PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP0798649 02.10.2003
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0798649
Titel Tragbares Terminalgerät für eine Chipkarte, das mit mehreren Anwendungen kompatibel ist
Anmelder Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, JP
Erfinder Kuriyama, Ryouichi, 1-1 Shibaura 1-chome, Tokyo 105, JP
Vertreter Blumbach, Kramer & Partner GbR, 81245 München
DE-Aktenzeichen 69724313
Vertragsstaaten DE, ES, FR, GB, IT, NL, PT
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 22.01.1997
EP-Aktenzeichen 971009287
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 01.10.1997
EP date of grant 27.08.2003
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 02.10.2003
IPC-Hauptklasse G06F 15/02
IPC-Nebenklasse G06K 19/07   G06K 7/00   

Beschreibung[en]

The present invention relates to a portable terminal apparatus for an IC card which selectively reads and displays various transaction data, amount data, and the like from an IC card used as, e.g., a credit card and electronic money and supporting a plurality of applications.

In recent years, IC cards which incorporate IC chips having nonvolatile memories and control elements such as CPUs (Central Processing Units) for controlling the memories have been utilized as portable storage media in various industrial fields.

When an IC card of this type is used as, e.g., a credit card and electronic money, it is very convenient to selectively read and display various transaction data, amount data, and the like stored in the IC card, as needed.

For this purpose, a portable terminal apparatus for an IC card that the user can always carry has recently been developed. This portable terminal apparatus for an IC card is formed into a card-like shape, similar to the IC card, and comprises a keyboard, a liquid crystal display section, and a battery for a self-operation and a power supply of the IC card. Upon insertion of the IC card, various transaction data, amount data, and the like are selectively read from the IC card in accordance with a keyboard operation, and displays them on the liquid crystal display section.

Conventionally, such a portable terminal apparatus for an IC card copes with only a single application, such as the apparatus disclosed in DE 295 15 015 41, which forms the preamble of claim 1, which copes with a pay card ("Geldbörsenkarth") only.

Since the above-mentioned conventional portable terminal apparatus for an IC card copes with only a single application, when data are to be read from an IC card which supports a plurality of applications, dedicated portable terminal apparatuses for an IC card are required for the respective applications.

When data are to be read from the IC card, it is impossible to determine whether key collation is necessary to read the data.

It is an object of the present invention to provide a portable terminal apparatus for an IC card which is compatible with a plurality of applications.

This object is achived by a portable data a processing apparatus according to claim 1.

A preferred embodiment of the present invention can automatically determine whether key collation is necessary in reading data from the IC card.

Further developments of the invention are given in the dependent claims. The portable terminal apparatus is compatible with a plurality of applications, unlike a conventional apparatus for a single application. Therefore, as for a recent IC card for a plurality of applications (e.g., a credit card, point accumulation, and a prepaid card), data can be read/written from/in the medium by only one portable terminal apparatus, instead of using conventional portable terminal apparatuses dedicated for the respective applications.

That is, the cardholder can call the application of, e.g., a prepaid card and confirm the outstanding balance of the prepaid card by selecting the application from the keyboard section of the portable terminal apparatus. Thereafter, the cardholder or user can call the application of a credit card by a selection operation from the keyboard section and confirm the credit card outstanding balance.

This invention can be more fully understood from the following detailed description when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

  • FIG. 1 is a perspective view schematically showing the outer appearances of a portable terminal apparatus for an IC card and an IC card according to an embodiment of the present invention;
  • FIG. 2 is a block diagram schematically showing the arrangement of the portable terminal apparatus for an IC card;
  • FIG. 3 is a block diagram schematically showing the arrangement of the IC card;
  • FIGS. 4A and 4B are flow charts for explaining the read operation of data from the IC card; and
  • FIG. 5 is a table showing the contents of a key collation table for determining whether key collation is necessary.

An embodiment of the present invention will be described below with reference to the accompanying drawings.

FIG. 1 schematically shows the outer appearances of a portable terminal apparatus for an IC card and an IC card according to this embodiment. More specifically, a portable terminal apparatus 1 for an IC card is formed into a card-like shape. One surface of the portable terminal apparatus 1 has a liquid crystal display section 2 serving as a display means for displaying various data, and a keyboard 3 serving as an input means for inputting password data and other data. One side surface of the portable terminal apparatus 1 for an IC card has a card slot portion 4 in which an IC card 10 is inserted and set.

The keyboard 3 includes an upward selection key 4a, a downward selection key 4b, an enter key (determination key) 5, an exit key 6 which is depressed when the current display is advanced to the next one, a power supply ON/OFF key 7, a ten-key pad 8, and the like. The selection keys 4a and 4b are keys for selecting one of a plurality of applications displayed on the liquid crystal display section 2, i.e., "credit card" 31, "point accumulation" 33, "prepaid" 35, and "other" 37 or for selecting data to be read by moving cursors 9a and 9b displayed on the liquid crystal display section 2.

The IC card 10 supports a plurality of applications such as a credit card, a point accumulation function, and a prepaid card, and a contact portion 6 (see FIG. 3) to be electrically connected to the interface section of the portable terminal apparatus 1 for an IC card is arranged at a predetermined portion on one surface.

FIG. 2 schematically shows the arrangement of the portable terminal apparatus 1 for an IC card. More specifically, a control unit 11 for performing overall control is mainly constituted by a CPU and the like. The control unit 11 is connected to a ROM (Read-Only Memory) 12 storing control programs and the like, a RAM (Read Access Memory) 13 serving as a storage means used as a work memory, a display drive circuit 14 for controlling and driving the display section 2, a voltage conversion circuit 15 for driving an IC card, and the keyboard 3.

The voltage conversion circuit 15 is connected to an IC card interface (I/F) section 16 serving as an interface means for exchanging a signal with the IC card 10 via the contact portion 6, and a battery 17 serving as a power supply section. In this embodiment, a battery having an output voltage of, e.g., 3 V is used as the battery 17.

The voltage conversion circuit 15 converts the power supply and signal voltages of the IC card I/F section 16 from a low voltage (+3 V) as the output voltage of the battery 17 into a specific voltage (+5 V) for an IC card.

FIG. 3 schematically shows the arrangement of the IC card 10. More specifically, the IC card 10 is constituted by the contact portion 6 and an IC chip 21. The IC chip 21 has a CPU 22 serving as a control element, a ROM 23 storing the control programs of the CPU 22, a RAM 24 serving as a work memory, an EEPROM 25 serving as a nonvolatile memory for storing data, and the like.

The EEPROM 25 stores data 57 for the credit card, data 59 for point accumulation, data 61 for the prepaid card, and the like. That is, the IC card is compatible with a plurality of applications and exhibits a plurality of functions by external instructions.

Next, the read operation of data from the IC card 10 in the above arrangement will be explained with reference to flow charts shown in FIGS. 4A and 4B. When data in the IC card 10 is to be read, the IC card 10 is inserted and set in the card slot portion 4. First, a plurality of applications 31, 33, 35, and 37 as shown in FIG. 1 are displayed on the selection window 2 (S11). A desired application is selected by the application selection keys 4a and 4b in the keyboard 3, the cursor 9a is moved to the application display 31, 33, 35, or 37 to be selected, and the determination key is depressed to determine the desired application (S13). Data of the selected application are read out from the EEPROM 25 of the IC card 10 to start this application (S15). Upon depression of the determination key, the control unit 11 performs an activation operation for the IC card 10 (S17) to wait for initial response data from the IC card 10.

If the initial response data from the IC card 10 are normally received, the control unit 11 refers to data in a key collation table shown in FIG. 5 to determine whether the selected application requires key collation (S19). The key collation table of FIG. 5 is stored in the ROM 12. Data representing whether each of a plurality of applications supported by the IC card 10 requires key collation are registered in the key collation table.

If key collation is required as a result of the above determination, the control unit 11 displays a prompt for of inputting a password on the display section 2. When password data (e.g., a password number) for key collation is input from the keyboard 3 (S21), and the control unit 11 determines that the password data is normally input (S23), the control unit 11 executes a key collation command for the IC card 10 on the basis of the input password data to perform key collation processing (collation of password data) in the IC card 10 (S25).

If an error occurs in this key collation processing (S27), the control unit 11 performs an inactivation operation for the IC card 10 (S39) to display a message representing a password error on the display section 2 (S41).

When the key collation processing is normally completed, or when key collation is unnecessary as a result of the above determination (S27), the control unit 11 performs selection processing of the application having selected for the IC card 10 (S29), and executes a data read command for the application (S31). With this processing, data of the selected application are read out from the EEPROM 25 of the IC card 10 and stored in the RAM 13.

When an error occurs in this read processing (S33), the control unit 11 executes an inactivation operation for the IC card 10 (S43). The control unit 11 displays a message representing a data read error on the display section 2 (S45).

On the other hand, when the readout processing is normally completed (S33), the control unit 11 executes an inactivation operation for the IC card 10 (S35). Thereafter, the control unit 11 displays on the display section 2 data which is read from the IC card 10 and stored in the RAM 13 (S37).

Note that when the selected application is "credit card", a plurality of credit card transaction results are read from the IC card 10 in the read processing and temporarily stored in the RAM 13, and a selection operation is performed (upward and downward keys are operated) with the keyboard 3. With this operation, data in the RAM 13 are sequentially read out and displayed on the display section 2.

When the selected application is "point accumulation", a service point based on the amount of purchase or the like is input from the keyboard 3 by the operation of a store clerk, and the input point is stored in the IC card 10. Further, when the selected application is "prepaid", the outstanding balance is read from the IC card 10 and temporarily stored in the RAM 13, and the data in the RAM 13 are read out and displayed on the display section 2.

In some cases, by performing a predetermined key operation with the keyboard 3, a calculation based on a specific algorithm is performed for data in the RAM 13 to display the calculation result on the display section 2.

As has been described above, according to the present invention, since the portable terminal apparatus for an IC card has a function of arbitrarily selecting a plurality of applications supported by the IC card, only one apparatus is compatible with a plurality of applications. Therefore, only one portable terminal apparatus for an IC card is compatible with respective applications which conventionally require dedicated apparatuses, resulting in an improvement in portability.

In addition, according to the present invention, the portable terminal apparatus can automatically determine whether key collation is necessary in reading data from an IC card. When key collation is necessary, data are read and displayed upon completion of key collation; and when key collation is unnecessary, data are immediately read and displayed.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Tragbares Terminalgerät für eine integrierte Schaltungskarte, mit:
    • einem Zugriffsmittel (16) zum Empfangen und zum Zugreifen auf eine empfangene integrierte Schaltungskarte (10), die Daten speichert,
    • einem Verarbeitungsmittel (11, 12, 51) zum Ausführen einer Datenverarbeitung für die integrierte Schaltungskarte,
    • einem Eingabemittel (3) zum Eingeben einer Anweisung betreffend die Datenverarbeitung des integrierten Schaltungsmediums,
    • einem Auswahlmittel (11, 4a, 4b) zum Auswählen einer Datenverarbeitung gemäß der von dem Eingabemittel eingegebenen Anweisung, und
    • einem Steuermittel (11) zum Steuern des Verarbeitungsmittels gemäß der Auswahl durch das Auswahlmittel, um die Datenverarbeitung durchzuführen, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass
    • das Gerät ausgelegt ist für eine integrierte Schaltungskarte (10) für eine Mehrzahl von Anwendungen, wobei das Verarbeitungsmittel aufweist:
      • ein erstes Verarbeitungsmittel (11, 12, 51) zum Ausführen einer Datenverarbeitung für die integrierte Schaltungskarte (10) auf der Basis einer ersten Anwendung, und
      • ein zweites Verarbeitungsmittel (11, 12, 53) zum Ausführen einer Datenverarbeitung für die integrierte Schaltungskarte (10) auf der Basis einer zweiten Anwendung, die von der ersten Anwendung verschieden ist,
       wobei das Auswahlmittel (11, 4a, 4b) ausgelegt ist zum Auswählen des ersten Verarbeitungsmittels oder des zweiten Verarbeitungsmittels gemäß der von dem Eingabemittel eingegebenen Anweisung, und

       wobei das Steuermittel (11) ausgelegt ist zum Steuern des ersten Verarbeitungsmittels oder des zweiten Verarbeitungsmittels, das von dem Auswahlmittel ausgewählt worden ist, um die Datenverarbeitung durchzuführen.
  2. Gerät nach Anspruch 1, ferner mit
    • einem dritten Verarbeitungsmittel (55) zum Ausführen einer Datenverarbeitung für die integrierte Schaltungskarte (10) auf der Basis von mindestens einer dritten Anwendung, die von der ersten und der zweiten Anwendung verschieden ist, wobei
    • das Auswahlmittel (11, 4a, 4b) ausgelegt ist zum Auswählen des ersten, zweiten oder dritten Verarbeitungsmittels gemäß der von dem Eingabemittel eingegebenen Anweisung, und
       wobei das Steuermittel (11) ausgelegt ist zum Steuern des ersten, zweiten oder dritten Verarbeitungsmittels, das von dem Auswahlmittel ausgewählt worden ist, um die Datenverarbeitung durchzuführen.
  3. Gerät nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass
    • das erste Verarbeitungsmittel ein Mittel (11, 12, 51) aufweist zum Ausführen einer Datenverarbeitung für die integrierte Schaltungskarte auf der Basis einer Anwendung, die eine Kreditkarte betrifft,
    • das zweite Verarbeitungsmittel ein Mittel (11, 12, 51) aufweist zum Ausführen einer Datenverarbeitung für die integrierte Schaltungskarte auf der Basis einer Anwendung, die ein Punktesammeln betrifft, und
    • das dritte Verarbeitungsmittel ein Mittel (11, 12, 51) aufweist zum Ausrühren einer Datenverarbeitung für die integrierte Schaltungskarte auf der Basis einer Anwendung, die eine Prepaid-Karte betrifft.
  4. Gerät nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Verarbeitungsmittel aufweist:
    • ein Datenlese/Datenschreib-Mittel (11, 12, 51) zum Ausführen einer Datenleseoperation und/oder einer Datenschreiboperation auf der Basis einer Anwendung, die für die integrierte Schaltungskarte ausgewählt worden ist, und
    • ein Anzeigemittel (2, 11) zum Anzeigen von Daten.
  5. Gerät nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, ferner mit
    • einem Speichermittel (12, Fig. 5) zum Speichern von notwendigen/nicht notwendigen Daten betreffend einer notwendigen/nicht-notwendigen Schlüsselkollation in Korrespondenz mit einer der Anwendungen, und
    • einem Bestimmungsmittel (2, 11, 12) zum Bestimmen, ob die Schlüsselkollation notwendig ist, indem die notwendigen/nicht-notwendigen Daten gelesen werden, entsprechend einer der Anwendungen, die von dem Auswahlmittel ausgewählt worden ist.
  6. Gerät nach Anspruch 5, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Bestimmungsmittel aufweist:
    • ein Anzeigemittel (2) zum Anzeigen einer Nachricht, die einen Benutzer veranlasst, Daten für die Schlüsselkollation einzugeben, wenn das Bestimmungsmittel bestimmt, dass die Schlüsselkollation notwendig ist, und
    • ein viertes Verarbeitungsmittel (11, 12) zum Ausführen einer Verarbeitung auf der Basis der ausgewählten der Anweisungen, wenn das Bestimmungsmittel bestimmt, dass die Schlüsselkollation nicht notwendig ist.
  7. Gerät nach Anspruch 5 oder 6, ferner mit
    • einem Kollationsmittel (11, 12) zum Ausführen, wenn das Bestimmungsmittel bestimmt, dass die Schlüsselkollation notwendig ist und Eingangsdaten für die Schlüsselkollation eingegeben worden sind, der Schlüsselkollation, indem vorbestimmte Daten mit den eingegebenen Daten verglichen werden, wobei
    • das Anzeigemittel (2, 11) ausgelegt ist zum Anzeigen von Daten, entsprechend der ausgewählten der Anwendungen der integrierten Schaltungskarte, wenn ein Ergebnis des Kollationsmittels als normal bestimmt ist, und zum Anzeigen eines Fehlers, wenn das Ergebnis des Kollationsmittels als abnormal bestimmt ist.
Anspruch[en]
  1. A portable terminal apparatus for an integrated circuit card, comprising:
    • accessing means (16) for receiving and accessing a received integrated circuit card (10) storing data,
    • processing means (11, 12, 51) for performing data processing for the integrated circuit card,
    • inputting means (3) for inputting an instruction concerning data processing of the integrated circuit medium,
    • selecting means (11, 4a, 4b) for selecting a data processing in accordance with the instruction input from the inputting means, and
    • controlling means (11) for controlling the processing means in accordance with the selection by the selecting means so as to perform data processing,
       characterized in that
    • the apparatus is adapted for an integrated circuit card (10) for a plurality of applications,
    • the processing means comprises
    • first processing means (11, 12, 51) for performing data processing for the integrated circuit card (10) on the basis of a first application, and
    • second processing means (11, 12, 53) for performing data processing for the integrated circuit card (10) on the basis of a second application different from the first application,
    • the selecting means (11, 4a, 4b) is adapted for selecting one of the first processing means and the second processing means in accordance with the instruction input from the inputting means, and
    • the controlling means (11) is adapted for controlling the one of the first processing means and the second processing means selected by the selecting means so as to perform data processing.
  2. An apparatus according to claim 1,

       further comprising
    • third processing means (55) for performing data processing for the integrated circuit card (10) on the basis of at least one third application different from the first and second applications, wherein
    • the selecting means (11, 4a, 4b) is adapted for selecting one of the first second, and third processing means in accordance with the instruction input from the inputting means, and
    • the controlling means (11) is adapted for controlling the one of the first, second, and third processing means selected by the selecting means so as to perform data processing.
  3. An apparatus according to claim 2, characterized in that

       the first processing means includes
    • means (11, 12, 51) for performing data processing for the integrated circuit card on the basis of an application concerning a credit card,
    • the second processing means includes
    • means (11, 12, 51) for performing data processing for the integrated circuit card on the basis of an application concerning point accumulation, and
    • the third processing means includes
    • means (11, 12, 51) for performing data processing for the integrated circuit card on the basis of an application concerning a prepaid card.
  4. An apparatus according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that

       the processing means includes
    • data read/write means (11, 12, 51) for performing a data read operation and/or a data write operation on the basis of an application selected for the integrated circuit card, and
    • display means (2, 11) for displaying data.
  5. An apparatus according to one of claims 1 to 4, further comprising
    • storing means (12, FIG. 5) for storing necessity/nonnecessity data concerning necessity/nonnecessity of key collation in correspondence with one of the applications and
    • determining means (2, 11, 12) for determining whether the key collation is necessary by reading the necessity/nonnecessity data corresponding to the one of the applications which is selected by the selection means.
  6. An apparatus according to claim 5, characterized in that

       the determining means includes
    • display means (2) for displaying a message which causes an operator to input data for the key collation when the determinating means determines that the key collation is necessary, and
    • fourth processing means (11, 12) for performing processing on the basis of the selected one of the applications when the determining means determines that the key collation is unnecessary.
  7. An apparatus according to claim 5 or 6, further comprising
    • collation means (11, 12) for executing, when the determinating means determines that the key collation is necessary and input data for the key collation is input, the key collation by comparing predetermined data with the input data, wherein
    • the display means (2, 11) is adapted for displaying data corresponding to the selected one of the applications of the integrated circuit card when a result of the collation means is determined to be normal and for displaying an error when the result of the collation means is determined to be abnormal.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Appareil terminal portatif pour carte à circuit intégré, comprenant :
    • un moyen (16) d'accès destiné à recevoir et à accéder à une carte (10) à circuit intégré reçue mémorisant des données ;
    • un moyen (11, 12, 51) de traitement destiné à effectuer un traitement de données pour la carte à circuit intégré ;
    • un moyen (3) d'entrée destiné à entrer une instruction concernant le traitement de données du support de circuit intégré ;
    • un moyen (11, 4a, 4b) de choix destiné à choisir un traitement de données en fonction de l'instruction entrée par le moyen d'entrée ; et
    • un moyen (11) de commande destiné à commander le moyen de traitement en fonction du choix fait par le moyen de choix de façon à effectuer un traitement de données ;
       caractérisé :
    • en ce que l'appareil est adapté pour une carte (10) à circuit intégré destinée à plusieurs applications ;
    • en ce que le moyen de traitement comprend :
      • un premier moyen (11, 12, 51) de traitement destiné à effectuer un traitement de données pour la carte (10) à circuit intégré sur la base d'une première application ; et
      • un second moyen (11, 12, 53) de traitement destiné à effectuer un traitement de données pour la carte (10) à circuit intégré sur la base d'une seconde application différente de la première application ;
    • en ce que le moyen (11, 4a, 4b) de choix est apte à choisir l'un du premier moyen de traitement et du second moyen de traitement en fonction de l'instruction entrée par le moyen d'entrée ; et
    • en ce que le moyen (11) de commande est apte à commander l'un du premier moyen de traitement et du second moyen de traitement choisi par le moyen de choix de façon à effectuer un traitement de données.
  2. Appareil selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre :
    • un troisième moyen (55) de traitement destiné à effectuer un traitement de données pour la carte (10) à circuit intégré sur la base d'au moins une troisième application différente des première et deuxième applications ;
       dans lequel le moyen (11, 4a, 4b) de choix est apte à choisir l'un du premier, du deuxième et du troisième moyen de traitement en fonction de l'instruction entrée par le moyen d'entrée ; et

       dans lequel le moyen (11) de commande est apte à commander l'un du premier, du deuxième et du troisième moyen de traitement choisi par le moyen de choix de façon à effectuer un traitement de données.
  3. Appareil selon la revendication 2, caractérisé :
    • en ce que le premier moyen de traitement comprend :
      • un moyen (11, 12, 51) destiné à effectuer un traitement de données pour la carte à circuit intégré sur la base d'une application concemant une carte de crédit ;
    • en ce que le deuxième moyen de traitement comprend :
      • un moyen (11, 12, 51) destiné à effectuer un traitement de données pour la carte à circuit intégré sur la base d'une application concernant un cumul de points ; et
    • en ce que le troisième moyen de traitement comprend :
      • un moyen (11, 12, 51) destiné à effectuer un traitement de données pour la carte à circuit intégré sur la base d'une application concemant une carte à prépaiement.
  4. Appareil selon l'une des revendications 1 à 3, caractérisé en ce que le moyen de traitement comprend :
    • un moyen de (11, 12, 51) de lecture/écriture de données destiné à effectuer une opération de lecture de données et/ou une opération d'écriture de données sur la base d'une application choisie pour la carte à circuit intégré ; et
    • un moyen (2, 11) d'affichage destiné à afficher des données.
  5. Appareil selon l'une des revendications 1 à 4, comprenant en outre :
    • un moyen (12, figure 5) de mémorisation destiné à mémoriser des données de nécessité/inutilité concernant la nécessité/l'inutilité d'un rapprochement de clés en correspondance avec l'une des applications ; et
    • un moyen (2, 11, 12) de détermination destiné à déterminer si le rapprochement de clés est nécessaire en lisant les données de nécessité /inutilité correspondant à l'une des applications qui est choisie par le moyen de choix.
  6. Appareil selon la revendication 5, caractérisé en ce que le moyen de détermination comprend :
    • un moyen (2) d'affichage destiné à afficher un message qui provoque l'entrée par un opérateur de données pour le rapprochement de clés lorsque le moyen de détermination détermine que le rapprochement de clés est nécessaire ; et
    • un quatrième moyen (11, 12) de traitement destiné à effectuer un traitement sur la base de l'une choisie des applications lorsque le moyen de détermination détermine que le rapprochement de clés est inutile.
  7. Appareil selon la revendication 5 ou 6, comprenant en outre :
    • un moyen (11, 12) de rapprochement destiné à exécuter, lorsque le moyen de détermination détermine que le rapprochement de clés est nécessaire et que des données d'entrée pour le rapprochement de clés ont été entrées, le rapprochement de clés en comparant des données prédéterminées avec les données entrées, dans lequel :
      • le moyen (2, 11) d'affichage est apte à afficher des données correspondant à l'une choisie des applications de la carte à circuit intégré lorsqu'un résultat du moyen de rapprochement est déterminé comme étant normal et à afficher une erreur lorsque le résultat du moyen de rapprochement est déterminé comme étant anormal.






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