PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP0962135 24.04.2003
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0962135
Titel Insektenverjagende Zusammensetzungen
Anmelder Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc., Skillman, N.J., US
Erfinder Lambino, Danilo L., Quezon City 1102, PH;
Dee, Kennie U., Quezon City 1103, PH;
Niemiec, Susan M., Yardley, US
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69905974
Vertragsstaaten DE, ES, FR, GB, IT, SE
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 02.06.1999
EP-Aktenzeichen 993042894
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 08.12.1999
EP date of grant 19.03.2003
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 24.04.2003
IPC-Hauptklasse A01N 25/22
IPC-Nebenklasse A01N 37/46   A01N 37/18   

Beschreibung[en]

The present invention relates to methods for repelling insects from a host and compositions effective for the same. More specifically, these compositions have superior stability with respect to degradation of the active material and are gentle to the skin.

There are many known insect repellent formulations that use a variety of insect repellent active materials. See, e.g., EP-A-0 097 812 and EP-A-0 097 813, and US-A-4,127,672, US-A-4,756,905, US-A-5,465,685, US-A-5,489,433, US-A-5,565,208, US-A-5,672,337 and US-A-5,716,602.

W0-A-98 19538 discloses stable aqueous formulations of the insect repellent 3-(N-butylacetamido)-propionic acid ethylester, preferably in an amount of 1 to 50 weight %, in the presence of ethanol, preferably in an amount of 10 to 90 weight %, as a stabiliser, and cosmetic preparations containing such aqueous formulations..

JP-A-02264703 relates to a water based repellent spray for harmful insects comprising DEET (N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) as the active component, 0.5 to 1.5 part by weight of a non-ionic surfactant per 10 parts by weight of DEET, water and a jetting agent, such as liquid petroleum gas, freon gas or a mixture thereof. Optional components include stabilising agent (e.g., cetanol and polyether degenerated silicone), an antiseptic agent (e.g., methyl p-oxybenzoate and propyl p-oxybenzoate), a low temperature stabilising agent (ethanol) and a perfume.

DATABASE WPI Section Ch, Week 7743 Derwent Publications Ltd., London, GB; Class C03, AN 77-76885Y XP002116427 & JP 52 110824 A (TSUMURA JUNTENDO KK), 17 September 1977 (1977-09-17) discloses an insect repellant composition obtained by solubilising or emulsifying DEFT into water using a surface active agent in the presence of an alkaline substance and then adjusting the pH to 7.5-9.0. The formulation is storage stable and gentle to the skin.

Many of the commercially available insect repellent formulations include insect repellent active materials which contain one or more ester, amide or urethane functionalities. Disadvantageously, these materials are hydrolytically sensitive and often degrade upon long term storage in contact with aqueous media.

Other commercially available insect repellent formulations that contain water insoluble active materials frequently contain a significant amount of solubilizers such as lower monohydric alcohols, i.e., ethanol and isopropanol. However, the amount of such lower alcohols present in these formulations often contributes to drying and irritation to the skin.

It would be desirable to provide a composition that exhibited a reduced rate of decomposition of the insect repellent active material without causing significant drying and irritation to the skin

In accordance with the present invention, there is provided an insect repellent composition comprising, based upon the total weight of the composition:

  • a) from 6 to 30 percent of insect repellant active material, wherein the insect repellant active material is: i) N,N-diethyltoluamide; ii) one or more compounds of the formula
    wherein R1 is a branched or unbranched alkyl group having 1 carbon atom to 6 carbon atoms, R2 is H, methyl or ethyl, R3 is a branched or unbranched alkyl or alkoxy group having from 1 carbon atom to 8 carbon atoms, and X is a -CN or a -COOR4 group wherein R4 is a branched or unbranched alkyl group having from 1 carbon atom to 6 carbon atoms; iii) one or more natural or synthetic pyrethroids; or iv) a mixture thereof;
  • b) from 5 to 30 percent of a glycol monoalkyl ether, said alkyl having from 1 to 4 carbon atoms; a glycol containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms; an oligomer of ethylene glycol or propylene glycol; or a mixture thereof; and
  • c) from 1 to 10 percent by weight of surfactant, wherein the surfactant is i) an alkoxylated alcohol having the structure R5-(OCH2CH2)y-OH wherein R5 is a branched or unbranched alkyl group having 6 to 22 carbon atoms and y is between 4 and 100, preferably between 10 and 100; ii) an alkoxylated alkyl phenol having the structure
    wherein R6 is a branched or unbranched alkyl group having 6 to 22 carbon atoms and z is between 10 and 120; or iii) a mixture thereof;
wherein said composition comprises less than 5 percent of monohydric alcohols containing 2 to 4 carbon atoms.

In another embodiment of the present invention we have found a method of reducing the rate of degradation of an insect repellent active material in an aqueous composition, said active material containing functionality selected from ester, amide, urethane or combinations thereof, comprising, consisting of, or consisting essentially of incorporating into the composition under conditions sufficient a degradation reducing amount of a surfactant.

In yet another embodiment of the present invention we have found that the composition is suitable for use as an insect repellent, in particular in a method of repelling insects from a host comprising, consisting essentially of, or consisting of: topically applying to the host an insect repellent composition comprising, consisting essentially of, or consisting of, the composition of the present invention.

The compositions and methods of this invention provide a unique means for repelling insects with a reduced rate of degradation of the active material but without disadvantageously over-drying or over-irritating the skin.

The invention will be more fully understood and further advantages will become apparent which reference is made to the following detailed description of the invention and the accompanying drawings in which:

  • Figure 1 is a graph depicting the pH stability versus time (days) for a surfactant-free insect repellent composition and for the composition of the present invention.
  • Figure 2 is a freeze-fracture transmission electron photomicrograph at a magnification of 150.000 X of an aqueous surfactant-free composition containing an insect repellant active material.
  • Figure 3 is a freeze-fracture transmission electron photomicrograph at a magnification of 150,000 X of an insect repellant composition of the present invention containing 3.5% laureth-23 surfactant.
  • Figure 4 is another freeze-fracture transmission electron photomicrograph at a magnification of 150,000 X of an insect repellant composition of the present invention containing 5.0% laureth-23 surfactant.

One aspect of the present invention relates to insect repellant compositions that are useful in repelling insects from a host. By "host," it is meant any plant or being such as humans, mammals, animals, and the like, affected by insects.

The first component of the composition of the present invention is an insect repellant active material selected from:

  • a. N,N-diethyltoluamide,
  • b. one or more compounds of the formula
       wherein
    • R1 is a branched or unbranched alkyl group having about 1 to about 6 carbon atoms;
    • R2 is H, methyl or ethyl;
    • R3 is a branched or unbranched alkyl or alkoxy group having from about 1 to about 8 carbon atoms; and
    • X is a -CN or a -COOR4 group, wherein

         R4 is a branched or unbranched alkyl group having from about 1 to about 6 carbon atoms;
  • c. one or more natural or synthetic pyrethroids; or
  • d. mixtures thereof.

As used herein, N,N-diethyl toluamide refers to the material containing predominantly the meta isomer, i.e., N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, which is also known as DEET. The natural pyrethroids are contained in pyrethrum, the extract of the ground flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium or C coccineum. Synthetic pyrethroids are synthetically derived, and may be identical structurally or structurally analogous to one or more of the insect repellant active materials found in pyrethrum.

The insect repellent active material is more preferably selected from N,N-diethyltoluamide, ethyl 3-(N-butylacetamido)propionate (formula I above wherein R3 is a CH3 group, R1 is an n-butyl group, R2 is H, X is COOR4 and R4 is ethyl) or mixtures thereof, and most preferably is ethyl 3-(N-butylacetamido)propionate, which is available commercially from Merck KGaA of Darmstadt, Germany under the name, "Insect Repellent 3535."

The particular insects that are repelled by the composition of the present invention will depend upon the insect repellent active material selected. While some insect repellent active materials may be specific to a particular insect species, other active materials may broadly repel a variety of insects. Depending on the active material selected, the compositions has been found to be useful in repelling such insects as ticks, mites, lice, flies, fleas, mosquitoes, and the like.

The compositions of the present invention should contain sufficient amounts of insect repellant active material to be efficacious in repelling the insect over a prolonged period of time following its application to the host. Preferably, the compositions should be efficacious at repelling insects for a period of at least several hours before re-application of the repellant is required. For the active materials disclosed herein, we have found that the insect repellant active material is effective when present in an amount, based upon the total weight of the composition, of from 6 percent to 30 percent, preferably from 10 percent to 15 percent, and most preferably from 11 percent to 14 percent.

The second component of the present invention is at least one alcohol selected from

  • i) a glycol monoalkyl ether having an alkyl group having from 1 carbon atom to 4 carbon atoms;
  • ii) a glycol containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms;
  • iii) oligomers of ethylene glycol or propylene glycol; or
  • iv) mixtures thereof.

As used herein, the term "monohydric alcohol" refers to a compound containing a single hydroxyl group and the term "glycol" refers to a compound containing two hydroxyl groups. If present, monohydric alcohols include, but are not limited to, ethanol and isopropanol. Suitable glycol monoalkyl ethers include diethylene glycol monoethyl ether, which has the structure CH3CH2OCH2CH2OCH2CH2OH

IV
This material is known by the Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association (CTFA) name ethoxydiglycol, and is available from the Union Carbide Company of Tarrytown, NY under the tradename, "CARBITOL."

Preferred glycols for use in the compositions of the invention include 1,2-propylene glycol and 1,3-butylene glycol, the latter having the formula:

Other preferred glycols include 1,2-pentanediol, otherwise known by its CTFA name as pentylene glycol, and 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol, otherwise known as hexylene glycol, the latter having the formula:

Other alcohols that are useful in the compositions of the present invention include oligomers of ethylene glycol or propylene glycol. Exemplary alcohols that are within this class of materials include diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, and mixtures thereof.

Preferably the alcohol is a glycol, and more preferably Is selected from propylene glycol, butylene glycol, pentylene glycol, hexylene glycol, oligomers of ethylene glycol, oligomers of propylene glycol or mixtures thereof. Of these, butylene glycol is most preferred.

As mentioned above, lower monohydric alcohols have a drying effect when applied to the skin. Accordingly, compositions of the present invention are substantially free of lower monohydric alcohols containing 2 to 4 carbon atoms, such as ethanol and isopropanol. By "substantially free" of lower alcohols, it is meant that the compositions should contain, based upon the total weight of the composition, less than 5 percent of such lower alcohols.

The composition of the present invention comprises, based on the overall weight of the composition, between 5 precent and 30 percent, and preferably from 10 percent to 15 percent of alcohol.

The third component of the composition of the present invention is a nonionic surfactant as defined in claim 1.

Exemplary alkoxylated alcohols i) of claim 1 useful as the nonionic surfactant in the compositions of the invention have the structure shown in formula II below: R5―(OCH2CH2)y―OH

II
   wherein R5 is a branched or unbranched alkyl group having from 6 to 22 carbon atoms and y is between 4 and 100, and preferably, between 10 and 100. A preferred surfactant of this class of materials is the species wherein R5 is a lauryl group and y has an average value of 23. This surfactant is known by the CTFA name "laureth 23" and is available from ICI Americas, Inc. of Wilmington, Delaware under the tradename, "BRIJ 35".

Another exemplary alkoxylated alcohol surfactant/emulsifier is an ethoxylated derivative of lanolin alcohol. Lanolin alcohol is a mixture of organic alcohols obtained from the hydrolysis of lanolin. An example of an ethoxylated derivative of lanolin alcohol is laneth-10, which is the polyethylene glycol ether of lanolin alcohol with an average ethoxylation value of 10.

Another class of surfactants ii) useful in the compositions of the invention are the alkoxylated alkyl phenols, which generally conform to the structure:

   wherein R6 is a branched or unbranched alkyl group having 6 to 22 carbon atoms and z is between 7 and 120, and preferably, between 10 and 120. An especially preferred member of this class of materials is the species wherein R6 is a nonyl group and z has an average value of approximately 14. This material is known by the CTFA name "nonoxynol-14" and is available under the tradename, "MAKON 14" from the Stepan Company of Northfield, Illinois.

Preferred nonionic surfactants include the alkoxylated alcohols and the alkoxylated alkyl phenols, with laureth-23 being more preferred.

The composition of the present invention comprise, based upon the total weight of the composition, from 1 percent to 10 percent, preferably from 1 percent to 7.5 percent, and more preferably from 3 percent to 6 percent of surfactant.

The compositions of the invention may also contain other optional additives known in the art of personal care product formulations, such as thickeners, buffering agents, chelating agents, preservatives, fragrances, and mixtures thereof.

Preferred thickeners are the homopolymers or copolymers of acrylic acid or salts thereof. An exemplary thickener useful in the compositions of the invention is the material known by the CTFA name, "Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer," which is a copolymer of C10-30 alkyl acrylates and one or more monomers of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid or one of their simple esters crosslinked with an allyl ether of sucrose or an allyl ether of pentaerythritol. One such material useful in the compositions of the invention is marketed by BFGoodrich Specialty Chemicals of Cleveland, Ohio under the tradename, "CARBOPOL ETD 2020." Another useful thickener includes the material known by its CTFA name, "Carbomer," which is a crosslinked homopolymer of acrylic acid.

In use, the thickener polymers are preferably neutralized with an inorganic or organic base. Exemplary inorganic bases include sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. Exemplary organic bases include triethanolamine and tris(hydroxymethyl)amino methane, that latter of which is known by the CTFA name, "tromethamine."

If it is desired to deliver the composition in the form of a thickened liquid or gel, the composition preferably has a viscosity of 100 to 30,000 centipoise, and more preferably from 10,000 to 20,000 centipoise.

Buffering agents known in the art are preferably present in the composition of the present invention to maintain its pH in the range of 5.5 to 7.5.

The compositions of the present invention may also contain one or more therapeutically or cosmetically active ingredients. Exemplary therapeutic or cosmetically active ingredients useful in the compositions of the invention include fungicides. sunscreening agents, sunblocking agents, vitamins, tanning agents, plant extracts, antiinflammatory agents, anti-oxidants, radical scavenging agents, retinoids, alpha-hydroxy acids, emollients, antiseptics, antibiotics, antibacterial agents or antihistamines, and may be present in an amount effective for achieving the therapeutic or cosmetic result desired.

The compositions of the invention may be formulated and packaged so as to deliver the product in a variety of forms including, but not limited to, a cologne, a lotion, a spray, an aerosol, a cream, a milk, a gel, an ointment, a suspension, a dispersion, a foam, a makeup, a shampoo, a hair lacquer or a hair rinse. The compositions of the invention are also preferably optically transparent.

The method of applying the insect repellant composition will depend upon its form as enumerated above. For example, when the composition is in the form of a lotion, the composition could be dispensed on the hands or on other body parts of the host, and then uniformly spread over a larger portion of the body. In the case of an aerosol or spray, the composition may be applied as such and either left on or further spread over parts of the body. For application to the hair or scalp, the compositions may be applied either as a leave-on or as a rinse-off type product.

Another embodiment of the present invention is directed to a method of reducing the rate of degradation of the insect repellant active materials in aqueous solution. We have unexpectedly discovered that by combining under conditions sufficient the insect repellant active materials with a degradation-reducing amount of the surfactants, and preferably the non-ionic surfactants, of the composition of the present invention, the degradation rate of the insect repellant active materials was significantly reduced. Preferred degradation reducing surfactants include the alkoxylated alcohols and alkoxylated alkyl phenols of the types and in the amounts enumerated above, with laureth-23 and nonoxynol-14 being most preferred.

As used herein, "degradation reducing" amount means the amount of surfactant such that the decomposition of the insect repellant active material in the presence of the surfactant is at least 5%, preferably at least 10%, and more preferably at least 15% less than the amount of insect repellant active material that would have been degraded in the absence of the surfactant, with comparable time, temperature, and pressure conditions. For example, in a surfactant-free composition containing 100 parts of insect repellent active material, 10 parts of the material would have degraded under certain conditions. By contrast, when surfactant is added to the same insect repellant active material-containing composition in the relevant concentrations, then the degradation amount of surfactant in the composition would be the amount that would retard the degradation of the insect repellant active material to no more than 9.5 parts, or preferably 9 parts, or more preferably 8.5 parts. Typically, the degradation reducing amount of nonionic surfactant is, based upon the total weight of the composition, of from 1 percent to 10 percent and preferably, from 1 percent to 7.5 percent. Preferably the surfactant, the active material, and other Ingredients are combined under ambient conditions.

The invention illustratively disclosed herein suitably may be practiced in the absence of any component, ingredient, or step which is not specifically disclosed herein. Several examples are set forth below to further illustrate the nature of the invention and the manner of carrying it out. However, the invention should not be considered as being limited to the details thereof.

Examples Example 1 : Preparation of Insect Repellant Formulation

Into a stirred vessel the ingredients set forth in Table 1 below were added in sequence and stirred until the mixture was homogeneous: Concentration (weight %) Component/Supplier Ex. 1 Comparative

Example 1
ethyl 3-(N-butyl-acetamido) propionate from Merck KgaA under the name, "Insect Repellent 3535" 12.5 12.5 1,3-butylene glycol 12.5 12.5 laureth-23 from ICI Americas, Inc. under the name, "BRIJ 35" 5.0 0 water q.s. to 100% q.s. to 100%

Comparative Example 1: Preparation of Surfactant-Free Insect Repellant Formulation

The composition of Comparative Example 1 was prepared in accordance with the procedure set forth in Example 1, except that the laureth-23 surfactant was omitted therefrom as shown in Table 1 above.

The active ingredient, ethyl 3-(N-butylacetamido) propionate, when undergoing degradation in aqueous solution was expected to undergo hydrolysis according to the following equation:

Since the hydrolysis product of this active ingredient is an acid, i.e., 3-(N-butylacetamido) propionic acid, its hydrolytic degradation was expected to be accompanied by a shift to lower pH. Table 2 shows the change in pH of the composition of Example 1 over time as compared with the pH changes of the surfactant-free composition of Comparative Example 1. pH Days at room temperature Example 1 Comparative Example 1 0 4.5 4.5 5 4.4 4.2 10 4.2 3.9 15 4.1 3.6 20 4.1 3.6 25 4.0 3.5

This Example shows that the surfactant-containing composition of Example 1 did not decrease in pH to the same extent as the surfactant-free composition of Comparative Example 1, which thereby suggests that the nonionic surfactant contributes to the reduction in the degradation of the insect repellant active material in aqueous solution.

Examples 2 - 4 and Comparative Example 2: Preparation of Additional Surfactant-Containing and Surfactant-free Compositions

The formulations shown in Table 3 were prepared in accordance with the manner described in Example 1. The changes in pH stability of these formulations with time are shown in Table 4. Component Concentration (weight %) Component Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Comparative

Example 2
ethyl 3-(N-butylacetamido) propionate 20 20 20 20 1,3-butylene glycol 20 20 20 20 laureth-23 3.5 5 7.5 0 water q.s. to 100% q.s. to 100% q.s. to 100% q.s. to 100%
pH Weeks @ 50°C Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Comparative

Example 2
0 4.5 4.7 4.7 4.4 1 4.1 4.3 4.6 3.8 2 4.1 4.1 4.5 3.7 3 3.7 4.0 4.2 3.3 4 3.4 3.7 4.0 3.2 5 3.4 3.5 3.9 3.1
These Examples show that the formulations containing the nonionic surfactant have a reduced pH drift relative to the surfactant-free formulation. Furthermore, the rate of pH drift, which is indicative of the rate of hydrolysis, decreases as the amount of surfactant in the formulation increases. This Example therefore further supports our belief that the greater the amount of nonionic surfactant present in the composition, the lower the degradation rate of insect repellant active material.

Example 5: Measure of Insect Repellent Active Material Degradation

The degradation of the active material ethyl 3-(N-butylacetamido) propionate contained in the formulations of Example 4 and Comparative Example 2, respectively, was measured directly by liquid chromatography. Approximately 10 µl of each formulation was placed in an endcapped LiChroCART stainless steel column available from EM Sciences of Gibbstown, New Jersey (catalog No. 50995), having a 250 mm length by 4 mm diameter and containing Lichrospher 100 RP-18 packing material having a film thickness of 5 µm. The analytical procedure used an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile/water (31:69) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min on a liquid chromatograph equipped with a 220 nm UV detector. The results are shown in Table 8. Analytically determined percent actives in formulation (percent degradation) Time @ 50°C (weeks) Example 4 Comparative Example 2 0 21.6 21.8 3 20.4 (5.5) 18.3 (16.1) 6 20.6 (4.6) 17.8 (18.3)

This Example shows that the formulation of Example 4 containing 7.5% laureth-23 showed less degradation that the surfactant-free formulation of Comparative Example 2, which further supports our belief that the selected nonionic surfactants contribute to the reduction in degradation of the active insect repellent material.

Examples 6-8 and Comparative Example 3: Preparation of Additional Surfactant-Containing Compositions and Surfactant-free Compositions

The formulations shown in Table 2 were prepared in accordance with the manner described in Example 1, but the laureth-23 surfactant was replaced by nonoxynol-14 available from the Stepan Company under the tradename, "MAKON 14.- The compositions of these formulations are shown in Table 5 and the pH stability of these formulations is shown in Table 6. Component Concentration (Weight %) Component Example 6 Example 7 Example 8 Comparative

Example 3
ethyl 3-(N-butylacetamido) propionate 20 20 20 20 1,3-butylene glycol 20 20 20 20 Nonoxynol-14 3.5 5 7.5 0 water q.s. to 100% q.s. to 100% q.s. to 100% q.s. to 100%
pH Time @ 50°C

(weeks)
Example 6 Example 7 Example 8 Comparative

Example 3
0 5.12 5.27 5.5 4.46 1 4.57 4.87 5.21 3.81 2 4.87 4.51 4.92 3.51 4 3.7 4.07 4.49 3.25 5 3.55 3.82 4.31 3.11

These Examples show that the formulations containing the nonoxynol-14 nonionic surfactant do not decrease in pH to the value of the corresponding surfactant-free formulation. Similarly, the rate of pH drift, Indicative of the rate of hydrolysis, also decreases with increasing quantities of surfactant in the formulation.

Example 9 and Comparative Example 4: Thickener-Containing and Thickener-Free Compositions

2.0 parts laureth-23 were dissolved in 54.3 parts water to form Premix A. Premix B was then formed by adding 12.5 parts butylene glycol to 12.5 parts ethyl 3-(N-butylacetamido) propionate. Premix A was then added with stirring to Premix B until the mixture was homogeneous to form Premix C.

0.25 parts of a crosslinked Acrylate/C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer marketed by BFGoodrich Specialty Chemicals of Cleveland, Ohio as a under the tradename, "Carbopol ETD 2020" were added with stirring into a vessel containing 18.1 parts water until a uniform mucilage was formed. After neutralizing the mucilage by adding triethanolamine thereto with stirring until a dear gel was formed, the resulting mucilage was added with stirring into a vessel containing Premix C until a uniform gel was obtained.

The composition of Comparative Example 4 was made according to the procedure of Example 1.

The compositions of the resulting formulations are shown in Table 7: Component Concentration

(Weight %)
Component Example 9 Comparative

Example 4
ethyl 3-(N-butylacetamido) propionate 12.5 12.5 1,3-butylene glycol 12.5 12.5 laureth-23 2.0 2.0 Acrylate/C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Crosspolymer 0.25 0 triethanolamine 0.35 0 water q.s. to 100% q.s. to 100%
The formulation of Example 9 has a viscosity of about 8000 to about 10000 centipoise. The rate of change of the pH of these formulations as a function of time upon storage at a temperature of 50°C is shown in Figure 1.

These Examples show that the thickener-containing formulation of Example 8 has a lower rate of pH change, and hence, a lower implied rate of degradation of the active material, than the thickener-free formulation of Comparative Example 4.

Examples 10 - 13: Insect Repellent Efficacy

The formulations shown in Table 9 were prepared in the manner described in Example 1. Component Concentration (weight %) Component Example 10 Example 11 Example 12 Example 13 ethyl 3-(N-butylacetamido) propionate 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 1,3-butylene glycol 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 laureth-23 0 1.5 3.0 5.0 water q.s. to 100% q.s. to 100% q.s. to 100% q.s. to 100%

After applying 0.7 grams of each formulation in Examples 10 - 13, respectively, to the forearms of three male subjects, the subjects then inserted their forearms into 25 cm X 25 cm X 40 cm cheesecloth-covered wire cages containing approximately 500 seven-to-ten-day-old mixed sex Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Assessments were conducted for three minutes per arm commencing immediately after the application of the formulation thereto and every hour thereafter until a confirmed bite was recorded. A confirmed bite was defined as more than one bite in a given exposure period or one bite in each of two consecutive exposure periods.

A 15 second pre-treatment exposure of an untreated forearm was conducted for each subject at the beginning of each day of testing. Greater than 10 landings and bites were recorded in this period for each subject.

The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance with treatment means separated using least significant difference techniques. The repellency data for the formulations of Table 9 are shown in Table 10. Composition of

Example
Subject # Bites in Treatment Hour Confirmed

Bite Hour
Mean

Efficacy

(hours)
0 1 2 3 4 5 10 1 0 0 0 2 3 10 2 0 0 0 3 3 3 10 3 0 0 0 1 3 3 11 1 0 0 1 3 2 11 2 0 0 0 0 2 4 3.7 11 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 5 12 1 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 12 2 0 0 0 0 2 4 4.3 12 3 0 0 0 0 5 4 13 1 0 0 3 2 13 2 0 0 0 0 4 4 3.3 13 3 0 0 0 0 3 4
Due to the limited sample size, the least significant difference in mean efficacy that would be statistically significant at the 95% confidence level would be a difference of 2 hours. While none of the data for Examples 10 - 13 are different at this level of statistical significance, the data do point to a trend in increasing efficacy with the addition of surfactant, which we believe could be confirmed with larger sample sizes. Further analysis of the data indicate that the examples with surfactant (Examples 11 - 13) are statistically different from the sample without surfactant (Example 10) at the 70% confidence level.

Examples 14 - 16: Particle Size Analysis of the Formulations

The formulations shown in Table 11 were prepared in the manner described in Example 1. Component Concentration (weight %) Component Example 14 Example 15 Example 16 ethyl 3-(N-butylacetamido) propionate 12.5 12.5 12.5 1,3-butylene glycol 12.5 12.5 12.5 laureth-23 0 3.5 5.0 water q.s. to 100% q.s. to 100% q.s. to 100% Number Weighted Distribution (nm) 9.6 ± 2.0

(100%)
11.5 ± 2.4

(100%)
4.3 ± 0.5

(100%)
All of these formulations were optically transparent. The particle sizes of the resultant formulations were analyzed by exposing each formulation to dynamic laser light scattering using a NICOMP 370 submicron particle analyzer available from Particle Sizing Systems, Inc. of Santa Barbara, CA. The number-weighted mean diameter of the particles in the compositions of Examples 14-16 are also recorded in Table 11.

The compositions of Examples 14-16 were also examined using freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Samples of the compositions were prepared in accordance with techniques described in chapter 5 of "Low Temperature Microscopy and Analysis" by Patrick Echlin, Plenum Publishing Corp., New York, 1992, which is incorporation herein by reference, except that the samples were rapidly cooled with liquid propane to -196°C and, after fracturing, were etched at -150°C to remove a surface layer of water. Freeze fracture photomicrographs at 150,000 X of the resulting specimens prepared from the compositions of Examples 14, 15 and 16 are shown in Figures 2, 3 and 4, respectively.

The photomicrograph of Figure 2, which was taken of the specimen prepared from the surfactant-free composition of Example 14, shows the presence of large agglomerates ranging in size from 50 to 150 nm. These agglomerates are suggestive of unsolubilized insect repellent active material and are expected to be unstable on product storage.

The photomicrograph of Figure 3, which was taken of the specimen prepared from the 3.5% laureth-23-containing composition of Example 15, shows some degree of agglomeration; however, the amount is greatly reduced relative to the amount of agglomeration in the composition of Example 14. This photomicrograph also shows the presence of ordered structures which are believed to be micelles or vesicles ranging in size from 13 to 25 nm.

The photomicrograph of Figure 4, which was taken of the specimen prepared from the 5% laureth-23-containing composition of Example 16, shows no large agglomerates. This Example shows that the presence of more surfactant in the formulation of Example 15 also gives rise to a greater number of smaller, more uniform micelles of spherical shape than those of Example 15, and thus a more stable formulation.

While not intending to be bound by the following theory, it is believed that the preferred formulations of the present invention exhibit increased stability against degradation of the insect repellant active material because the active material is contained, at least in part, within the ordered micellar structures seen in the photomicrographs of Figures 3 and 4. The micelles are believed to protect the active material from degradation by the aqueous environment.

Example 17: Preparation of Formulation Containing Buffering Agent and Chelating Agent

0.68 parts of disodium hydrogen phosphate and 0.87 parts potassium dihydrogen phosphate were dissolved in 68.15 parts deionized water. 0.05 parts VERSENE NA disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was added with stirring thereto until it fully dissolved to form Premix A.

In a separate vessel, the following ingredients were charged in succession with constant agitation: 12.5 parts ethyl 3-(N-butylacetamido) propionate; 12.5 parts 1,3-butylene glycol; 0.25 parts fragrance; 5.0 parts laureth-23; and Premix A in order to form an insect repellant formulation.

Examples 18 - 21: Preparation of Insect Repellent Cologne

Examples 18 - 21 are prepared according to the method of Example 17 using the components set forth in Table 12: Component Concentration (weight %) Component Example 18 Example 19 Example 20 Example 21 ethyl 3-(N-butylacetamido) propionate 12.5 12.5 12.5 DEET 6.0 Ethanol 1,3-propylene glycol 12.5 1,3-butylene glycol 6.25 5.0 pentylene glycol 12.5 6.25 laureth-23 3.5 3.5 3.5 Laureth 12 Nonoxynol-14 5.0 fragrance 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 water q.s. to 100% q.s. to 100% q.s. to 100% q.s. to 100%

The resulting formulations are useful as an insect repellent cologne.

Examples 22 and 23: Preparation of Insect Repellant Gels and Sprays

The formulations of Examples 22 and 23 are prepared according to the method of Example 9 but with the components set forth in Table 13: Component Concentration

(weight percent)
Component Example 22 Example 23 ethyl 3-(N-butylacetamido) propionate 12.5 12.5 Butylene Glycol 12.5 12.5 polyvinyl pyrrolidone 5.0 5.00 Laureth-23 3.0 2.00 Carbomer * 1.00 Triethanolamine or 1.00 Purified Water q.s. to 100% q.s. to 100%
* available from Goldschmidt Chemical Corp. of Hopewell, VA.

The resulting compositions are useful as a lice repellant hair spray and hair gel, respectively.

Example 24: Preparation of Insect Repellant Compositions

The formulation of Example 24 is prepared according to the method of Example 9, but with the components set forth in Table 14: Component Concentration

(weight percent)
Component Example 24 Triclosan* 0.25 ethyl 3-(N-butylacetamido) propionate 12.50 Butylene Glycol 12.50 nonoxynol 14 7.00 Carbomer 0.25 Triethanolamine 0.35 Purified Water q.s.
* available from Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corp. of Greensboro, NC The resulting composition is useful as an antibacterial insect repellant.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Insektenabwehrende Zusammensetzung, die, basierend auf dem Gesamtgewicht der Zusammensetzung, folgendes umfaßt:
    • a) 6 bis 30 Prozent insektenabwehrendes aktives Material, wobei das insektenabwehrende aktive Material ist: i) N,N-Diethyltoluamid; ii) eine oder mehrere Verbindungen der Formel:
      wobei R1 eine verzweigte oder unverzweigte Alkylgruppe mit einem Kohlenstoffatom bis 6 Kohlenstoffatome ist; R2 H, Methyl oder Ethyl ist; R3 eine verzweigte oder unverzweigte Alkyl- oder Alkoxygruppe mit 1 Kohlenstoffatom bis 8 Kohlenstoffatomen ist; und X eine -CN- oder eine -COOR4-Gruppe ist, wobei R4 eine verzweigte oder unverzweigte Alkylgruppe mit 1 Kohlenstoffatom bis 6 Kohlenstoffatomen ist; iii) ein oder mehrere natürliche oder synthetische Pyrethroide; oder iv) eine Mischung daraus;
    • b) 5 bis 30 Prozent eines Glykolmonoalkylethers, wobei das Alkyl 1 bis 4 Kohlenstoffatome aufweist; ein Glykol, enthaltend 3 bis 6 Kohlenstoffatome; ein Oligomer von Ethylenglykol oder Propylenglykol; oder eine Mischung daraus; und
    • c) ein bis 10 Gewichtsprozent eines grenzflächenaktiven Agens, wobei das grenzflächenaktive Agens ist: i) ein alkoxylierter Alkohol mit der Struktur R5-(OCH2CH2)y-OH, wobei R5 eine verzweigte oder unverzweigte Alkylgruppe mit 6 bis 22 Kohlenstoffatomen ist und y zwischen 4 und 100, vorzugsweise zwischen 10 und 100, beträgt; ii) ein alkoxyliertes Alkylphenol mit der Struktur:
      wobei R6 eine verzweigte oder unverzweigte Alkylgruppe mit 6 bis 22 Kohlenstoffatomen ist und z zwischen 10 und 120 beträgt; oder iii) eine Mischung daraus;
    wobei die Zusammensetzung weniger als 5 Prozent monohydrische Alkohole, enthaltend 2 bis 4 Kohlenstoffatome, umfaßt.
  2. Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1, wobei das insektenabwehrende aktive Material N,N-Diethyltoluamid, Ethyl-3-(N-butylacetamido)-propionat oder eine Mischung daraus ist.
  3. Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei der Alkohol Propylenglykol, Butylenglykol, Pentylenglykol, Hexylenglykol, ein Oligomer von Ethylenglykol, ein Oligomer von Propylenglykol oder eine Mischung daraus ist.
  4. Zusammensetzung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, welche, basierend auf dem Gesamtgewicht der Zusammensetzung, 10 bis 15 Prozent eines insektenabwehrenden aktiven Materials, 10 bis 15 Prozent Alkohol und 1 bis 7,5 Prozent grenzflächenaktives Agens umfaßt.
  5. Verfahren zur Verminderung der Abbaurate eines insektenabwehrenden aktiven Materials in einer wäßrigen Zusammensetzung, wobei das aktive Material in einer Menge von 6 bis 30 Prozent der Zusammensetzung vorhanden ist und ausgewählt ist aus aktiven Materialien von Bestandteil a), definiert wie in Anspruch 1, umfassend die Aufnahme einer den Abbau reduzierenden Menge an grenzflächenaktivem Agens, ausgewählt aus den grenzflächenaktiven Agenzien von Bestandteil c), definiert wie in Anspruch 1, in die Zusammensetzung, wobei die Zusammensetzung weniger als 5 Prozent monohydrische Alkohole, enthaltend 2 bis 4 Kohlenstoffatome, umfaßt.
  6. Zusammensetzung, wie in einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4 definiert, zur Verwendung als ein Insektenabwehrmittel.
Anspruch[en]
  1. An insect repellant composition comprising, based upon the total weight of the composition:
    • a) from 6 to 30 percent of insect repellant active material, wherein the insect repellant active material is: i) N,N-diethyltoluamide; ii) one or more compounds of the formula
      wherein R1 is a branched or unbranched alkyl group having 1 carbon atom to 6 carbon atoms, R2 is H, methyl or ethyl, R3 is a branched or unbranched alkyl or alkoxy group having from 1 carbon atom to 8 carbon atoms, and X is a -CN or a -COOR4 group wherein R4 is a branched or unbranched alkyl group having from 1 carbon atom to 6 carbon atoms; iii) one or more natural or synthetic pyrethroids; or iv) a mixture thereof;
    • b) from 5 to 30 percent of a glycol monoalkyl ether, said alkyl having from 1 to 4 carbon atoms; a glycol containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms; an oligomer of ethylene glycol or propylene glycol; or a mixture thereof; and
    • c) from 1 to 10 percent by weight of surfactant, wherein the surfactant is i) an alkoxylated alcohol having the structure R5-(OCH2CH2)y-OH wherein R5 is a branched or unbranched alkyl group having 6 to 22 carbon atoms and y is between 4 and 100, preferably between 10 and 100; ii) an alkoxylated alkyl phenol having the structure
      wherein R6 is a branched or unbranched alkyl group having 6 to 22 carbon atoms and z is between 10 and 120; or iii) a mixture thereof;
    wherein said composition comprises less than 5 percent of monohydric alcohols containing 2 to 4 carbon atoms.
  2. The composition of claim 1 wherein the insect repellant active material is N,N-diethyltoluamide, ethyl 3-(N-butylacetamido) propionate or a mixture thereof.
  3. The composition of claim 1 or 2 wherein the alcohol is propylene glycol, butylene glycol, pentylene glycol, hexylene glycol, an oligomer of ethylene glycol, an oligomer of propylene glycol or a mixture thereof.
  4. The composition of any one of claims 1 to 3 which comprises, based upon the total weight of the composition, from 10 to 15 percent of insect repellant active material, 10 to 15 percent alcohol and 1 to 7.5 percent surfactant.
  5. A method of reducing the rate of degradation of an insect repellant active material in an aqueous composition, said active material being present in an amount of from 6 to 30 percent of the composition and being selected from active materials of component a ) as defined in claim 1, comprising incorporating into the composition a degradation reducing amount of a surfactant selected from the surfactants of component c ) as defined in claim 1, wherein said composition comprises less than 5 percent of monohydric alcohols containing 2 to 4 carbon atoms..
  6. A composition as defined in any one of claims 1 to 4 for use as an insect repellant.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Composition répulsive pour insectes comprenant, sur la base du poids total de la composition :
    • a) de 6 à 30 % d'un matériau actif répulsif pour insectes, dans lequel le matériau actif répulsif est : i) du N,N - diéthyltoluamide ; ii) un ou plusieurs composés de formule :
      dans laquelle R1 est un groupe alkyle ramifié ou non ramifié ayant de 1 atome de carbone à 6 atomes de carbone, R2 est H, méthyle ou éthyle, R3 est un groupe alkyle ou alkoxy ramifié ou non ramifié ayant de 1 à 8 atomes de carbone, et X est un groupe - CN ou un groupe - COOR4 dans lequel R4 est un groupe alkyle ramifié ou non ramifié ayant de 1 à 6 atomes de carbone : iii) un ou plusieurs pyréthroïdes synthétiques ou naturels ; ou iv) un mélange de ceux-ci ;
    • b) de 5 à 30 % d'un éther de mono alkyle de glycol, ledit alkyle ayant de 1 à 4 atomes de carbone ; un glycol contenant de 3 à 6 atomes de carbone ; un oligomère d'éthylène glycol ou de propylène glycol ; ou un mélange de ceux-ci ; et
    • c) de 1 à 10 % en poids de tensioactif, dans lequel le tensioactifs est i) un alcool alkoxylé ayant la structure R5 - (OCH2CH2)y - OH dans laquelle R5 est un groupe alkyle ramifié ou non ramifié ayant de 6 à 22 atomes de carbone et y est entre 4 et 100, de préférence entre 10 et 100 ; ii) un alkyle phénol alkoxylé ayant la structure :

      dans laquelle R6 est un groupe alkyle ramifié ou non ramifié ayant de 6 à 22 atomes de carbone et z est compris entre 10 et 120 ; ou iii) un mélange de ceux-ci ;
    dans laquelle ladite composition comprend moins de 5 pourcent d'alcools monohydriques contenant de 2 à 4 atomes de carbone.
  2. Composition selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle le matériau actif répulsif contre les insectes est du N,N - diéthyltoluamide, du 3 - (N - butylacétamido) propionate ou un mélange de ceux-ci.
  3. Composition selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans laquelle l'alcool est du propylène glycol, du butylène glycol, du pentylène glycol, de l'héxylène glycol, un oligomère d'éthylène glycol, un oligomère de propylène glycol ou un mélange de ceux-ci.
  4. Composition selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, qui comprend, sur la base du poids total de la composition, de 10 à 15 % d'un matériau actif répulsif pour les insectes, de 10 à 15 % d'alcool et de 1 à 7,5 % de tensioactif.
  5. Procédé pour réduire le rythme de dégradation d'un matériau actif répulsif pour les insectes dans une composition, aqueuse, ledit matériau actif étant présent dans une quantité allant de 6 à 30 pourcent de la composition et étant sélectionné à partir de matériaux actifs de composant a) comme définit dans la revendication 1, comprenant le fait d'incorporer dans la composition une quantité réduisant la dégradation d'un tensioactif sélectionné à partir des tensioactifs du composant c) tel que définit dans la revendication 1, dans lequel ladite composition comprend moins de 5 % d'alcools monohydriques contenant de 2 à 4 atomes de carbone.
  6. Composition selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4 destinée à être utilisée en tant que répulsif pour les insectes.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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