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VERWENDUNG VON EINEM SEMICARBAZON-PFLANZENWACHSTUMSREGULATOR ZUR ERTRAGSSTEIGERUNG BEI NUTZPFLANZEN - Dokument EP1237412
 
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Dokumentenidentifikation EP1237412 28.08.2003
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 1237412
Titel VERWENDUNG VON EINEM SEMICARBAZON-PFLANZENWACHSTUMSREGULATOR ZUR ERTRAGSSTEIGERUNG BEI NUTZPFLANZEN
Anmelder BASF CORPORATION, Mount Olive, N.J., US
Erfinder BOWE, Steven, Chapel Hill, US;
RADEMACHER, Wilhelm, 67117 Limburgerhof, DE;
NEWSOM, J., Larry, Greenville, US;
FERGUSON, P., Gregory, Madison, US
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 60004097
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, CH, CY, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LI, LU, MC, NL, PT, SE, TR
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 07.12.2000
EP-Aktenzeichen 009933680
WO-Anmeldetag 07.12.2000
PCT-Aktenzeichen PCT/EP00/12316
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001043544
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 21.06.2001
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 11.09.2002
EP date of grant 23.07.2003
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 28.08.2003
IPC-Hauptklasse A01N 47/34

Beschreibung[en]
Description

The present invention relates to the use of diflufenzopyr (DFFP) for crop yield enhancements.

Crop yield is subject to many factors including crop genetics, environment (e.g., air, soil and/or water) and cultural conditions. These factors must be optimal in order to realize maximum yield potential for growing crop plants. Crop plants whose fruit is the harvested commodity seem to be especially sensitive to stress factors which limit yield. Less than ideal conditions or "stress" may lead to smaller fruit size, limited fruit formation and/or fruit abortion which results in a net loss of yield.

Plant growth regulators (PGR's) affect the physiology of plant growth and influence the natural rhythm of a plant. More specifically, plant growth regulators may, for example, reduce plant height, stimulate seed germination, induce flowering, darken leaf coloring, minimize lodging of cereals, slow grass growth on lawns, reduce boll rot and provide better boll retention in cotton.

Different kinds of plant growth regulators are known, for example 2',6'-dihalobenzaldehyde-1-methyl-3-(alkyl/haloalkyl)sulfonyl semicarbazones (US 3,709,936) or isobenzofurandione thiosemicarbazones (US 4,272,280). Furthermore it is known that certain azole derivatives - which have activity against phytopathogenic fungi - increase the sugar content of treated sugar cane crops (GB 2 313 595).

Now DFFP, a semicarbazone PGR, has been found to enhance the marketable yield of fruiting crops by increasing the harvested size and/or number of fruits retained by the crop. DFFP may thus also reduce the dominance of older fruits over younger fruits ("primi- gen dominance") resulting in enhanced fruit set and yield.

The yield enhancements achieved by the present invention may usefully be employed with crops that are especially sensitive to stress factors (e.g., cotton, tomatoes or the like) or which poorly regulate fruit load due to determinant growth (e.g., some soybean varieties), or so-called "alternate year" fruit producers (e.g., apples, pears, peaches, apricots, pistachios and the like).

Broadly, therefore, the present invention is directed toward the fruit yield enhancement by applying DFFP in a fruit yield enhancing effective amount to the locus of a fruit bearing plant. Most preferably, the DFFP treatment is practiced at the onset of re-productive growth - that is, at the onset of the flowering and/or fruit reproductive growth stage of the plant.

By using such an early treatment strategy, improvements in the plant's fruit yield are achieved.

These and other aspects and advantages of the present invention will become more clear after careful consideration is given to the following detailed description of the preferred exemplary embodiments thereof.

The present invention can be employed with crop plants which display determinate or indeterminate growth patterns. Determinate plants have a defined period of vegetative growth followed by a defined interval of reproductive growth in which there is a maximum number of flowers initiated per plant. An indeterminate plant growth pattern, on the other hand, is characterized by an initial period of vegetative growth followed by a period where both vegetative and reproductive growth occur together. The length of the second period and the number of flowers produced are determined largely by the growing conditions.

One example of an important crop plant that displays an indeterminate growth pattern is cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Cotton is a perennial of tropical origin that is cultivated as an annual in agricultural production in temperate and subtropical regions of the world. After an initial period of vegetative growth, a cotton plant initiates reproductive growth while vegetative growth continues. Flower buds (squares) appear and develop into flowers and after pollination give rise to fruit that are referred to as bolls.

Due to its indeterminate nature, squares continue to appear long after there is sufficient time left in the growing season for these squares to develop into mature, harvestable bolls. The growth and development of these late squares and young bolls drains the limited resources of the plant that might be better utilized by bolls that have sufficient time to mature to a harvestable stage. Likewise, the shoot of the cotton plant continues to grow and initiate new leaves throughout most of the growing season. Many of the leaves that are initiated late in the growing season will never become carbohydrate source leaves due to insufficient time remaining in the growing season. Thus, these young leaves demand a portion of the carbohydrates and other nutrients that could be better utilized by the bolls that are likely to be harvested.

DFFP may also reduce shedding of older fruit when plants are subjected to stress factors, including drought or insects, for example.

An example of an important crop plant which may exhibit both a determinate and indeterminate growth patterns is the soybean plant (Glycine max).

DFFP that is employed in accordance with the present invention, as well as salts thereof, is described more fully in U.S. Patent No. 5,098,466. This compound may be synthesized by reacting a the respective carbonyl compound and the respective semicarbazide together at room temperature in the presence of an alcohol solvent, such as methanol or ethanol and with or without an acid catalyst to give DFFP that may be employed in the practice of the present invention.

DFFP is applied to the locus of the plant in an amount between about 0.01 to about 5.0 grams of active ingredient per hectare (g ai/ha), and particularly between about 0.05 to about 1.0 g ai/ha.

DFFP is applied in accordance with the present invention early in the reproductive cycle of the plant. That is, DFFP is applied at the onset of the fruit and/or flowering reproductive growth stage of the plant. By onset of the fruit and/or flowering reproductive growth stage is meant that growth stage of the plant which begins prior to flower bud growth (i.e., bud swell, square formation) and continues through pollination or fruit set.

DFFP may be applied in the form of dusts, granules, solutions, emulsions, wettable powders, flowables and suspensions. Application of a compound as an active ingredient is made according to conventional procedure to the locus of the plant in need of the same using the appropriate amount of the compound per acre as will be described below. According to the present invention the application of the compound to the "locus" of the plant includes application to the plant or parts of the plant.

DFFP may be applied to above ground portions of the plants. The application of liquid and particulate solid DFFP compositions to above ground portions of plants may be carried out by conventional methods, for example, boom and hand application, including sprayers or dusters. The composition may be applied aerially as a spray, if desired. DFFP employed in the practice of the present invention is most preferably used in the form of aqueous solutions. The solutions may be applied in a conventional manner, for example, by spraying, atomizing or watering the locus of the plant.

DFFP may also be applied in conjunction with other ingredients or adjuvants commonly employed in the art. Examples of such ingredients include drift control agents, defoaming agents, preservatives, surfactants, fertilizers, phytotoxicants, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, wetting agents, adherents, nematocides, bactericides, trace elements, synergists, antidotes, mixtures thereof and other such adjuvants and ingredients well known in the plant growth regulating art.

Regardless of the manner in which it is applied, DFFP is applied to the locus of a crop plant in need of yield enhancement in an amount between about 0.01 to about 5.0 g ai/ha, and particularly between about 0.05 to about 1.0 g ai/ha.

The present invention will be further illustrated by way of the following non-limiting examples.

Example 1

Trials were conducted over several different growing seasons as shown in Table I below by applying a single or sequential application of DFFP at rates of 1 g ai/ha or less to the locus of growing cotton plants at the onset of production (i.e., pinhead square, or PHS). All applications utilized a spray adjuvant (typically 0.25% NIS or 0.625% v/v Dash® HC).

Each of Y and Z conveniently signify independently H, halogen (F, Cl, Br, I), C1-5alkyl, C1-5-alkoxy, CF3, phenoxy, phenyl, nitro, cyano or hydroxy.

Z1 signifies conveniently H, halogen or C1-5alkoxy.

Z2 is preferably H.

Especially preferred are compound A wherein X is oxygen.

Also compounds A are preferred, wherein R is 2-COOH-phenyl or 2-COOR5-phenyl, which phenyl group is substituted by Y, R2 is a group -C(=X)-NHR10, R3 is C1-5alkyl, R4 is H or C1-5alkyl, R5 is C1-5alkyl, C1-5haloalkyl, C2-10alkoxyalkyl or -CH(-R11)-O-C(=O)-C1-8alkyl, R10 is phenyl or pyridyl, which groups are substituted by Z and Z1, R11 is H or C1-5alkyl, X is O or S, each of Y and Z is independently H, halogen, C1-5alkyl, C1-5alkoxy, CF3, phenyl, phenoxy, nitro, cyano or hydroxy, and Z1 is H, halogen, C1-5alkyl or C1-5alkoxy, whereby an eventual carboxy group in R is in free form or in salt form.

Also compounds A are preferred, wherein R is a heteroaromatic ring selected from

  • a) pyridyl which may be fused by its [b] or [c]-side with a benzene ring,
  • b) 2-pyridyl-N-oxide or 2-pyrazinyl-N1-oxide,
  • c) pyrimidinyl,
  • d) pyrazinyl,
  • e) 3- or 4-cinnolinyl or 2-quinoxalinyl and
  • f) a five-membered heteroaromatic ring bound by one of its ring C-atoms to the CR3-group, comprising Q as a heteroatom or he-terogroup, whereby said five-membered heteroaromatic ring may either be fused by its [b]-side with a benzene ring or may comprise one N-heteroatom in addition to Q, which group R is ortho-subsituted by the group R' and additionally bears one further substituent Y, both R' and Y being attached to a ring carbon atom
  • Q is oxygen, sulfur or NH,
  • R' is the carboxy group in free form or salt form, or is the group COOR5,
  • R3 is H or C1-5alkyl.

Also compounds A are preferred, wherein R10 is a phenyl radical wherein Z, Z1 and Z2 are independently H, C1-5alkyl, C1-8haloalkyl, C1-8alkoxy, C1-8haloalkoxy, C2-8alkenyloxy, C2-8haloalkenyloxy, C2-8alkynyloxy, phenyl, phenoxy, C1-8alkylthio, OH, halogen, nitro or cyano.

Also compounds A are preferred, wherein R is selected from phenyl, 2-pyridyl and 4-isothiazolyl, substituted by R' and Y.

Most preferably, the semicarbazone is diflufenzopyr. By using such an early treatment strategy, improvements in the plant's fruit yield are achieved.

These and other aspects and advantages of the present invention will become more clear after careful consideration is given to the following detailed description of the preferred exemplary embodiments thereof.

The present invention can be employed with crop plants which display determinate or indeterminate growth patterns. Determinate plants have a defined period of vegetative growth followed by a defined interval of reproductive growth in which there is a maximum number of flowers initiated per plant. An indeterminate plant growth pattern, on the other hand, is characterized by an initial period of vegetative growth followed by a period where both vegetative and reproductive growth occur together. The length of the second period and the number of flowers produced are determined largely by the growing conditions.

One example of an important crop plant that displays an indeterminate growth pattern is cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Cotton is a perennial of tropical origin that is cultivated as an annual in agricultural production in temperate and subtropical regions of the world. After an initial period of vegetative growth, a cotton plant initiates reproductive growth while vegetative growth continues. Flower buds (squares) appear and develop into flowers and after pollination give rise to fruit that are referred to as bolls.

Due to its indeterminate nature, squares continue to appear long after there is sufficient time left in the growing season for these squares to develop into mature, harvestable bolls. The growth and development of these late squares and young bolls drains the limited resources of the plant that might be better utilized by bolls that have sufficient time to mature to a harvestable stage. Likewise, the shoot of the cotton plant continues to grow and initiate new leaves throughout most of the growing season. Many of the leaves that are initiated late in the growing season will never become carbohydrate source leaves due to insufficient time remaining in the growing season. Thus, these young leaves demand a portion of the carbohydrates and other nutrients that could be better utilized by the bolls that are likely to be harvested.

DFFP may also reduce shedding of older fruit when plants are subjected to stress factors, including drought or insects, for example.

An example of an important crop plant which may exhibit both a determinate and indeterminate growth patterns is the soybean plant (Glycine max).

The preferred plant growth regulator that is employed in accordance with the present invention includes substituted semicarbazones and related compounds, such as thiosemicarbazones and isothiosemicarbazones and salts thereof, as described more fully in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,098,462 and 5,098,466 (the entire content of each U.S. patent being expressly incorporated hereinto by reference). These compounds may be synthesized by reacting a carbonyl compound and a semicarbazide or thiosemicarbazide together at room temperature in the presence of an alcohol solvent, such as methanol or ethanol and with or without an acid catalyst to give the semicarbazones that may be employed in the practice of the present invention. The most preferred semicarbazone employed in the practice of this invention is diflufenzopyr.

The semicarbazone is applied to the locus of the plant in an amount between about 0.01 to about 5.0 grams of active ingredient per hectare (g ai/ha), and particularly between about 0.05 to about 1.0 g ai/ha.

The semicarbazone is applied in accordance with the present invention early in the reproductive cycle of the plant. That is, the semicarbazone is applied at the onset of the fruit and/or flowering reproductive growth stage of the plant. By onset of the fruit and/or flowering reproductive growth stage is meant that growth stage of the plant which begins prior to flower bud growth (i.e., bud swell, square formation) and continues through pollination or fruit set.

The semicarbazones may be applied in the form of dusts, granules, solutions, emulsions, wettable powders, flowables and suspensions. Application of a compound as an active ingredient is made according to conventional procedure to the locus of the plant in need of the same using the appropriate amount of the compound per acre as will be described below. According to the present invention the application of the compound to the "locus" of the plant includes application to the plant or parts of the plant.

The semicarbazone compound may be applied to above ground portions of the plants. The application of liquid and particulate solid plant growth regulator compositions to above ground portions of plants may be carried out by conventional methods, for example, boom and hand application, including sprayers or dusters. The composition may be applied aerially as a spray, if desired. The semicarbazone compound employed in the practice of the present invention is most preferably used in the form of aqueous solutions. The solutions may be applied in a conventional manner, for example, by spraying, atomizing or watering the locus of the plant.

The semicarbazone compound may also be applied in conjunction with other ingredients or adjuvants commonly employed in the art. Examples of such ingredients include drift control agents, defoaming agents, preservatives, surfactants, fertilizers, phytotoxicants, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, wetting agents, adherents, nematocides, bactericides, trace elements, synergists, antidotes, mixtures thereof and other such adjuvants and ingredients well known in the plant growth regulating art.

Regardless of the manner in which it is applied, the semicarbazone is applied to the locus of a crop plant in need of yield enhancement in an amount between about 0.01 to about 5.0 g ai/ha, and particularly between about 0.;05 to about 1.0 g ai/ha.

The present invention will be further illustrated by way of the following non-limiting examples.

Example 1

Trials were conducted over several different growing seasons as shown in Table I below by applying a single or sequential application of DFFP at rates of 1 g ai/ha or less to the locus of growing cotton plants at the onset of production (i.e., pinhead square, or PHS). All applications utilized a spray adjuvant (typically 0.25% NIS or 0.625% v/v Dash® HC).

As is evident in the data of Table I, average yield increases over all the trials of 104% to 105% were achieved as compared to the untreated plants. Furthermore, it was observed that application of DFFP tended to increase plant yields when growing conditions were poorer.

Example 2

A trial under controlled field-like conditions with determinate soybeans was conducted using DFFP application rates of 0.1 to 3 grams ai/ha at 30% bloom. The yield increased between 107-110% as compared to the untreated control plants. Sequential application of DFFP at a rate of 0.1 to 3 g ai/ha at 30% bloom and at initial pod formation increased yield 105-107% as compared to the untreated control.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Verfahren zur Steigerung des Ertrags von Pflanzenfrüchten, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß man eine fruchtertragssteigernde wirksame Menge an Diflufenzopyr auf den Standort einer Pflanze zu Beginn der Blüte oder der Fruchtentwicklung ausbringt.
  2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Diflufenzopyr-Aufwandmenge zwischen ungefähr 0,01 bis ungefähr 5,0 g a.i./ha liegt.
  3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Diflufenzopyr-Aufwandmenge zwischen ungefähr 0,05 bis ungefähr 1,0 g a.i./ha liegt.
  4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei Diflufenzopyr gemeinsam mit mindestens einem Hilfsstoff ausgebracht wird.
  5. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei Diflufenzopyr in Form einer Flüssigkeit oder eines teilchenförmigen Feststoffs ausgebracht wird.
  6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei es sich bei der Pflanze um eine Baumwoll- oder Sojabohnenpflanze handelt.
  7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei es sich bei der Pflanze um Baumwolle handelt und wobei man Diflufenzopyr im "pinhead square"-Stadium ("erste Blütenknospen sichtbar") oder später auf die Baumwollpflanze ausbringt.
  8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 7, wobei die Diflufenzopyr-Aufwandmenge zwischen ungefähr 0,01 bis ungefähr 5,0 g a.i./ha liegt.
  9. Verfahren nach Anspruch 7, wobei die Diflufenzopyr-Aufwandmenge zwischen ungefähr 0,05 bis ungefähr 1,0 g a.i./ha liegt.
Anspruch[en]
  1. A method for improving plant fruit yield comprising applying to the locus of a plant at onset of flowering or fruit growth, a fruit yield improving effective amount of diflufenzopyr.
  2. The method of claim 1, wherein the application rate of diflufenzopyr is between about 0.01 to about 5.0 g ai/ha.
  3. The method of claim 1, wherein the application rate of diflufenzopyr is between about 0.05 to about 1.0 g ai/ha.
  4. The method of claim 1, wherein diflufenzopyr is applied together with at least one adjuvent.
  5. The method of claim 1, wherein diflufenzopyr is applied in the form of a liquid or a solid particulate.
  6. The method of claim 1, wherein the plant is a cotton or soybean plant.
  7. The method of claim 1, wherein the plant is cotton, and wherein diflufenzopyr is applied to the cotton plant at pinhead square stage or later.
  8. The method of claim 7, wherein the application rate of diflufenzopyr is between about 0.01 to about 5.0 g ai/ha.
  9. The method of claim 7, wherein the application rate of diflufenzopyr is between about 0.05 to about 1.0 g ai/ha.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Procédé pour améliorer le rendement fruitier de plantes, comprenant le fait d'appliquer sur le lieu d'une plante, au début de la floraison ou du développement des fruits, une quantité de diflufenzopyr efficace pour améliorer le rendement fruitier.
  2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le taux d'application du diflufenzopyr se situe entre environ 0,01 et environ 5,0 g ai/ha.
  3. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le taux d'application du diflufenzopyr se situe entre environ 0,05 et environ 1,0 g ai/ha.
  4. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel on applique le diflufenzopyr de manière conjointe avec au moins un adjuvant.
  5. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel on applique le diflufenzopyr sous la forme d'un liquide ou d'un produit solide particulaire.
  6. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la plante est une plante de coton ou de soja.
  7. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la plante est du coton et dans laquelle on applique le diflufenzopyr à la plante de coton au stade des premiers boutons floraux visibles ou à un stade ultérieur.
  8. Procédé selon la revendication 7, dans lequel le taux d'application du diflufenzopyr se situe entre environ 0,01 et environ 5,0 g ai/ha.
  9. Procédé selon la revéndication 7, dans lequel le taux d'application du diflufenzopyr se situe entre environ 0,05 et environ 1,0 g ai/ha.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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