Field of the invention
The invention relates to a process for producing a composition
comprising two phases and to the product thus obtained, and to food products containing
Background to the invention
It is an object of the current invention to provide a product,
especially a food product that shows a thick consistency even at relatively high
High shear rates are encountered when applying a spread like composition to bread.
Examples of such composition are fresh cheese and low fat spreads.
The invention especially relates to food products showing
a creamy mouthfeel.
Products giving a creamy mouthfeel are known in the art. Example of such products
are dairy creams, spreadable dairy products such as those disclosed in
, full fat fresh cheese type products, creme fraiche and like products.
These products impart a creamy mouthfeel even at the high
shear rates of chewing the product. In general such compositions are largely based
on fat and/or gelatine or gelatine replacers.
It is known to reduce the fat content of such products
by including biopolymers as fat replacers. However the resulting products usually
do not impart creamy mouthfeel in the way the original products do.
discloses fluid compositions comprising at least one chemically setting
gelling agent. The compositions can be obtained by shearing a liquid containing
a chemically setting gelling agent, while gelation occurs. The compositions comprise
gel particles having a mean diameter of preferably less than 100 micrometer. Such
compositions allegedly possess favourable rheological properties. The compositions
obtained comprise a suspension of irregularly shaped gel particles that are effective
at increasing the viscosity at low shear rates, but less so at high shear rates.
discloses the preparation of a composition comprising at least 2 gelling
agents forming at least 2 distinct phases under cooling while applying shear until
at least one of the two phases is gelled. The processing of the two phases takes
place in conventional A- and C units. These units impart to the composition turbulent
flow conditions which lead to products with a dispersed phase which has a variety
of shapes which are mainly spherical with a broad average diameter distribution
for the dispersed phase particles.
These compositions were found not to contribute to a creamy mouthfeel in the final
Wolf et al disclose in Food hydrocolloids 14 (2000), 217-225
the effect of shear history on microstructure in biopolymer mixtures that
form water-in-water emulsions upon de-mixing. It discloses the use of simple shear
to manipulate phase morphology of water-in-water emulsions in order to produce regular
ellipsoidal or elongated structures. Cooling at the same time as applying shear
is used to gel the biopolymers and trap the structures in order to produce anisotropic
Wolf et al disclose in Rheologica Acta 40 (2001), 238-247
the production of particles with high aspect ratio. This document does
not disclose nor suggest which compositions could be applied in food products. Furthermore
this document does not disclose a continuous production process for such particles.
It is therefore an object of the current invention to provide
a composition which when used in a product imparts a creamy impression upon use.
Summary of the invention
It has surprisingly been found that a composition comprising
a first aqueous phase of gelled particles and a second aqueous phase, wherein the
particles of the first phase are characterized by a specific aspect ratio in combination
with a specific average width, imparts to products the desired creamy impression.
Therefore the invention relates to a composition comprising
a first aqueous phase of gelled particles and a second aqueous phase wherein the
particles of the first phase are characterized in that a minimum of 80 vol% of the
particles have an aspect ratio of at least 2, and a maximum width of 100 µm
and in that a minimum of 50 vol% of the particles have an aspect ratio of at least
5, and a maximum width of 40 µm and a minimum of 20 vol% of the particles have
an aspect ratio of at least 10, and a maximum width of 20 µm.
In a further aspect the invention relates to products comprising
this composition and to a process for the preparation of these products.
Detailed description of the invention
The compositions according to the invention are capable
of imparting creaminess to a product at surprisingly low concentrations. Furthermore
the compositions and products containing these are freeze thaw stable, and show
de/re hydration stability. Advantageously the compositions according to the invention
maintain a relatively high viscosity at high shear conditions.
The compositions known from prior art usually do not show this relatively high viscosity
at high shear but show a greater degree of so called shear thinning behaviour under
shear than the present composition. Without wishing to be bound by any theory it
is believed that this behaviour occurs because the gelled particles adopt random
orientations and configurations when shear is applied to the composition, that persist
at high shear rates. This is not disclosed in any of the aforementioned publications,
where the gelled particles are aligned in the flow direction and are different as
In the description and claims where weight % (wt%) is used
this is weight% on total product weight unless otherwise indicated.
Aspect ratio is calculated by dividing the length of a
fibre by the width.
The accuracy of the data relying on analysis of aspect ratio and width show a deviation
of ± 10%. The determination of aspect ratio and width is defined in the examples.
Both are well known parameters for characterisation of dispersed phase shape and
size; see e.g.
'The Image Processing Handbook 2nd edition' by JC Russ, CRC Press London,
ISBN 0-8493-2516-1, published in 1994
The composition according to the invention is a dispersion
comprising two aqueous phases. The first phase is a phase of gelled particles. Such
particles are present dispersed in the second phase.
The gelled particles of the first phase are characterised
by a specific aspect ratio in combination with a specific width. A minimum of 80
vol% of the particles have an aspect ratio of at least 2, and a maximum width of
100 µm and a minimum of 50 vol% of the particles have an aspect ratio of at
least 5, and a maximum width of 40 µm and a minimum of 20 vol% of the particles
have an aspect ratio of at least 10, and a maximum width of 20 µm. This distribution
of particle aspect ratio and width can be considered a broad distribution. Without
wishing to be bound by any theory, applicants believe that this broad distribution
imparts to the compositions the desired behavior under shear and the limited shear
thinning properties of the claimed material.
Preferably at least 5 vol % of the particles are characterised
by an aspect ratio of at least 50, and a maximum width of 20 µm. More preferably
the particles are characterised by a minimum width of 0.5 µm, more preferred
The particles of the first phase are gelled particles.
Gelled particles are defined as particles that may have shapes ranging from spherical
to ellipsoidal to highly elongated in one direction, that comprise a gel forming
compound solution in water which compound is in the gelled state.
The gelled particles preferably comprise a biopolymer or
a combination of biopolymers. Gelling biopolymers are generally known and include
for example gellan, &kgr;-carrageenan, sodium alginate, gelatine, agar, agarose,
maltodextrin, and heat set proteins.
Gelation can be obtained in any suitable way. The gelation
treatment is preferably selected from the group comprising a temperature treatment,
chemical gelation or crystallisation. The gelation method that is selected depends
on the ingredient composition of the dispersed phase and of the continuous phase.
Gelation by temperature treatment is selected if a gelling
agent is used, whose setting is dependent on temperature. Examples of such gelling
agents include gelatine, which sets at a temperature of below about 40 °C and
agar which sets at a temperature of below about 45 °C and carrageenan or gellan
whose gelation temperatures are dependent on salt type and concentration (reference
is made to
Handbook of hydrocolloids, edited by G.O. Phillips and P.A. Williams, published
by CRC Press
). Also proteins that gel/form a network by heat treatment are suitable
for preparation of the two phase composition.
It will be appreciated that the exact gelling temperature
for the biopolymer used is determined, among others, by quality, purity, concentration,
solvent properties such as added salt or sugar, and pH.
According to another embodiment, a chemically setting gelling
agent is used. By a chemically setting gelling agent is meant a component which,
after being dispersed in another phase such as a liquid, will set to a gel when
allowed to chemically interact with a supplementary active component, whose active
component is usually a cation, or which sets due to the occurrence of a chemical
reaction such as oxidation. A gelling agent setting upon a pH change is also encompassed
in the term chemically setting gelling agent. Examples of such pH dependent gelling
agents are proteins which will generally set or precipitate at a pH below the iso-electric
In such cases where a chemically setting gelling agent
is applied, chemical gelation is preferably applied.
Chemical gelation can be obtained by combining the gelling agent with a salt with
an effective cation to form a salt of the gelling agent and the cation. The combination
of the gelling agent with the cation may be effected by the addition of the cation
as such or alternatively by converting a precursor compound, present in the phase
comprising the gelling agent, or the other phase, into the free, effective, cation.
The cation is preferably selected from Ca2+ and K+ , Na+
and mixtures thereof, the most preferred cation is Ca2+.
In an even more preferred embodiment, the gelling agent
is selected from the group comprising &kgr;-carrageenan, pectin, iota-carrageenan,
furcelleran, carboxymethyl cellulose, gellan, gelatine, alginate, agar, guar or
a combination thereof; most preferably gellan or &kgr;- carrageenan.
In a preferred embodiment gelation by temperature treatment
is used. The most preferable temperature treatment is cooling, hence, a biopolymer
gelling upon cooling is most preferably used in the first phase.
The amount of first phase compared to second phase among
others depends on the application that is envisaged. In general it is preferred
that the phase volume of the first, dispersed, phase in the second, continuous,
phase is from 10 to 40 vol%.
As described above, it is required that at least the first
phase is gelling.
The second phase is preferably composed such that the interfacial tension between
the two phases in their liquid state and on onset of gelation of the first phase
is sufficiently low to prevent the particles of the first phase from shape relaxation
during or after gelation. By shape relaxation we mean significant if not total loss
of anisotropy in particle shape. Preferred interfacial tensions between the two
aqueous phases in their liquid state are between 10-6 N.m-1
and 10-3 N.m-1. The phenomenon of interfacial tension in biopolymer
liquid mixtures is described in
Food Hydrocolloids 14 (2000), 217-225
. Interfacial tensions in the aforementioned range can be obtained by a
variety of compositions for the second phase. The second phase can be based for
example on a non-gelling biopolymer, a surfactant, a water soluble synthetic (i.e.
non-biological) polymer such as poly(ethylene oxide), poly(acrylic acid) or poly(acrylamide),
or a gelling biopolymer or any combination thereof.
According to a preferred embodiment, the first phase comprises
a gelling biopolymer, and the second phase comprises a non-gelling biopolymer.
According to another embodiment, both the first and the
second phase comprise a gelling biopolymer.
In a preferred embodiment the biopolymer combination for
the first and second phase is selected from the following combinations
- a) gelatine first phase - guar second phase
- b) gellan first phase - &kgr;-carrageenan second phase
- c) gellan first phase - sodium alginate second phase
- d) &kgr;-carrageenan first phase - carboxymethylcellulose second phase.
Furthermore the compositions can be made heat stable by
taking some further straightforward measurements such as increasing the ion content,
adding gel stabilisers or using heat set proteins.
The composition can suitably be applied in any type of
water continuous product. Examples of products are food products, preferably dairy
type spreads, dressings, sauces, or frozen desserts.
The amount of composition that can be applied varies depending
on the specific purpose and final product.
In a preferred embodiment, the amount of composition according to the invention
contained in a final product is at most 30 wt%. Higher amounts could lead to products
which are too thick for application. Preferred products comprise from 3 to 20 wt%
of the composition according to the invention.
The composition is especially suitable for inclusion in
water continuous food products such as dairy type spreads. In a preferred embodiment
the invention relates to a spreadable dairy type product comprising from 5 to 35
wt% fat, 0.2 to 10 wt% protein, and from 3 to 20 wt% of a composition comprising
a first aqueous phase of gelled particles and a second aqueous phase, wherein the
particles of the first phase are in the form of elongated fibres.
More preferably the invention relates to a spreadable dairy
type product comprising from 5 to 35 wt% fat, 0.2 to 10 wt% protein, and from 3
to 20 wt% of a composition comprising a first aqueous phase of gelled particles
and a second aqueous phase, wherein the particles of the first phase are characterised
in that a minimum of 80 vol% of the particles have an aspect ratio of at least 2,
and a maximum width of 100 µm and in that a minimum of 50 vol% of the particles
have an aspect ratio of at least 5, and a maximum width of 40 µm and a minimum
of 20 vol% of the particles have an aspect ratio of at least 10, and a maximum width
of 20 µm.
Preferably the composition included in such dairy type
spread comprises a first phase comprising gelled &kgr;-carrageenan and a second
phase comprising carboxymethylcellulose.
Optionally such products further include a salt, other
biopolymers, preservation agents, flavourings or other food grade ingredients.
Typical compositions suitable for a dairy type spread are
e.g. disclosed in
. These products are generally acidified creams whereby the cream may be
based on dairy fat, vegetable fat or a combination of these.
The composition according to the invention may be prepared
by any suitable process. However the process below is highly preferred as it enables
preparation of the composition in a simple, straight forward and economical efficient
process. For example the process introduced in
Rheologica Acta 40 (2001), 238-247
discloses a process which is unpreferred for preparation of said composition
as this process is unsuitable for application on large, industrial scale.
Therefore in a further embodiment, the invention relates
to a process for the preparation of a composition comprising a first aqueous phase
of gelled particles and a second aqueous phase, said process comprising the steps
wherein step (a) and (b) are carried out in a pre-mix tank and step (c/d) are carried
out in a cylindrical pipe, or an array of cylindrical pipes.
- a) mixing two aqueous phases each comprising a polymer, preferably a biopolymer,
wherein at least one of the polymers is a gelling biopolymer,
- b) treating the mixture according to (a) such that one of the phases is present
in the form of droplets in the second phase,
- c) subjecting the mixture to shear flow,
- d) subjecting the mixture to a gelation treatment during or after step (c);
In the context of the invention shear flow is defined as
planar flow as shown in figure 1.
Turbulent flow is unsuitable for the process according to the invention. This type
of flow is for example encountered in a scraped surface heat exchanger (A-unit),
a pin stirrer (C-unit), a homogeniser and rotor-stator based systems which are well
known equipment for preparation of emulsions. Documents wherein these types of apparatus
are applied are for example
. The turbulent flow in these apparatus' is arbitrary and undefined.
It is preferred that the gelled aqueous phase particles
are in the form of elongated fibres, preferably characterised in that a minimum
of 80 vol% of the particles have an aspect ratio of at least 2, and a maximum width
of 100 µm and in that a minimum of 50 vol% of the particles have an aspect
ratio of at least 5, and a maximum width of 40 µm and a minimum of 20 vol%
of the particles have an aspect ratio of at least 10, and a maximum width of 20
In a preferred embodiment, step (a) is simplified by mixing
the two biopolymers as dry powders, and adding them in one step to a common aqueous
solvent. Depending on the biopolymer combinations used, the mixture of dry powder
additionally comprises salt such as sodium chloride or potassium chloride in a preferred
concentration. Sugar can also be added to improve solvent conditions.
It will be appreciated that the characteristics of the
cylindrical pipe or array of pipes is preferably such that they are sufficiently
long and sufficiently small in diameter so that gelation of the first phase occurs
within the pipe.
In a preferred embodiment, the flow rate in a single cylindrical
pipe is from 0.1 to 25 ml.min-1. and the wall shear stress is from 15
to 800 Pa. For the definition of wall shear stress reference is made to textbooks
on rheology such as for example:
Rheology: Principles, Measurements, and Applications. C. W. Macosko, VCH Publishers,
The gelation can be obtained in any of the ways described
The final product comprising the composition according
to the invention can be prepared in any suitable way. In the following, the composition
according to the invention is denoted as fibre composite or fibre composite material.
According to one embodiment a base product is prepared
from all ingredients except for the fibre composite material. Ingredients are for
example proteins, polysaccharides, fat or oil, salt, sugar, flavours, acids, or
other ingredients normally found in such products, and water. Processing can include
mixing, homogenisation, emulsification, whipping, heating, and cooling. The fibre
composite material is preferably then added to the base product while stirring,
sometimes at elevated temperature. Stirring preferably continues till the product
appears to be a homogenous mixture of all ingredients, in particular the fibre composite.
In some cases the product is then filled directly into product containers, and stored
under appropriate conditions. This applies to the preparation of dressings and sauces.
For the preparation of dairy type spreads an acidification step preferably follows
prior to filling. When a frozen desert product, e.g. ice cream, is prepared, after
incorporation of the fibre composite material, the product is whipped, and frozen
according to a conventional house hold or factory ice cream process. The final product
is stored in a freezer at preferably -18°C.
According to an alternative embodiment the composition
according to the invention is submitted to a drying step and in that form added
to the final product at any stage of the process. Drying techniques such as freeze
drying, or vacuum drying were found to be suitable. Alternatively, the composition
according to the invention can be frozen for storage, and added in its frozen state
to the product ensuring that the composition thaws completely to impart the desired
properties on the product.
According to another alternative embodiment, the composition
according to the invention is prepared in situ during the preparation of a final
product in which the composition is included.
The invention is now illustrated by the following non-limiting
Oil droplet size is determined by use of well known static laser diffraction.
The procedure of particle shape analysis is described
in the following. The fibre composite material was diluted with an aqueous solvent
of the same ionic strength as present in the composition. This means the fibre composite
was diluted with its own solvent. For dilution a certain amount of the fibre composite
was added to a certain amount of the solvent while stirring with a paddle stirrer,
or shaking in a flask rotator to prepare a diluted sample for particle shape analysis
that contained roughly 1 wt% fibres. In case of a gelled second phase, the type
of salt to get the desired ionic strength was carefully chosen in order to melt
the gel of the second phase on dilution ensuring the particles of the first phase
remained gelled. As a next step, images of the sample were taken using conventional
light microscopes under suitable lighting conditions preferably phase contrast,
and magnification as low as possible preferably using a 10X phase contrast lens
and setting any further means to influence magnification at the lowest setting such
as 0.8 on a magnification wheel when fitted to the microscope used. The images taken
here pictured a real length of 800 µm along their width. The width of a fibre
was measured at least once, most preferably several times along the fibre length
at equally spaced locations which were roughly a tenth of the image width apart,
hence since the width of the images was 800 µm, the fibre width was measured
every ∼ 100 µm along the fibre length. Typically, images showed a number
of separate fibres, very small apparently spherical shaped particles, and larger
entities that appeared to be associated fibres. Enough images were statistically
taken such that 400 fibres were pictured as individual entities meaning they don't
overlap with any other fibres. A particle was identified as a fibre when it showed
a clear extension in one direction. If a fibre was not pictured with its whole length,
the pictured length of this fibre was measured and taken for aspect ratio calculation.
The aspect ratio was calculated by dividing the length of a fibre by the width.
The width of a fibre was measured at least once, most preferably several times along
the fibre length at equally spaced locations which were roughly a tenth of the image
width apart, e.g., a magnification of 1:40 corresponds to an image width of 800
µm, hence, the fibre width was measured every ∼ 100 µm along the
fibre length. Finally, the average of the measured values was taken as the width
of the fibre.
A fibre composite was prepared from a mixture of &kgr;-carrageenan
and CMC with the following material characteristics.
- A speciality &kgr;-carrageenan (Genuvisco X0909, ex Hercules Limited (UK))
was used, with low residual cations, in particular low Potassium.
- The typical composition on powder is:
- 92.9 wt% &kgr;-carrageenan
- 5.12 wt% Sodium ions
- 0.18 wt% Potassium ions
- 0.01 wt% Calcium ions
- 0.01 % w/w Magnesium ions
- The moisture content of the powder is 10 wt%.
- The zero shear viscosity of a 1% w/w (on powder) aqueous solution at 20°C
is 0.08 Pa.s ± 10%.
- A commercially available CMC (Blanose 7MF, ex CPKelco UK Limited) was used.
- The ion content of the batch used is:
- 7.6 wt% Sodium ions
- 7 10-3 wt% Potassium ions
- 11.8 10-3 wt% Calcium ions
- 22.6 10-3 wt% Choride ions
- 5 10-3 wt% Sulfate ions
- The moisture content of the powder is 5 wt%.
- The zero shear viscosity of a 1 wt% (on powder) aqueous solution at 20°C
is 0.06 Pa.s ± 10%.
60 g of said &kgr;-carrageenan, 150 g of said CMC, and
15 g Potassium Chloride were mixed dry, and then added to 2775 g de-ionised water
while stirring vigorously with a paddle stirrer. The mixture was then heated up
to 95°C under continued stirring, and kept under these conditions till a liquid
mixture of all ingredients had formed. The mixture was transferred into a jacketed,
and agitated pre-mix tank which was pre-heated to 95°C. The vessel could take
a maximum of 5 l. In the pre-mix tank, the mixture was continued to be stirred,
and after 15 min at 95°C the temperature was lowered to 80°C. Once this
temperature was reached, the vessel was set under a hydrostatic pressure of 2.5
bar, and the outlet valve at the bottom of the pre-mix tank was opened to allow
for the mixture to flow through a pipe with circular cross section which was jacketed
for most of its length. The length and inner diameter of the pipe was 1.2 m and
8 mm respectively. The middle 0.5 m of the pipe were cooled by a water jacket, the
temperature of the water incoming at the further end of the jacket was 10°C.
The water exited at the end of the jacket which was closer to the pre-mix tank.
The product was collected under sterile conditions, and either directly used for
preparation of a food product, dried, or stored in a freezer at -18°C. The
shape characteristics of the product were not altered by the drying process, or
the freezing process, and subsequent re-hydration or thawing respectively.
The hydrostatic pressure of 2.5 bar applied to the pre-mix tank corresponds to a
wall shear stress of 417 Pa.
This fibre composite material comprises a non-gelled second aqueous phase dominated
by CMC. The particle phase comprises gelled &kgr;-carrageenan fibres. The volume
in the mixture occupied by the first, gelled, phase is about 20%.
Preparation of a fibre composite from gellan and &kgr;-carrageenan.
- A commercially available gellan gum (Kelco gel F, ex CPKelco UK Limited) was
- the ion content is:
- 3.8 wt% Potassium ions
- 0.6 wt% Sodium ions
- 0.3 10-3 wt% Calcium ions
- The moisture content of the powder is 10 wt%.
- The zero shear viscosity of a 1 wt% (on powder) aqueous solution at 60°C
(the solution forms a gel at 20°C) is 7.7 10-3 Pa.s ± 10%.
The same &kgr;-carrageenan as specified in example 1
The preparation of the fibre composite material from the
two polysaccharides gellan and &kgr;-carrageenan corresponds in its main steps
to the previously described example 1. Differences were only in the quantities,
the choice of temperatures, and pressure which are quantified below.
Preparation of a dairy spread comprising gelled &kgr;-carrageenan
Quantities used were 60 g gellan, 60 g &kgr;-carrageenan and 2880 g de-ionised
water. The temperature of the water feeding the jacket of the circular pipe was
5°C. The hydrostatic pressure applied to the pre-mix vessel and the wall shear
stress were 1.1 bar and 183 Pa respectively.
This fibre composite material comprises a gelled second aqueous phase which is dominated
by &kgr;-carrageenan. The first gelled aqueous phase, the fibres, consist of 4.4
wt% gelled gellan. 32 %v/v of the fibre composite are occupied by the gelled gellan
1000 g dairy spread comprising 250 g fibre composite material
prepared from the polysaccharides &kgr;-carrageenan and CMC as described in example
1, 3 g guar, 5 g salt (potassium chloride), 1 g potassium sorbate, 70 g buttermilk
powder, 17.5 g whey protein, 220 g fat blend (1:1 fractionated coconut oil:fractionated
palm oil), and 433.5 g water was prepared. The fibre composite material was previously
frozen, and thawed prior to use. From the dry ingredients and the water a homogeneous
mixture was prepared, which was then heated to 85°C at which temperature the
melted fat was added under stirring to from a coarse oil-in-water emulsion. In a
next step, for decreasing the average size of the oil droplets to ca. 1 µm,
a conventional emulsification step using a high pressure homogeniser followed. The
resulting product base was cooled to 40°C under continued stirring with a paddle
stirrer, and the fibre composite material was added in portions of roughly 10 g.
After a mixing time of 15 minutes the product was acidified to a pH of 4.7 with
80% lactic acid. This concluded the production of the dairy spread with &kgr;-carrageenan
fibres, and the product underwent a sterile filling process into sample containers,
and was stored at 6°C.
The resulting composition was found to be creamy upon consumption.
Preparation of a fresh cheese comprising gelled gellan fibres
Additionally, the resulting composition was described as having a long texture upon
spooning compared to commercial dairy spread products Brunchtm and Creme
1000 g fresh cheese comprising 156.2 g fibre composite
material prepared from the polysaccharides gellan and &kgr;-carrageenan as described
in example 2, 3 g guar, 3 g salt (sodium chloride), 1 g potassium sorbate, 70 g
buttermilk powder, 17.5 g whey protein, 220 g fat blend (1:1 coconut oil:palm oil),
and 529.25 g water was prepared. The preparation of the fresh cheese followed the
same route as the preparation of the dairy spread described in example 3. The only
difference was a temperature of 60°C (instead of 40°C) at which the fibre
composite was mixed into the product base.
The resulting composition was found to be creamy upon consumption.
Preparation of an ice cream comprising gelled &kgr;-carrageenan
Additionally, the resulting composition was found to be smooth, and mouth coating.
An ice cream comprising 25 wt% fibre composite material
prepared from the polysaccharides &kgr;-carrageenan and CMC as described in example
1, 8 wt% butterfat, 10 % w/w skim milk powder, 0.3 wt% emulsifier (monoglycerolpalmitate),
13 wt% sucrose, 4 wt% glucose syrup (malto dextran with a DE of 40), 0.012 wt% vanillin,
0.016 wt% carrageenan L100 (which is a blend of 30wt% sucrose, 34.3 wt% &kgr;-carrageenan,
4.2 wt% &tgr;-carrageenan, 31.5 wt% &lgr;-carrageenan), 0.144 wt% locust bean
gum, and 39.528 wt% water was prepared. The dry ingredients were mixed together,
and then added to the water which was heated up to 40°C. A homogeneous mixture
was prepared by stirring the mixture, then the butterfat was added, and the mixture
heated to 82°C under continued stirring. After a further 5 minutes of stirring
at 82°C the mixture was homogenised using a standard process in ice cream manufacturing
process (high pressure homogeniser, fitted with two tapered valves, 140 bar or 2000
psi homogenisation pressure, pre-warmed with hot water). The base product was then
cooled to 40°C where the fibre composite was added under stirring with a paddle
stirrer till a homogeneous mixture had formed. For subsequent aeration and freezing,
a bench top whisker (hobart ex Hobart UK) and a house hold ice cream maker (model
gelato chef 2000 ex magimix UK LTD) respectively were used. The residence time of
the product in the whisker was 15 minutes. Overruns of 30% were achieved. In the
house hold ice cream maker the product was cooled down to -2°C, the product
was then placed for 2 hours in a blast freezer at -37.5°C. For storage the
product was kept in a house hold freezer at -18°C.
The product was tasted after it reached a homogeneous temperature
of -18°C. It was described as creamy, and rich in taste.