i.e., about 1 inch). The increased thickness further narrows the air gap, increases the weight of the bushings, and increases the cost of the bushings.

Therefore, a composite bushing has been developed that provides the following advantages over traditional bushings: non-brittle behavior, reduced weight and wall thickness, pollution resistance, and improved wet electrical capability. A longitudinal cross section of a composite bushing is shown in Figure 1C. Composite bushings insulators are made up of a fiberglass reinforced tube 110 protected by a silicone rubber housing 112. These bushings have a straight cylindrical composite tube with aluminum end flanges 114 and 116 and room temperature, vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber weather sheds 120. The RTV silicone rubber has a hydrophobic surface due to oil films that naturally form on the rubber surface.

The composite bushings are produced by using an injection molding technique in which the a single mold forms a single section of the housing 112 at a time. This process is both time consuming and relatively inefficient in that each section of the housing must also be molded together to form the completed bushing housing. Since the silicone rubber housing is formed from a injection molding process, a specially designed mold would be required to produce the desired conical shape. For many high voltage breakers that require very large bushings, such molds are impractical.

A process for molding rubber using a traveling mold has been commercially exploited. Essentially, the traveling mold is capable of forming plastic or rubber on substantially any shape in a continuous process. Therefore, to improve the performance and reduce the size and weight of high voltage circuit breakers there is a need to design a conical composite bushing that has a housing which can be formed using such a traveling mold.

Two other important elements of a high voltage circuit breaker are the operating mechanism and a mechanical linkage. The operating mechanism that provides the necessary operating forces for opening and closing the interrupter contacts is contained within an operating mechanism housing 9 shown in Figures 1 and 1A. The operating mechanism is mechanically coupled to each of the interrupters via a linkage 8.

A cross section of an interrupter 10 is shown in Figures 2A-C. The interrupter provides two sets of contacts, the arcing contacts 12 and 14 and the main contacts 15 and 19. Arcing contacts 12 and main contacts 19 are movable, as described in more detail below, to either close the circuit with respective contacts 14 and 15 or to open the circuit. Figure 2A shows a cross sectional view of the interrupter with its contacts closed, whereas Figure 2C shows a cross section of the interrupter with the contacts open.

The arcing contacts 12 and 19 of high voltage circuit breaker interrupters are subject to arcing or corona discharge when they are opened or closed, respectively. As shown in Figure 2B, an arc 16 is formed between arcing contacts 12 and 14 as they are moved apart. Such arcing can cause the contacts to erode and perhaps to disintegrate over time. Therefore, a known practice (used in a "puffer" interrupter) is to fill a cavity of the interrupter with an inert, electrically insulating gas that quenches the arc 16. As shown in Figure 2B, the gas is compressed by piston 17 and a jet or nozzle 18 is positioned so that, at the proper moment, a blast of the compressed gas is directed toward the location of the arc in order to extinguish it. Once an arc has formed, it is extremely difficult to extinguish it until the arc current is substantially reduced. Once the arc is extinguished as shown in Figure 2C, the protected circuit is opened thereby preventing current flow.

Typically a bank of shunt capacitors is coupled between the arcing contacts to control the arcing by equalizing the voltages at the respective breaks in a multi-interrupting point type circuit breaker, i.e., one with more than one set of contacts. A capacitor coupled between contacts may also be used in a single-break circuit breaker. The bank of shunt capacitors is typically arranged within a dead tank to surround an arc-extinguishing chamber therein. It is further known to control arcing utilizing pre-insertion or closing resistors, as disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 5,245,145, September 14, 1993, "Modular Closing Resistor" (assigned to ABB Power T&D Company Inc.).

Voltage and current transients generated during the energization of shunt capacitor banks have become an increasing concern for the electric utility industry in terms of power quality for voltage-sensitive loads and excessive stresses on power system equipment. For example, modern digital equipment requires a stable source of power. Moreover, computers, microwave ovens and other electronic appliances are prone to failures resulting from such transients. Even minor transients can cause the power waveform to skew, rendering these electrical devices inoperative. Therefore, utilities have set objectives to reduce the occurrence of transients and to provide a stable power waveform.

Conventional solutions for reducing the transients resulting from shunt capacitor energization include circuit breaker pre-insertion devices, for example, resistors or inductors, and fixed devices such as current limiting reactors. While these solutions provide varying degrees of mitigation for capacitor bank energization transients, they result in added equipment, added cost, and can result in added reliability concerns.

The maximum shunt capacitor bank energization transients are associated with closing the circuit breaker at the peak of the system voltage waveform, i.e., where the greatest difference exists between the bus voltage, which will be at its maximum, and the capacitor bank voltage, which will be at a zero level. Where the closings are not synchronized with respect to the system voltage, the probability for obtaining the maximum energization transients is high. One solution to this problem is to add timing accuracy to synchronously close the circuit breaker at the instant the system voltage is substantially zero. In this way, the voltages on both sides of the circuit breaker at the instant of closure would be nearly equal, allowing for an effectively "transient-free" energization.

While the concept of synchronous or zero-crossing closing is a simple one, a cost-effective solution has been difficult to achieve, primarily due to the high cost of providing the required timing accuracy in a mechanical system. U.S. Patent 4,306,263, December 15, 1981, entitled "Synchronous Closing System and Latch Therefor," discloses a synchronous closing system wherein the circuit breaker main contacts close within about 1 millisecond of a zero crossing by inhibiting the hydraulic pressure utilized to close the interrupter contacts using a latch controlled mechanism. However, this synchronous closing system is incapable of providing synchronization for each phase or pole individually. Thus, while one phase may be closed synchronously, avoiding transients in that phase of the circuit, harmful transients may be produced by closing the contacts in one or both of the other phases.

One solution might be to utilize three separate operating mechanisms and corresponding linkages to synchronously control the operation of each pole individually. U.S. Patent No. 4,417,111, November 22, 1983, entitled "Three-Phase Combined Type Circuit Breaker," discloses a circuit breaker having a separate operating mechanism and associated linkage for each of the three phases or poles. However the use of three separate operating mechanisms and associated linkages is expensive and increases the overall size and complexity of the circuit breaker.

U.S. Patent No. 4,814,560, March 21, 1989, "High Voltage Circuit Breaker" (assigned to Asea Brown Boveri AB, Vasteras, Sweden) discloses a device for synchronously closing and opening a three-phase high voltage circuit breaker so that a time shift between the instants of contact; in the different phases can be brought about mechanically by a suitable choice of arms and links in the mechanical linkage. This linkage uses an a priori knowledge of the time required to close and open the interrupter contacts in each of the three phases. The time differences can be accounted for by an appropriate design of the mechanical linkage. However, such a linkage cannot support dynamic monitoring of the zero-crossings for each phase to achieve independent synchronization. Moreover, the mechanical linkage disclosed would require mechanical adjustments over time to account for variations in the circuit breaker performance and operating conditions which often change over time.

A dependent pole operating mechanism has been used in circuit breakers to generate the initial driving forces required to open and close the interrupter contacts. Dependent pole operation refers to the limited capability of the operating mechanism to close or open all three phases of the circuit simultaneously. An example of a dependent pole mechanism and mechanical linkage implemented in a three-phase circuit breaker is shown in Figure 3. As shown in Figure 3, operating mechanism 20 provides a single connecting rod 22. Connecting rod 22 is interfaced with linking element 26 via lever 24. Linking elements 25 and 26 preferably form a single linking shaft linking together the terminal portions of each of the three interrupters (not shown). In operation, the connecting rod 22 is driven up or down thereby pivoting lever 24. As lever 24 pivots, the linking elements 25 and 26 rotate. The linking elements are preferably coupled to bell cranks provided in the terminal portion of the interrupters (not shown) which pivot in response to the rotation of the linking elements to open and close the contacts of the interrupters. It should be understood that each of the interrupters housed in tanks 3 will open and close simultaneously in response to the movement of connecting rod 22.

Recently an independent pole operating mechanism has been developed which provides an individually controlled driving force for opening and closing each phase of the circuit breaker independently. By utilizing the independent pole operating mechanism, each phase can be dynamically and synchronously switched individually. Thus there is a need to provide a mechanical linkage to operate effectively with the independent pole operating mechanism. To eliminate the necessity of redesigning the entire circuit breaker to implement the new independent pole operating mechanism, it is desirable to cost-effectively adapt existing circuit breaker linkages, such as linkage 8 shown in Figure 1. Moreover, the mechanical linkage for use with the independent pole operating mechanism should not increase the size of the circuit breaker, or require complex assembly or maintenance steps to ensure that the circuit breaker functions properly.

United States Patent No. 4357502 (Beck) describes a phase reversal switch for switching two phases of a three phase bus. Beck discloses a shift actuator which drives an operating shaft. The operating shaft drives one of two reversing switches to open or close contacts. When the contacts change position, the phases reverse. A link connects one of the two reversing switches to the shaft actuator so that only one of the two linkages is operated at a time.

United States Patent No. 4814560 (Akesson) describes one type of three-pole high voltage circuit breaker that has a device for synchronously closing and opening the breaker. Akessson describes a circuit breaker having three poles each of which have a contact which is connected to a bell crank and a common operating rod. The operating rod moves to operate the three bell cranks and therefore the contacts. Each of the bell cranks has a toggle joint between a link and an arm, which are connected at an angle. The angle of connection is different for each pole. Because of this difference in the angle, the opening and closing of each of the contacts by the operating arm is synchronised.

Summary of the Invention

The present invention fulfills these needs by providing a mechanical linkage for independently opening and closing a plurality of associated switches, the mechanical linkage comprising a plurality of linking elements, that are each operatively coupled to one switch to open and close said one switch;

   characterised by decoupling means for rotationally decoupling said linking elements at an interface between said linking elements; a plurality of connecting rods extending from a driving mechanism and operatively coupled to said plurality of linking elements for actuating said plurality of linking elements to open and close said plurality of switches; a number of lever assemblies capable of pivotally coupling one of said plurality of connecting rods with one of said plurality of linking elements to operatively rotate said linking element; and

   a number of bearing means providing a supporting link at an interface between two of said plurality of linking elements so that said two linking elements are rotationally decoupled from one another at said interface therebetween.

A three phase circuit breaker is also provided according to the invention for opening and closing a circuit connected thereto. The circuit breaker includes a number of interrupting means that are each associated with only one phase of said circuit and having a set of contacts for opening and closing the associated phase of the circuit,

characterised by:

  • a linking mechanism comprising a plurality of linking elements, each linking element being operatively coupled to one set of contacts to open and close said associated phase;
  • decoupling means for rotationally decoupling and supporting said linking elements at an interface between said linking elements; and
  • a driving means having at least two connecting rods, each connecting rod being mechanically interfaced with at least one linking element so that said linking elements rotate independently with respect to each other, thereby independently opening and closing said associated phases of said circuit.

The driving means is preferably an operating mechanism having a three-phase independent pole operation capability. In a more preferable embodiment, the circuit breaker is opened and closed synchronously with AC current flowing into the interrupters.

An important desirable feature of the invention is to have at least one composite bushing interfaced with the circuit and interfaced with the interrupting means. The or each bushing is preferably conical with weather sheds formed thereon.

In a preferred embodiment, the or each composite bushing comprises a hollow conical tube for containing a gas within the bushing; and an insulative housing having a plurality of weather sheds and substantially covering the hollow conical tube. The hollow conical tube is preferably made of a fibre reinforced epoxy material and the housing is preferably made of silicone rubber.

In another preferred embodiment, the switches are opened and closed synchronously with AC current flowing in each of the phases of the protected circuit.

Brief Description of the Drawings

The present invention will be better understood and its objectives and advantages will become apparent by reference to the following detailed description of preferred embodiments when taken in conjunction with the following drawings, in which:

  • Figure 1 is a diagram of a multiple tank high voltage circuit breaker;
  • Figure 1A is a diagram of a high voltage circuit breaker having conical bushings arranged in an angular configuration;
  • Figure 1B is a longitudinal cross section of a conical bushing according to prior art;
  • Figure 1C is a longitudinal partial cross section of a cylindrical composite bushing;
  • Figure 2A is a cross sectional view of an interrupter with its contacts closed;
  • Figure 2B is a cross sectional view of an interrupter with an arc formed between its arcing contacts;
  • Figure 2C is a cross sectional view of an interrupter with its contacts open;
  • Figure 3 is a diagram of a dependent pole operation linkage;
  • Figure 4 is a diagram of an independent pole operation linkage according to the present invention;
  • Figure 5 is a cross sectional view of an interrupter with a bell crank coupling;
  • Figure 6 is an enlarged view with a partial cross sectional view of the lever assembly and bearing ring for use according to the present invention; and,
  • Figure 7 is a longitudinal cross section of a conical composite bushing for use according to the present invention.

Detailed Description of Preferred Embodiments

A diagram of a linkage for use in a three-phase circuit breaker according to the invention is shown in Figure 4. The operating mechanism 30 preferably provides three independently operated connecting rods 32, 33 and 34. The linkage comprises four link elements 36, 37, 38 and 39. It should be understood that in a preferred embodiment, link elements 37 and 38 form a single linking shaft. Two lever assemblies 40 and 41 provide mechanical interfaces for coupling connecting rod 32 with link element 39 and for coupling connecting rod 33 with link element 37, respectively. Lever assemblies 40 and 41 also provide a mechanical interface to bearing rings 45 and 46 respectively. Connecting rod 34 is mechanically interfaced with link element 36 via lever 43 which does not have a mechanical interface to a bearing ring. Bearing rings 45 and 46 provide a supportive link between link elements 38 and 39 and between link elements 36 and 37, respectively. These supportive links permit each of the linking elements to rotate independently from each other, as described below.

Each link element is coupled to a bell crank (not shown in Figure 4) located within the terminal portion 42 of the interrupter shown within tank 3 in Figure 4. Figure 5 shows an axial cross sectional view of an interrupter. A bell crank 50 is shown in the terminal portion of the interrupter. When the bell crank 50 is pivoted in the direction indicated by the dash-and-dot lines, the insulating rod 52 is pivoted into the guide tube 54 causing a piston member 53 to close the interrupter's contacts, i.e. movable contacts 12 and 19 so that they engage fixed contacts 14 and 15, respectively. The link elements 36 and 39 (Figure 4) are preferably coupled to bell crank shafts 48 and 49 respectively with a clamp or other suitable means. Link elements 37 and 38 are preferably bell crank shafts coupled to a common bell crank.

To close one pole or phase of the protected circuit, the operating mechanism 30 drives the appropriate connecting rod 32, 33, or 34 upward. For instance, if it were desired to close the contacts of the interrupter located within the center tank 3 shown in Figure 4, connecting rod 33 would be extended upward. The upward motion of connecting rod 33 pivotally rotates lever assembly 41 causing link element 37 to rotate about its axis in a clockwise direction as shown. Link elements 37 and 38 are coupled via splining or an equivalent method to bell crank 50 (Figure 5). Bell crank 50 preferably has two lateral faces (one is shown in Figure 5) so that link element 37 is coupled to one lateral face and link element 38 is coupled to the other lateral face. Thus, as link element 37 rotates, bell crank 50 pivots along the dash-and-dot line in Figure 5 to close the interrupter's contacts.

Typically a utility which maintains the protected circuit monitors fault conditions on the circuit. If a fault condition is detected a control signal is output to the circuit breaker to cause the operating mechanism to close the appropriate contacts. Manual switches may also be provided for generating similar signals to initiate the opening or closing of the contacts. The operating mechanism 30 in response to such signals releases the appropriate connecting rod 32, 33 or 34. For instance, to open the phase of the circuit associated with the center interrupter shown in Figure 4, connecting rod 33 is pulled in a downward motion. Lever assembly 41 pivots causing link element 37 to rotate in a counter clockwise direction. The counterclockwise rotation of link element 37 in turn causes bell crank 50 to pivot away from the interrupter's contacts along the dash-and-dot line to open up the contacts.

It should be understood that the size of the connecting rods, linking elements, and bell cranks, as well as the pivot angle of the bell crank should be considered to determine the angle through which the lever assemblies 40 and 41 and lever 43 must rotate to properly open and close the contacts. One advantage of the linkage design according to the invention is that the linkage is easily assembled for independent phase operation by adjusting the joints (the lever assembly/linking element interfaces and the lever 43 interface with link element 36 define the joints) to achieve the required angle of rotation. Thus only one adjustment is required for each operational phase of the circuit. Other linkages, e.g., linear linkages, can require as many as five adjustments per phase.

Figure 6 shows an enlarged view of lever assembly 40 with the portion below the dash-and-dot line showing a cross section of the lever 65 and bearing 45. As shown in the figure, link element 39 can be inserted through an aperture 62 in lever 65 in the direction indicated by arrow 59. The link element 39 may be mechanically coupled to lever 65 via any suitable method such as splining, pinning, bolting or the like. Lever 65 also provides the outer shell 58 of the bearing ring (reference numeral 45 in Figure 4). Therefore, lever 65 also provides a hollow opening 63 in which the individual bearings 67 can be inserted to form the bearing ring with an inner aperture 64. Link element 38 can be inserted through aperture 64 in the direction of arrow 60. Thus the bearing ring 45 forms a supportive link between link elements 38 and 39. In a more preferred embodiment, a sleeve 56 lines the aperture 64 and serves as a spacer so that standard sized bearings may be used in the lever assembly. A spring pin 57 or the equivalent thereof may be projected through the lever assembly 40 as shown to secure the bearings 67 within the hollow opening 63.

The linkage according to the present invention provides numerous advantages for independent phase operation in a circuit breaker. Significantly the standard size linkage as shown for instance in Figure 3 can be adapted rather than completely redesigned to accommodate independent pole operation. For example, lever assemblies and bearing rings can be added to rotationally decouple the linking elements 25 and 26 of the dependent pole linkage 8 to provide an independent phase operation capability. It should, therefore, be evident that the linkage according to the present invention is substantially the same size as the dependent pole linkage so that existing circuit breaker hardware can be used with the independent pole operation linkage. Moreover, the linkage according to the present invention does not increase the size of the circuit breaker to achieve independent pole operation.

Figure 7 is a longitudinal cross section of a conical composite bushing according to the present invention. A conical fiber reinforced tube (FRP) 120 surrounding the bushing conductor 121 is formed from an epoxy resin or polyester material which has been reinforced with a strong fibrous material such as fiberglass, polyesters, aramids, or cloth threads. The traveling mold described above is used to form an insulative housing 122 having weather sheds 124 of silicone rubber or a similar rubber material such as ethylene propylene on the surface of the conical FRP tube 120. The weather sheds 124 preferably form a helix along the bushing surface. A grading shield 126 is attached to the inner surface of the FRP tube 120 and mounting flange 128 as shown in Figure 7. A top flange 130 secures an O-ring 132 to the bushing. A line terminal 134 from the protected circuit is electrically interfaced to the bushing conductor 121 at the O-ring 132.

The performance of an independent pole operation circuit breaker can be further improved by replacing conventional bushings with the conical composite bushings. Not only do the composite bushings repel pollution and water, resist shattering or exploding, reduce size and weight of the breakers, but they can additionally improve the breaker's overall reliability in other ways. For instance, if any of the bushings fail in conventional dependent pole operating circuit breaker, the entire circuit breaker must be shut down. However, in a independent pole operating circuit breaker only the phase associated with a faulty bushing need be opened. When conical composite bushings are utilized with an independent pole operation linkage the need to shut down any of the phases is further reduced by the superior attributes of the conical composite bushings.

Moreover, in conventional synchronous closing breakers, leakage in any one of the bushings can result in altering the timing of the closing or opening of the circuit. In an independent pole synchronous closing circuit breaker, leakage in one bushing should not affect the remaining phase. However, minimizing leakage using the conical composite bushings also improves the reliability of an independent pole synchronous closing circuit breaker since even small leaks can affect the timing accuracy when opening or closing any of the phases of the protected circuit.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Mechanische Verbindung zum unabhängigen Öffnen und Schließen einer Mehrzahl verknüpfter Schalter, wobei die mechanische Verbindung eine Mehrzahl von Verbindungselementen (36, 37, 38, 39) aufweist, die jeweils operativ mit einem Schalter zum Öffnen und Schließen des genannten einen Schalters gekoppelt sind;

    gekennzeichnet durch Entkopplungsmittel zum drehenden Entkoppeln der genannten Verbindungselemente (36, 37, 38, 39) an einer Berührungsfläche zwischen den genannten Verbindungselementen; eine Mehrzahl von Verbindungsstäben (32, 33, 34), die sich von einem Antriebsmechanismus (30) erstrecken und operativ mit der genannten Mehrzahl von Verbindungselementen zum Betätigen der genannten Mehrzahl von Verbindungselementen zum Öffnen und Schließen der genannten Mehrzahl von Schaltern gekoppelt sind; eine Anzahl von Hebelbaugruppen (40, 41), die schwenkend einen der genannten Mehrzahl von Verbindungsstäben (32, 33, 34) mit einem der genannten Mehrzahl von Verbindungselementen (36, 37, 38, 39) koppeln können, um das genannte Verbindungselement operativ zu drehen; und

    eine Anzahl von Lagermitteln (45, 46), die eine Halteverbindung an einer Berührungsfläche zwischen zwei der genannten Mehrzahl von Verbindungselementen (36, 37, 38, 39) bereitstellen, so dass die genannten beiden Verbindungselemente drehend voneinander an der genannten Berührungsfläche zwischen denselben entkoppelt werden.
  2. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass wenigstens einige der genannten Hebelbaugruppen (40,41) mit einer hohlen Öffnung (63) versehen sind, in die eines der genannten Lagermittel (45,46) eingeführt werden kann.
  3. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das genannte Lagermittel (45, 46) eine zylindrische Form mit einer inneren Öffnung aufweist, so dass die genannten Verbindungselemente (36, 37, 38, 39) in die genannte innere Öffnung eingeführt werden können.
  4. Verbindung nach Anspruch 3, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass wenigstens eine Hülse (56) im wesentlichen die genannte innere Öffnung der genannten Lagermittel (45, 46) ausfüttert, wodurch eine Sperre zwischen den genannten Lagermitteln (45, 46) und den darin eingeführten genannten Verbindungselementen (36, 37, 38, 39) gebildet wird.
  5. Drehstromtrennschalter zum Öffnen und Schließen eines damit verbundenen Schaltkreises, der eine Anzahl von Unterbrechungsmitteln (10) umfasst, welche jeweils nur mit einer Phase des genannten Schaltkreises verknüpft sind und einen Satz von Kontakten zum Öffnen und Schließen der verknüpften Phase des Schaltkreises aufweist, gekennzeichnet durch:
    • einen Verbindungsmechanismus mit einer Mehrzahl von Verbindungselementen (36, 37, 38, 39), wobei jedes Verbindungselement operativ mit einem Satz von Kontakten zum Öffnen und Schließen der genannten verknüpften Phase gekoppelt ist;
    • Entkopplungsmittel (40, 41) zum drehenden Entkoppeln und Halten der genannten Verbindungselemente an einer Berührungsfläche zwischen den genannten Verbindungselementen; und
    • ein Antriebsmittel (30) mit wenigstens zwei Verbindungsstäben (32, 33), wobei jeder Verbindungsstab mechanisch eine Berührungsfläche mit wenigstens einem Verbindungselement (36, 37, 38, 39) aufweist, so dass die genannten Verbindungselemente sich unabhängig in bezug zueinander drehen und dadurch unabhängig die genannten verknüpften Phasen des genannten Schaltkreises öffnen und schließen.
  6. Trennschalter nach Anspruch 5, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das genannte Entkopplungsmittel (40, 41) umfasst:
    • wenigstens zwei Hebelbaugruppen (65) zum Bilden einer mechanischen Berührungsfläche von einem Verbindungsstab (32, 33, 34) mit einem Verbindungselement (36, 37, 38, 39); und
    • wenigstens zwei Lagermittel (45, 46), die eine unterstützende Berührungsfläche für zwei der genannten Verbindungselemente (36, 37, 38, 39) bereitstellen können, wobei die genannten beiden Verbindungselemente drehend an der genannten unterstützenden Berührungsfläche entkoppelt werden.
  7. Trennschalter nach Anspruch 5 oder 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das genannte Antriebsmittel (30) ein Arbeitsmechanismus mit einer dreiphasigen unabhängigen Polbetriebsfähigkeit ist.
  8. Trennschalter nach Anspruch 5, 6 oder 7, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das genannte Antriebsmittel (30) eine Anzahl von Arbeitsmechanismen aufweist.
  9. Trennschalter nach einem der Ansprüche 5 bis 8, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass Wechselstrom in jeder Phase des genannten Schaltkreises fließt, wobei der genannte Satz von Kontakten synchron in bezug zu dem in der genannten verknüpften Phase fließenden genannten Wechselstrom geöffnet und geschlossen wird.
  10. Drehstromtrennschalter nach einem der Ansprüche 5 bis 9, gekennzeichnet durch wenigstens eine Verbundbuchse, die eine Berührungsfläche mit dem Schaltkreis und eine Berührungsfläche mit dem Unterbrechungsmittel (10) aufweist.
  11. Drehstromtrennschalter nach Anspruch 10, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Verbundbuchse eine konische Form aufweist.
  12. Drehstromtrennschalter nach Anspruch 10 oder 11, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Verbundbuchse eine Mehrzahl darauf ausgebildeter Wetterschutzdächer (124) aufweist.
  13. Drehstromtrennschalter nach Anspruch 12, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Wetterschutzdächer eine Spirale bilden.
  14. Drehstromtrennschalter nach Anspruch 10, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Verbundbuchse aufweist:
    • ein hohles Rohr (120) zum Enthalten eines Gases innerhalb der Buchse; und
    • ein Isoliergehäuse (122) mit einer Mehrzahl von Wetterschutzdächern (124), das im wesentlichen das hohle Rohr bedeckt.
  15. Drehstromtrennschalter nach Anspruch 14, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das hohle Rohr (120) konisch ist und ein faserverstärktes Epoxidharzmaterial aufweist.
  16. Drehstromtrennschalter nach Anspruch 14 oder 15, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Gehäuse (122) aus Silikongummi besteht.
  17. Drehstromtrennschalter nach einem der Ansprüche 5 bis 16, gekennzeichnet durch zwei Verbundbuchsen für jede Phase des Schaltkreises.
Anspruch[en]
  1. A mechanical linkage for independently opening and closing a plurality of associated switches, the mechanical linkage comprising a plurality of linking elements, (36, 37, 38, 39) that are each operatively coupled to one switch to open and close said one switch;

       characterised by decoupling means for rotationally decoupling said linking elements (36, 37, 38, 39) at an interface between said linking elements; a plurality of connecting rods (32, 33, 34) extending from a driving mechanism (30) and operatively coupled to said plurality of linking elements for actuating said plurality of linking elements to open and close said plurality of switches; a number of lever assemblies (40, 41) capable of pivotally coupling one of said plurality of connecting rods (32, 33, 34) with one of said plurality of linking elements (36, 37, 38, 39) to operatively rotate said linking element; and

       a number of bearing means (45, 46) providing a supporting link at an interface between two of said plurality of linking elements (36, 37, 38, 39) so that said two linking elements are rotationally decoupled from one another at said interface therebetween.
  2. A linkage as claimed in claim 1, characterised in that at least some of said lever assemblies (40, 41) are provided with a hollow opening (63) in which one of said bearing means (45, 46) can be inserted.
  3. A linkage as claimed in claim 1 or 2, characterised in that said bearing means (45, 46) has a cylindrical shape having an inner aperture such that said linking elements (36, 37, 38, 39) can be inserted into said inner aperture.
  4. A linkage as claimed in claim 3, characterised in that at least one sleeve (56) substantially lines said inner aperture of said bearing means (45, 46) thereby forming a barrier between said bearing means (45, 46) and said linking elements (36, 37, 38, 39) inserted therein.
  5. A three-phase circuit breaker for opening and closing a circuit connected thereto, and including a number of interrupting means (10) that are each associated with only one phase of said circuit and having a set of contacts for opening and closing the associated phase of the circuit, characterised by:
    • a linking mechanism comprising a plurality of linking elements (36, 37, 38, 39), each linking element being operatively coupled to one set of contacts to open and close said associated phase;
    • decoupling means (40, 41) for rotationally decoupling and supporting said linking elements at an interface between said linking elements; and
    • a driving means (30) having at least two connecting rods (32, 33), each connecting rod being mechanically interfaced with at least one linking element (36, 37, 38, 39) so that said linking elements rotate independently with respect to each other, thereby independently opening and closing said associated phases of said circuit.
  6. A circuit breaker as claimed in claim 5, characterised in that said decoupling means (40, 41) comprises:
    • at least two lever assemblies (65) for mechanically interfacing one connecting rod (32, 33, 34) with one linking element (36, 37, 38, 39); and
    • at least two bearing means (45, 46) capable of providing a supportive interface for two of said linking elements (36, 37, 38, 39), said two linking elements being rotationally decoupled at said supportive interface.
  7. A circuit breaker as claimed in claim 5 or 6, characterised in that said driving means (30) is an operating mechanism having a three-phase independent pole operation capability.
  8. A circuit breaker as claimed in claim 5,6 or 7 characterised in that said driving means (30) comprises a number of operating mechanisms.
  9. A circuit breaker as claimed in any of claims 5 to 8, characterised in that AC current flows in each phase of said circuit, said set of contacts being opened and closed synchronously with respect to said AC current flowing in said associated phase.
  10. A three-phase circuit breaker as claimed in any of claims 5 to 9, characterised by at least one composite bushing interfaced with the circuit and interfaced with the interrupting means (10).
  11. A three-phase circuit breaker as claimed in claim 10, characterised in that the composite bushing has a conical shape.
  12. A three-phase circuit breaker as claimed in claim 10 or 11, characterised in that the composite bushing has a plurality of weather sheds (124) formed thereon.
  13. A three-phase circuit breaker as claimed in claim 12, characterised in that the weather sheds form a helix.
  14. A three-phase circuit breaker as claimed in claim 10, characterised in that the composite bushing comprises:
    • a hollow tube (120) for containing a gas within the bushing; and
    • an insulating housing (122) having a plurality of weather sheds (124) and substantially covering the hollow tube.
  15. A three-phase circuit breaker as claimed in claim 14, characterised in that the hollow tube (120) is conical and comprises a fibre reinforced epoxy material.
  16. A three-phase circuit breaker as claimed in claim 14 or 15, characterised in that the housing (122) is made of silicone rubber.
  17. A three-phase circuit breaker as claimed in any of claims 5 to 16, characterised by two composite bushings for each phase of the circuit.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Tringlerie mécanique pour ouvrir et fermer indépendamment une pluralité de commutateurs associés, la tringlerie mécanique comprenant une pluralité d'éléments de liaison (36, 37, 38, 39) qui sont chacun couplés opérationnellement à un commutateur afin d'ouvrir et de fermer ledit commutateur ;

       caractérisé par un moyen de découplage pour découpler rotationnellement lesdits éléments de liaison (36, 37, 38, 39) au niveau d'une interface entre lesdits éléments de liaison ; une pluralité de bielles (32, 33, 34) s'étendant depuis un mécanisme d'entraînement (30) et couplées opérationnellement à ladite pluralité d'éléments de liaison pour actionner ladite pluralité d'éléments de liaison afin d'ouvrir et de fermer ladite pluralité de commutateurs ; un certain nombre d'ensembles de leviers (40, 41) capables de coupler par action pivot l'une de ladite pluralité de bielles (32, 33, 34) avec l'un de ladite pluralité d'éléments de liaison (36, 37, 38, 39) afin de faire tourner opérationnellement ledit élément de liaison ; et

       un certain nombre de moyens de paliers (45, 46) fournissant une liaison de support au niveau d'une interface entre deux de ladite pluralité d'éléments de liaison (36, 37, 38, 39) de telle sorte que lesdits deux éléments de liaison soient découplés rotationnellement l'un de l'autre au niveau de ladite interface entre eux.
  2. Tringlerie selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce qu'au moins certains desdits ensembles de leviers (40, 41) sont munis d'une ouverture creuse (63) dans laquelle l'un desdits moyens de paliers (45, 46) peut être inséré.
  3. Tringlerie selon la revendication 1 ou 2, caractérisé en ce que ledit moyen de palier (45, 46) a une forme cylindrique ayant une ouverture interne de telle sorte que lesdits éléments de liaison (36, 37, 38, 39) puissent être insérés dans ladite ouverture interne.
  4. Tringlerie selon la revendication 3, caractérisée en ce qu'au moins un manchon (56) revêt sensiblement ladite ouverture interne dudit moyen de palier (45, 46) formant ainsi une barrière entre ledit moyen de palier (45, 56) et lesdits éléments de liaison (36, 37, 38, 39) insérés dans celui-ci.
  5. Disjoncteur triphasé pour ouvrir et fermer un circuit qui lui est connecté, et comportant un certain nombre de moyens d'interruption (10) qui sont chacun associés à une seule phase dudit circuit et ayant un jeu de contacts pour ouvrir et fermer la phase associée du circuit, caractérisé par :
    • un mécanisme de liaison comprenant une pluralité d'éléments de liaison (36, 37, 38, 39), chaque élément de liaison étant couplé opérationnellement à un jeu de contacts pour ouvrir et fermer ladite phase associée ;
    • un moyen de découplage (40, 41) pour découpler rotationnellement et supporter lesdits éléments de liaison au niveau d'une interface entre lesdits éléments de liaison; et
    • un moyen d'entraînement (30) ayant au moins deux bielles (32, 33), chaque bielle étant interfacée mécaniquement avec au moins un élément de liaison (36, 37, 38, 39) de telle sorte que lesdits éléments de liaison tournent indépendamment les uns par rapport aux autres, ouvrant et fermant ainsi indépendamment lesdites phases associées dudit circuit.
  6. Disjoncteur selon la revendication 5, caractérisé en ce que ledit moyen de découplage (40, 41) comprend :
    • au moins deux ensembles de leviers (65) pour interfacer mécaniquement une bielle (32, 33, 34) avec un élément de liaison (36, 37, 38, 39) ; et
    • au moins deux moyens de paliers (45, 46) capables de fournir une interface de support à deux desdits éléments de liaison (36, 37, 38, 39), lesdits deux éléments de liaison étant découplés rotationnellement au niveau de ladite interface de support.
  7. Disjoncteur selon la revendication 5 ou 6, caractérisé en ce que ledit moyen d'entraînement (30) est un mécanisme de commande ayant une capacité de fonctionnement triphasé à pôles indépendants.
  8. Disjoncteur selon la revendication 5, 6 ou 7, caractérisé en ce que ledit moyen d'entraînement (30) comprend un certain nombre de mécanismes de commande.
  9. Disjoncteur selon l'une quelconque des revendications 5 à 8, caractérisé en ce qu'un courant alternatif passe dans chaque phase dudit circuit, ledit jeu de contacts étant ouvert et fermé de manière synchrone relativement audit passage de courant alternatif dans ladite phase associée.
  10. Disjoncteur triphasé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 5 à 9, caractérisé par au moins une douille composite interfacée avec le circuit et interfacée avec les moyens d'interruption (10).
  11. Disjoncteur triphasé selon la revendication 10, caractérisé en ce que la douille composite a une forme conique.
  12. Disjoncteur triphasé selon la revendication 10 ou 11, caractérisé en ce qu'une pluralité de projections d'étanchéité (124) sont formées sur la douille composite.
  13. Disjoncteur triphasé selon la revendication 12, caractérisé en ce que les projections d'étanchéité forment une hélice.
  14. Disjoncteur triphasé selon la revendication 10, caractérisé en ce que la douille composite comprend :
    • un tube creux (120) pour contenir un gaz dans la douille ; et
    • un logement isolant (122) ayant une pluralité de projections d'étanchéité (124) et couvrant sensiblement le tube creux.
  15. Disjoncteur triphasé selon la revendication 14, caractérisé en ce que le tube creux (120) est conique et comprend une matière époxy à fibres de renforcement
  16. Disjoncteur triphasé selon la revendication 14 ou 15, caractérisé en ce que le logement (122) est réalisé en caoutchouc silicone.
  17. Disjoncteur triphasé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 5 à 16, caractérisé par deux douilles composites pour chaque phase du circuit.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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