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Dokumentenidentifikation EP0838887 16.01.2003
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0838887
Titel Elektronisches Energieverteilungssystem mit automatischen Schutzschaltern und entsprechendes Verfahren
Anmelder ABB Research Ltd., Zürich, CH
Erfinder Rivetti, Giandomenico, 24027 Nembro (BG), IT;
Lorito, Fabrizio, 20135 Milano, IT;
Colombo, Severino, 24044 Dalmine (BG), IT;
Teigland, Jan, 1346 Gjettum, NO;
Disselnkotter, Rolf, 69256 Mauer, DE;
Carlson, Erik, 1450 Nesoddtangen, NO
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69717585
Vertragsstaaten BE, CH, DE, ES, FR, GB, IT, LI, NL
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 23.10.1997
EP-Aktenzeichen 972032783
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 29.04.1998
EP date of grant 04.12.2002
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 16.01.2003
IPC-Hauptklasse H02H 7/30
IPC-Nebenklasse H02H 7/26   H02H 3/44   

Beschreibung[en]

The present invention relates to a system for distributing electric power, particularly systems for low and medium voltage which comprise automatic protection circuit breakers.

More specifically, the invention relates to a distribution system which comprises automatic protection circuit breakers which are distributed hierarchically on various levels. The invention further comprises a method for controlling the intervention sequence of the automatic circuit breakers, which are mutually interlocked so as to act selectively in order to cut out the faulty parts of the system.

These distribution systems are currently protected by means of automatic circuit breakers, in which protection against a short-circuit fault with current values close to the breaking capacity is provided by means of classical electromechanical devices based on the electrodynamic effect of fault currents, which have a reaction time of the order of milliseconds.

Electric power distribution networks have a plurality of said circuit breakers, which are distributed radially on various levels in order to selectively limit the power outage to the part or region of the network affected by the fault.

This selectivity among the various circuit breakers is currently achieved by utilizing the different values of the current and of the intervention times of the protection devices and their different mechanical inertia, which depends on their size (and therefore on the masses involved in the opening movement).

In other words, a circuit breaker to which several other circuit breakers supplying an equal number of loads or subsections of the system are connected has higher settings for the protection device, is larger and has greater inertia than the circuit breaker that it supplies, and therefore does not open in case of a fault downstream of the smaller circuit breakers that it supplies. This of course occurs for all the higher levels to which the fault current can propagate.

The size of the circuit breakers is in turn a function of the nominal current of the circuit breaker, and therefore the size allocation of the system, by having to ensure the selectivity requirements, is based not only on the values of the working currents that are present in each node but also on the selectivity requirements, which often require to keep the short-circuit current in the system for longer than actually necessary to interrupt the fault current.

While the need to minimize the fault energy, i.e. damage, requires the fastest possible intervention, the need to select among the circuit breakers the one that must intervene in fact entails slowing the protective intervention. Accordingly, the conventional systems of the prior art do not allow to optimize the size allocation of an electric power distribution system as regards the protection circuit breakers.

An example of a system of the prior art is described in the article "Zone selective interlocking reduces fault stress (circuit breakers)"- Michalak T.A., ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE, JAN. 1989, USA, VOL.88, NO. 1, which discloses an interlocked system comprising electronic trip circuit breakers provided with communication capability so as the location of a short circuit or ground fault is isolated and cleared by the nearest upstream breaker without any intentional delay.

The aim of the present invention is to overcome the drawbacks of the prior art and particularly to provide an electric power distribution system which has optimum size allocation of the circuit breakers and ensures both characteristics, namely quick intervention and assured selectivity.

This aim is achieved by means of an electric power distribution system, comprising a plurality of automatic protection circuit breakers distributed on at least two levels, each one of the circuit breakers comprising an electronic protection unit which opens the circuit breaker depending on the values of a current (i(t)) flowing in the circuit breaker and of its derivative (di(t)/dt), and means for mutually connecting the circuit breakers in order to exchange information concerning the fault conditions in addition to their state characterized in that each one of the circuit breakers is divided into two sections, respectively a "father" section and a "child" section, and in that the connection means mutually connect the "child" section of the circuit breakers of a same level and connect them to the "father" section of a circuit breaker of the next higher level, and connect the "father" section of a circuit breaker to the "child" section of a circuit breaker of the next lower level.

Advantageously, fault detection is based both on the instantaneous value of the circulating current and on its derivative.

Further characteristics and advantages of the present invention are described in the appended claims.

The present invention is now described with reference to the accompanying drawings, which relate to two preferred but non-limitative embodiments of the invention.

In the drawings:

  • figure 1 is a schematic view of part of an electric power distribution system according to the present invention;
  • figure 2 is a view of the structure for acquiring the current values (i(t)), digitally processing said values and actuating the opening kinematic system, provided in a circuit breaker used in the present invention;
  • figure 3 plots an example of a set of acceptable operating conditions;
  • figure 4 is a view of the interlock structure (divided into two sections) of a single circuit breaker;
  • figure 5 is a view of a configuration of circuit breakers interlocked with a short connection; and
  • figure 6 is a view of a configuration of circuit breakers interlocked by means of long connections.

In the various figures, the same reference numerals are used to designate identical or substantially equivalent components.

Figure 1 schematically illustrates part of an electric power distribution system according to the present invention, which comprises an electrical switchboard I which contains a circuit breaker 10 and four circuit breakers 11, 12, 13 and 14, cascade-connected to the first circuit breaker; each one of said four circuit breakers 11-14 supplies a corresponding load. The system can be applied to three-phase distribution (with three or four wires), two-phase distribution and phase- neutral distribution, although for the sake of simplicity in illustration it is shown with a single wire in figure 1.

Moreover, the figure shows only the load constituted by a switchboard II, which in turn contains a circuit breaker 20 to which four circuit breakers 21,22,23 and 24 are cascade-connected; each one of said four circuit breakers is in turn connected to a further load (not shown).

Figure 1, in addition to the connections between the circuit breakers which allow the flow of electric power (shown in thick lines), also shows connections 17, 18, 19, 27, 28, 29 over which information travels; said information is exchanged unidirectionally or bidirectionally among the various circuit breakers.

Figure 1 clearly shows that the circuit breakers are distributed on various levels (four levels are shown in the figure) and that other circuit breakers of the same level can be provided in parallel to the "main" circuit breakers 10 and 20. Finally, the star configuration of the system shown by way of example in figure 1 is non-limitative.

In case of a fault that affects, for example, the circuit breaker 24 (short circuit or ground fault current in the circuit downstream of the circuit breaker 24), the system according to the present invention provides an interlock condition which ensures not only fast opening of the circuit breaker 24 but also ensures that the higher-level circuit breakers 20, 14 and 10 remain closed.

With reference also to figure 4, the base element of the system is constituted by the single circuit breaker 10, which is divided into two sections, designated respectively as "father" section 10A and "child" section 10B.

Each circuit breaker is capable of communicating with the upstream and downstream circuit breakers that belong both to the same switchboard and to different switchboards. According to the invention, two kinds of connection, termed respectively "upward connection" and "downward connection", are defined for each circuit breaker.

The "upward connection" identifies a connection to the so-called "child" section 10B of the circuit breaker, while the "downward connection" identifies a connection to the so-called "father" section 10A of the circuit breaker. Accordingly, a circuit breaker is simultaneously father with respect to the circuit breakers at the next lower hierarchical level and child with respect to the upstream circuit breaker to which it is connected.

When a circuit breaker detects a fault condition, it reports it to the "father" section of the circuit breaker at the next higher hierarchical level, thus blocking its opening action. If the circuit breaker that receives the information is in turn a "child" with respect to an upstream circuit breaker and if it, too, detects the same fault condition, it reports it to its "father" circuit breaker, and so forth. This communication process ends in one of the following two ways: either when the highest hierarchical level of the structure is reached, or when a circuit breaker of the communication network does not detect a fault. It should be noted that a plurality of "children" can report simultaneously.

Figure 2 illustrates in greater detail the structure of the elements that compose the part for acquiring and processing the values of the current (i(t)) that is present in a circuit breaker used in this invention.

Said structure comprises a primary current sensor 1, which is capable of detecting the current that circulates in the power supply conductor that is connected to the circuit breaker. The sensor 1 is connected to an electronic protection part 15 which comprises, in a mutual series arrangement, a converter 2, an A/D converter 3 and a filter 4. The filter output 4 is connected to a processing unit 6 both directly and by means of a block 5 which is capable of computing the derivative of the input signal.

The processing unit 6 has a memory 7 and its output is connected to a tripping coil 8 of the circuit breaker, which actuates a kinematic system 9 for opening the circuit breaker.

Operation of the above-described circuit breaker is as follows. The sensor 1 detects the currents that circulate in the primary circuit and the resulting analog signal is converted into a voltage signal by the converter 2. The voltage signal is then converted into a digital form (for digital processing) by the analog-digital converter 3 and then filtered in the filter 4, which is of the antispike type and introduces a minimal delay.

Preferably, the filter 4 is a third-order elliptical digital filter, with cutoff frequency at 1 kHz. Since fault detection is based on the instantaneous value of the current (converted into a voltage) and on the values of the current derivative, filtering has the purpose of preventing signals having relatively low current values (which cannot therefore be ascribed to a short circuit) but with a high value of their first derivative from compromising the overall performance of the protection.

The block 5 computes the instantaneous values of the derivative di(t)/dt of the signal that represents the circulating current i(t). Preferably, the block 5 uses a second-order derivative (digital) filter which has a passband of kHz, which is sufficient to precisely detect the derivatives of the currents of a short-circuit fault.

The processing unit 6 thus receives in input a signal which represents the current and a signal which represents its derivative, and the two values define a point or vector on the plane i(t)-di(t)/dt, as shown in figure 3.

Figure 3 illustrates an acceptable operating region A; i.e., it defines the locus of the points that belong to normal operating states, including those representing overload but not a short circuit. The points outside the area A represent abnormal operating conditions or conditions which in any case require protective intervention.

A time-variable current defines in this plane, a path such as those designated by T1 and T2 in the figure. As long as said path, for example T2, remains within the area A (or non-short-circuit region), the situation is considered "normal".

If the path, T1 in the figure, leaves this region, the situation is considered as a short circuit. A comparison is thus performed in the block 6, moment by moment, between the pairs of variables i(t) and di(t)/dt that arrive from the primary circuit and the pairs that form the non-short circuit region.

When a fault condition is reported, the device emits a tripping signal for the solenoid of the coil 8, which opens the circuit breaker by acting on its kinematic system.

In order to ensure the necessary selectivity, according to the present invention an exchange of information is ensured among the circuit breakers that are present in the various nodes of the system and which may have detected the fault simultaneously.

Communication is particularly fast in order to ensure the exchange of information among the circuit breakers in a time which on the one hand ensures the intervention of the circuit breaker directly involved before the current reaches excessively high values and on the other hand allows to block other circuit breakers upstream of the fault. Typically, communication with the next level is achieved in less than 100 microseconds.

Reliability of the communications system is achieved by duplicating the messages exchanged among the various circuit breakers and by means of a self-monitoring (performed by the electronic protection itself) of the efficiency and correct functionality of the transmission medium and of the circuit components that handle transmission.

As mentioned, the aim of the system is to avoid opening circuit breakers at a higher hierarchical level when the fault has already been recognized by a circuit breaker located downstream. The system handles both short circuit faults and ground faults.

The communications system is capable of communicating several fault conditions. In particular, faults associated with messages designated by the codes E, G, and SOS are considered. The E message indicates a fault of the EFDP (Early Fault Detection Prevention, i.e. a short circuit fault type) detected downstream. The G message indicates a Ground Fault and the SOS message indicates an opening command due to mechanical problems downstream.

The interlock communication pattern or configuration is of the kind shown in Table 1. message 010EEGGSS
where the level of the signal can assume a low value (0) or a high value (1). The first three bits of the message constitute a fixed synchronization signal, while the rest of the message contains data. The first three bits always have a 0 1 0 configuration, and this allows to compensate for any synchronization losses. The following Table 2 lists all possible message configurations and shows that the "010" combination always occurs in the same position, i.e., at the beginning of the synchronization configuration.

The next six bits are dedicated to the three possible "simple" states E, G and S, and a state is repeated for two bits (EE, GG, SS) in order to increase immunity to noise. The level 1 of these bits indicates the presence of the corresponding fault, while the level 0 indicates that there is no fault.

During communications there is a startup step that also includes synchronization.

Depending on the allocation of the circuit breaker (within a same switchboard or in different switchboards), two different kinds of connection are defined. A "short" connection is provided when the circuit breakers belong to the same switchboard and therefore the communication path is not longer than approximately 10 meters. In this case, there is a father circuit breaker connected to a plurality of child circuit breakers, as shown by way of example in figure 5, which illustrates a typical configuration of interlocked circuit breakers with a short connection 18. Only the information-carrying connections have been shown in the figure for the sake of simplicity.

A "long" connection is provided when the circuit breakers belong to different switchboards and the communication path reaches lengths of up to 1 km. In this case there is a single connection between a father circuit breaker connected to a single child circuit breaker.

In long connections, owing to the length of the communication path, which is considerably longer than the previous one, galvanic insulation is usually provided, as well as impedance matching of the communication line from single-ended to balanced or differential, and filtering of the noise impinging on the transmission line. The long connection can also provide for the use of optical fibers with the corresponding hardware modifications (the adapter and the transmission medium change). In some particular configurations, impedance matching (both with an isolating transformer and with optical fibers) may be omitted.

Figure 6 illustrates a typical configuration of circuit breakers interlocked by means of long connections, in which an external module (respectively 32 and 33 in the figure) is interposed between the line 34 and the communication modules for interlock 30 and 31. As shown schematically, each one of said modules 32, 33 comprises an isolating transformer with a winding which is balanced toward the line 34 and a noise filter block. In practice, the need to use a "short" or "long" connection depends not only on the "length" of said connection but also on the need to have more than one child or on the need, in particular architectures, to have or not have unidirectional connections. Accordingly, the connections, together with the associated hardware and algorithm, are both available for the various possible requirements.

Where technical features mentioned in any claim are followed by reference signs, those reference signs have been included for the sole purpose of increasing the intelligibility of the claims and accordingly, such reference signs do not have any limiting effect on the interpretation of each element identified by way of example by such reference signs.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Elektrisches Energieverteilungssystem mit mehreren automatischen Schutzschaltern (10, 11; 20, 21), die auf zumindest zwei Ebenen verteilt sind, wobei jeder Schutzschalter eine elektronische Schutzeinheit (15) enthält, die den Schutzschalter in Abhängigkeit der Werte eines in dem Schutzschalter fließenden Stroms (i(t)) und dessen Ableitung (di(t)/dt) öffnet, und mit Mitteln (17, 18, 19; 27, 28, 29) zum Verbinden der Schutzschalter miteinander zwecks Austausch von Informationen betreffend ihren Zustand sowie die Fehlerbedingungen, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß jeder Schutzschalter in zwei Bereiche, nämlich einen "Vater"-Bereich (10A, 11A) und einen "Kind"-Bereich (10B, 11B) unterteilt ist und daß die Verbindungsmittel den "Kind"-Bereich (11B, 12B, 21B, 22B) der Schutzschalter einer gleichen Ebene (11, 12 ... 21, 22) miteinander verbinden (18, 28) und diese mit dem "Vater"-Bereich (10A, 20A) eines Schutzschalters (10) der nächsthöheren Ebene verbinden sowie den "Vater"-Bereich (14A) eines Schutzschalters (14) mit dem "Kind"-Bereich (20B) eines Schutzschalters (20) der nächstniedrigeren Ebene verbinden (19).
  2. System nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das System zumindest einen Hauptschutzschalter (10; 20) und mehrere Schutzschalter (11, 12, 13, 14; 21, 22, 23, 24) hat, die bezüglich des Hauptschutzschalters (10; 20) in Kaskadenschaltung geschaltet sind.
  3. System nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Schutzschalter durch eine bidirektionale oder "kurze" Verbindung verbunden sind, wenn sie zu der gleichen Ebene gehören.
  4. System nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die Schutzschalter durch eine unidirektionale oder "lange" Verbindung verbunden sind, wenn sie zu unterschiedlichen Ebenen gehören.
  5. System nach Anspruch 4, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die "lange" Verbindung externe Module (32, 33) verwenden kann, von denen jedes einen Trenntransformator mit symmetrischer Wicklung und einen Rauschfilterblock enthält.
  6. System nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß die elektronische Schutzeinheit einen Wandler (2) enthält, der in Reihenschaltung mit einem A/D-Wandler (3) und einem Filter (4) verbunden ist, daß der Ausgang des Filters (4) mit einer Verarbeitungseinheit (6) verbunden ist, und zwar sowohl direkt als auch über einen Block (5), der in der Lage ist, die Ableitung des Eingangssignals zu berechnen, und daß ein Speicher (7) mit der Verarbeitungseinheit (6) verbunden ist.
  7. System nach Anspruch 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß der Ausgang der Verarbeitungseinheit (6) mit einer Vorrichtung (8) zum Auslösen des Schutzschalters verbunden ist.
  8. System nach Anspruch 7, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß es einen Hauptstromsensor (1) hat, der mit der elektronischen Schutzeinheit (15) verbunden ist.
  9. System nach Anspruch 7, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß es ein System für Nieder- und Mittelspannung ist.
Anspruch[en]
  1. An electric power distribution system, comprising a plurality of automatic protection circuit breakers (10, 11; 20, 21) distributed on at least two levels, each one of the circuit breakers comprising an electronic protection unit (15) which opens the circuit breaker depending on the values of a current (i(t)) flowing in the circuit breaker and of its derivative (di(t)/dt), and means (17, 18, 19; 27, 28, 29) for mutually connecting the circuit breakers in order to exchange information concerning the fault conditions in addition to their state characterized in that each one of the circuit breakers is divided into two sections, respectively a "father" section (10A, 11A) and a "child" section (10B, 11B), and in that the connection means mutually connect (18, 28) the "child" section (11B, 12B, 21B, 22B) of the circuit breakers of a same level (11, 12...21, 22) and connect them to the "father" section (10A, 20A) of a circuit breaker (10) of the next higher level, and connect (19) the "father" section (14A) of a circuit breaker (14) to the "child" section (20B) of a circuit breaker (20) of the next lower level.
  2. A system according to claim 1, characterized in that the system has at least one primary circuit breaker (10; 20) and a plurality of circuit breakers (11, 12, 13, 14; 21, 22, 23, 24) which are cascade-connected with respect to the primary circuit breaker (10; 20).
  3. A system according to claim 2, characterized in that when the circuit breakers belong to the same level, they are connected by a bidirectional or "short" connection.
  4. A system according to claim 2, characterized in that when the circuit breakers belong to different levels, they are connected by a unidirectional or "long" connection.
  5. A system according to claim 4, characterized in that the "long" connection can use external modules (32, 33), each whereof comprises an isolating transformer with balanced winding and a noise filter block.
  6. A system according to claim 1, characterized in that the electronic protection unit (15) comprises a converter (2) which is series-connected to an AID converter (3) and to a filter (4), in that the output of the filter (4) is connected to a processing unit (6), both directly and by means of a block (5) capable of computing the derivative of the input signal, and in that a memory (7) is connected to the processing unit (6).
  7. A system according to claim 6, characterized in that the output of the processing unit (6) is connected to a device for tripping (8) the circuit breaker.
  8. A system according to claim 7, characterized in that it has a primary current sensor (1) connected to the electronic protection unit (15).
  9. A system according to claim 7, characterized in that it is a low- and medium voltage system.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Système de distribution d'énergie, comportant une pluralité de disjoncteurs de protection automatiques (10, 11; 20, 21) répartis sur au moins deux niveaux, chacun des disjoncteurs comportant une unité de protection électronique (15) qui ouvre le disjoncteur en fonction des valeurs d'un courant (i(t)) circulant dans le disjoncteur et de sa dérivée (di(t)/dt), et des moyens (17, 18, 19 ; 27, 28, 29) pour connecter mutuellement les disjoncteurs afin d'échanger des informations concernant les conditions de défaut en plus de leur état, caractérisé en ce que chacun des disjoncteurs est divisé en deux sections, une section "parent" (10A, 11A) et une section "enfant" (10B, 11B) respectivement, et en ce que les moyens de connexion connectent mutuellement (18, 28) la section "enfant" (11B, 12B, 21B, 22B) des disjoncteurs d'un même niveau (11, 12 ... 21, 22), et les connectent à la section "parent" (10A, 20A) d'un disjoncteur (10) du niveau supérieur suivant, et connectent (19) la section "parent" (14A) d'un disjoncteur (14) à la section "enfant" (20B) d'un disjoncteur (20) du niveau inférieur suivant.
  2. Système selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que le système a au moins un disjoncteur primaire (10 ; 20) et une pluralité de disjoncteurs (11, 12, 13, 14 ; 21, 22, 23, 24) qui sont connectés en cascade par rapport au disjoncteur primaire (10 ; 20).
  3. Système selon la revendication 2, caractérisé en ce que, lorsque les disjoncteurs appartiennent au même niveau, ils sont connectés par une connexion bidirectionnelle ou "courte".
  4. Système selon la revendication 2, caractérisé en ce que, lorsque les disjoncteurs appartiennent à des niveaux différents, ils sont connectés par une connexion unidirectionnelle ou "longue".
  5. Système selon la revendication 4, caractérisé en ce que la connexion "longue" peut utiliser des modules externes (32, 33), chacun de ceux-ci comportant un transformateur isolant ayant un enroulement équilibré et un bloc de filtre de bruit.
  6. Système selon la revendication 1, caractérisé par le fait que l'unité de protection électronique (15) comporte un convertisseur (2) connecté en série à un convertisseur analogique-numérique (3) et à un filtre (4), par le fait que la sortie du filtre (4) est connectée à une unité de traitement (6) à la fois directement et par l'intermédiaire d'un bloc (5) qui est capable de calculer la dérivée du signal d'entrée, et par le fait qu'une mémoire (7) est connectée à l'unité de traitement (6).
  7. Système selon la revendication 6, caractérisé par le fait que la sortie de l'unité de traitement (6) est connectée à un dispositif de déclenchement (8) du disjoncteur.
  8. Système selon la revendication 7, caractérisé par le fait qu'il comporte un capteur de courant primaire (1) qui est connecté à l'unité de protection électronique (15).
  9. Système selon la revendication 7, caractérisé par le fait qu'il est à faible et moyenne tension.






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A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
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E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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