PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP0699103 08.01.2004
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0000699103
Titel AN DER OBERFLÄCHE MODIFIZIERTE, BIOCOMPATIBLE MEMBRANEN
Anmelder Norsk Hydro A/S, Oslo/Osló, NO
Erfinder SCHOLANDER, Elisabeth, S-7654 Uppsala, SE;
WERYNSKI, Andrzej, PL-02-736 Warzawa, PL;
JÖZWLAK, Andrzej, PL-01-466 Warzawa, PL;
LARM, Olle, S-161 39 Bromma, SE
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69433356
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, CH, DE, DK, ES, FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LI, LU, MC, NL, PT, SE
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 09.05.1994
EP-Aktenzeichen 949164370
WO-Anmeldetag 09.05.1994
PCT-Aktenzeichen PCT/NO94/00088
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0094026399
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 24.11.1994
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 06.03.1996
EP date of grant 26.11.2003
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 08.01.2004
IPC-Hauptklasse B01D 71/06
IPC-Nebenklasse B01D 69/08   B01D 67/00   A61L 33/00   

Beschreibung[en]

The present invention relates to biocompatible membranes having functional groups which are used to immobilise bioactive molecules to the membranes, and to a method for the preparation of such membranes.

In recent years, great progress has been made in the development of medical devices for treatment of various disorders, and in the development of permanent implants to replace parts of the human body. When in use, many of these devices or implants are in contact with blood for short periods of time or permanently.

Oxygenators used in heart-lung machines and hemofiltration modules used for blood purification of patients with renal insufficiencies are examples of membrane-containing devices used in extracorporeal circulation of blood. These devices have large surface areas, and when used, the blood-exposure is substantial. The need for blood-compatible surface treatments for these devices is therefore obvious. Other examples of membrane-containing devices are invasive blood-gas sensors and artificial organs such as artificial pancreas and artificial skin.

It is known that chemical entities having a biological activity may be bound to the surface of a substrate to improve the blood-compatibility of the substrate, if functional groups are made available on the substrate surface by surface modification.

Such functional groups on the substrate surface may be charged for ionic interaction or react covalently with functional groups on the chemical entity.

When blood is exposed to artificial surfaces, several of the body's defence systems, such as the coagulation, complement and immune systems, are activated. These systems are believed to be interrelated through common intermediates. To avoid activation of the coagulation system in short time exposure of blood to foreign materials, heparin can be administered systemically. It is used routinely but has several side-effects such as bleeding, thrombocytopenia or osteoporosis. Sometimes it is only partially effective, resulting in fibrin deposition on the foreign material, which leads to improper function of the device. Patients who receive blood-contacting permanent implants often have to depend on life-long anticoagulation therapies requiring frequent laboratory monitoring.

Many attempts have been made to modify surfaces of foreign materials to render them more biocompatible. A negatively charged surface is believed to give less platelet adhesion, but on the other hand enhances coagulation contact activation. The opposite effect has been noted for positively charged surfaces. Synthetic hemofilter membrane materials are regarded as more biocompatible, with respect to activation of the complement system, than the cellulose-based membranes. The synthetic membranes on the other hand are often hydrophobic, with high protein adsorption and sometimes inferior filtration properties. Hydrophobic surfaces are also known to promote platelet adhesion.

Biologically active substrate surfaces, i. e. surfaces with immobilised compounds that actively participate, on a molecular level, in the process of preventing activation of the defence systems in the contact between foreign materials and body fluids or tissue, can be prepared by end-point attachment of heparin to device or implant material surfaces, as described in EP-86186B1. These heparin-modified surfaces show much improved biocompatibility, both with respect to coagulation and complement activation.

Device or implant material surfaces are generally of low reactivity, and functional groups must be introduced for coupling of bioactive reagent(s) to these surfaces. This can be achieved by coating the materials surfaces with compounds containing the proper functional groups (EP-86187B2), chemical grafting of reactive compounds (D.E. Bergbreiter in Chemically Modified Surfaces H.A. Mottola and J.R. Steinmetz (Eds) 1992 Elsevier Science publishers p.133-154.), plasma treatment with reactive monomers or gases (H. Yasuda, Plasma Polymerization, Academic Press 1985), or, in some cases, chemical reactions of the device materials to introduce functional groups (D.E. Bergbreiter in Chemically Modified Surfaces H.A. Mottola and J.R. Steinmetz (Eds) 1992 Elsevier Science publishers p.133-154.). To functional groups generated by any of these methods, biologically active reagents can be coupled by conventional chemical methods, to provide ionically or covalently bonded biologically active compounds on the material surfaces.

Any method for pre-treatment of a surface for the immobilisation of biologically active compounds must fulfill the following criteria:

  • The pre-treatment must generate functional groups that are well anchored into the underlying material, so that compounds containing functional groups do not leak out into the blood-stream on use.
  • The functional groups must be present in sufficiently large amounts to allow coupling of an adequate number of bioactive molecules.
  • The functional groups must be exposed on the material surface to be available for coupling of bioactive compounds.
  • The properties of the bulk material should not be altered unfavourably.

Most methods of generating functional groups for immobilisation of bioactive compounds have draw-backs with respect to the criteria above. Coating the material surfaces with functional compounds often results in coatings with poor adherence to the substrate surface. Plasma treatment or activation for chemical grafting is not possible on devices having some geometries e.g. on the inside of hollow-fibres. Direct chemical treatment of a material surface often requires harsh chemical reaction conditions and is thus limited to a few materials. Not all pre-treatment methods generate sufficient amounts of functional groups, and consequently the amount of immobilised bioactive compound is not sufficient to accomplish biocompatibility.

When treating a device incorporating a membrane, the physical properties of the membrane-material such as pore-size, clearance of water, and passage of molecules of a certain size have to be taken into consideration. Several of the pre-treatment methods described above would alter the physical properties of a membrane, or even block the pores of said membrane.

The present invention has been made from a consideration of the above mentioned draw-backs of the prior art.

A membrane of a polymer can be made by the phase inversion technique by precipitating a solution of the membrane-forming polymer in a coagulation bath of a non-solvent, normally water (W. Pusch and A. Walch, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 21 (1982) p. 660-685).

A casting solution for membrane-formation is composed of a solution of a membrane-forming polymer, e.g. cellulose, cellulose acetate or other cellulose derivative, polysulfone, polyacrylonitrile or any other membrane-forming material, in a solvent or mixture of solvents. As solvent dimethylacetamide, dimethylsulfoxide, acetone, dimethylformamide, formamide, N-methylpyrrolidone, cyclohexanone, organic and inorganic acids, or mixtures thereof, as well as other solvents may be used. It is also possible to add a small amount of a non-solvent for the membrane-forming polymer to the solvent or mixture of solvents, provided that the whole mixture remains a solvent for the polymer.

A coagulation bath containing a non-solvent for the membrane-forming polymer coagulates the casting solution and forms the membrane. The coagulation bath may be a mixture of non-solvent and a small amount of solvent.

A hollow fibre membrane may be formed by this technique using a spinneret arranged in the form of a tube in an orifice. From the spinneret two streams are extruded, one stream consisting of the spinning solution comprising the membrane-forming polymer is extruded through the ring shaped orifice, and the second stream consists of a core liquid which is extruded through the central tube. The core liquid and coagulation bath contain a non-solvent for the membrane-forming polymer and both take part in coagulation of the spinning solution and formation of the membrane. (H.I. Mahon and B.J. Lipps, Encyclop. Polym. Sci. Technology, 15(1971) p. 258-272). The core liquid may also be an oil that is immiscible with the polymer solution and coagulation bath and is inert towards them, e.g. isopropyl myristate.

In EP-A-0090483 and EP-B-87228, a method for the surface modification of skinless, microporous polyamide membranes is described, where a surface modifying polymer of molecular weight about 20,000 with functional groups (amino, hydroxyl, carboxylic sulfonic acids or others) is added to the casting solution in proportions around 1% based on the weight of the polyamide resin. When the membrane is precipitated in a coagulation bath being a non-solvent for polyamide, the surface modifying polymer becomes an integral part of the membrane, mainly exposed on the surface of the membrane. The surface-modifying polymer increases the hydrophilicity of the membrane and may give the membrane an unusual zeta-potential versus pH-profile.

These properties allow for selective particle removal, e.g. negative particles can be removed by a positively charged membrane according to this patent. Other useful properties of these membranes are the ability to remove dissolved metal contaminants by complex formation, e.g. from liquids for recovery of precious metals in the plating industry, or after further modification of the modified membranes to impart affinity for certain biological compounds, in the processing of biological or biochemical preparations, such as in the removal or isolation of biological or pharmaceutical materials for preparation of substances in the pharmaceutical industry. Another application of these membranes is the immobilisation of enzymes for food processing or preparation of pharmaceuticals. The immobilised enzymes provide convenient ways of separating the enzyme from the product after reaction, as well as means for simultaneous removal of particular contaminants such as cell debris, a common contaminant in commercial enzyme preparations.

In EP-A-0090483 and EP-B-087228, neither medical applications such as use in medical devices or implants, nor improved biocompatibility of the surface-modified membranes are mentioned.

EP-A-0497185 discloses a process for preparing a protein non-adsorptive polysulfone membrane by the phase inversion process, in which the casting solution contains a hydrophilic isocyanate end-capped polyurethane prepolymer in addition to the polysulfone polymer, and also one or more non-solvents for the polysulfone as well as one or more solvents therefor. The coagulation bath contains a catalyst for accelerating the polymerization of the prepolymer. During the membrane formation process, prepolymer leaches almost completely out of the membrane, together with the non-solvent(s) of the casting solution, into the coagulating solution. Upon reaching the membrane surface a small amount of the prepolymer is polymerized to form an interpenetrating polymer network which provides a hydrophilic, protein non-adsorptive membrane surface. The surface-modified membranes also have a high surface area which renders them suited for the immobilisation of enzymes or other reactive agents.

The present invention, is concerned with a surface-modified substrate material, as defined in the present claim 1, for use in contact with body fluids or tissue, wherein a bioactive compound capable of interacting with the defence systems of the body in order to prevent activation of said defence systems, or of inactivating compounds created in such defence systems, is immobilised on the substrate by being covalently coupled to functional groups provided at the surface of the substrate. In accordance with the present invention, however, the substrate is a membrane which comprises at least one membrane-forming polymer, and the functional groups are provided by incorporating at least one surface-modifying compound having the functional groups into the membrane-forming polymer material during the formation of the membrane therefrom.

The present invention also provides a method for preparing a surface modified membrane an antithrombotic compound coupled to functional groups on the membrane surface, comprising the steps:

  • (a) preparing a membrane from a casting solution comprising a membrane-forming polymer, and
  • (b) precipitating the membrane forming polymer in a coagulation bath, wherein
  • (c) functional groups to which antithrombotic compounds can be coupled are incorporated on the surface of the membrane by adding a surface-modifying polymer providing said functional groups either to the casting solution or to the coagulation bath, which surface modifying polymer is selected from polyamines, polyanhydrides, polycarboxylic acids, polyisocyanates, polyepoxides, polycarbodiimides, polyalcohols and polysaccharides, and
  • (d) thereafter coupling a antithrombotic compound capable of interacting with the defence systems of the body in order to prevent activation of said defence systems, or of inactivating compounds created in such defence systems, to the functional groups on the surface of the membrane.

As noted above, the surface-modified membranes of this invention may be prepared by alternative methods, hereafter Method A and Method B, respectively.

Method A

  • (i) Preparation of a casting solution containing the membrane-forming polymer; and
  • (ii) Precipitating the membrane from the casting solution into a coagulation bath containing the surface-modifying compound.

Method B

  • (i) Preparation of a casting solution containing the membrane-forming polymer and the surface-modifying compound; and
  • (ii) Precipitating the membrane from the casting solution into a coagulation bath.

Preferred embodiments of these two methods will now be described in more detail.

Method A

A casting solution is prepared by dissolving in a solvent the membrane-forming polymer, e.g. cellulose, cellulose acetate, polysulfone, sulfonated polysulfone, polyamide, polyacrylonitrile, polymethylmethacrylate, or other membrane forming polymers. The solvent suitably is dimethylacetamide, dimethylsulfoxide, acetone, dimethylformamide, formamide, an organic or inorganic acid, or mixtures thereof. It is also possible to add a small portion of a non-solvent, provided that the whole system remains a solvent for the polymer.

The concentration of the membrane-forming polymer is preferably between 15 and 30%, more preferably between 20 and 28%, the most preferred concentration being 25%.

The membrane is precipitated from the casting solution in a non-solvent, typically a hydrophilic solvent, preferably water, possibly with a small amount of added solvent for the membrane-forming polymer.

The surface modifying compound is dissolved in this mixture of non-solvent and solvent at a concentration typically between 0.5 and 10%, preferably between 0.5 and 4%, more preferably 1%. The surface-modifying compound is on precipitation incorporated into the surface of the membrane. The surface modifying compound is preferably selected from organic compounds carrying functional groups such as amino, hydroxyl, carboxylic acid, carboxylic acid anhydride, isocyanate, epoxy, carbodiimido, sulfonic acid or other reactive functional groups.

The functional compounds may be polymers e.g. polyamines such as polyethylenimine (PEI) or polylysine, polycarboxylic acids like polyacrylic acid, polyalcohols like polyvinyl alcohol or polysaccharides, polyanhydrides, polyisocyanates, polyepoxides, polycarbodimide or other functional polymers. The functional compounds may also be lower molecular weight compounds which by some affinity other than entanglement, (covalent, ionic or Van deer Waals-bonds), sticks to the surface of the membrane.

Typically the surface modifying compound is a polymeric amine with molecular weight above 25000, preferably a polyethyleneimine.

The precipitated surface-modified membrane is carefully rinsed with water, and then reacted with a bioactive compound and a coupling agent.

The bioactive reagent can be coupled by conventional coupling techniques to the functional groups on the membrane surfaces. To e.g. a membrane surface containing amino groups, amine containing compounds such as proteins an be coupled by e.g. a dialdehyde such as glutardialdehyde. Carboxylic acid ligands can be coupled after activation with a watersoluble carbodiimide e.g. 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC). Hydroxylic compounds can be coupled to an aminated surface that has been activated by bisepoxiranes or a carbonyldiimidazol. A surface containing carboxylic acid groups can be activated for coupling of amino groups or hydroxyl groups by treatment with EDC. Anhydrides on a membrane surface can be converted to aminogroups by treatment with diamines, or hydrolysed to carboxylic acid groups. To isocyanates, epoxides or carbodiimides on the surface, bioactive compounds containing amino or hydroxy groups can be coupled.

A bioactive compound on a membrane surface confers biocompatibility to the surface by interacting with the defence systems of the body in order to prevent activation of the defence systems, or to inactivate compounds created in such defence systems. The bioactive compound to be coupled to the surface may be glycosaminoglycans, typically heparin, other anticoagulant agents like hiruidin, prostaglandins, antithrombins or thrombolytic or fibrinolytic agents like streptokinase, urokinase or tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), or other compounds or mixtures thereof that by some mechanism actively affect the defence systems of the living body. The biocompatibility of surface-immobilised heparin is well documented, and heparin is therefore preferred as bioactive compound.

Heparin can be coupled to an aminated surface by multi-point or end-point attachment. Multi-point attachment is achieved by using any of the reagents described above to couple the free amino-groups, carboxylic acid groups or hydroxyl groups of heparin to an aminated surface.

Heparin covalently coupled by end-point attachment with maintained biological activity of the heparin molecule is preferred to render the membranes biocompatible. End point attachment of heparin is obtained by coupling partly degraded heparin (nitrous acid) containing terminal free aldehyde groups. With polyethyleneimine as the surface modifying agent, the coupling agent is a reducing agent, capable of reducing the Schiffs bases formed between the end-positioned aldehyde groups of the modified heparin and the amino-groups on the membrane surface. Preferably this reducing agent is sodium cyanoborohydride (EP-86186B2). The resulting biocompatible (heparin-coupled) membrane is carefully rinsed to remove uncoupled heparin.

Method B

The surface-modifying compound is added to the casting solution which is prepared as in Procedure A, at a concentration varying between 0.5 and 10%, more preferably between 0.5 and 4% and most preferably 1%. The surface modifying compound is chosen from the group mentioned in method A, but with the limitation that it must be soluble in the casting solution. The membrane is precipitated in a non-solvent as described above. Also in this procedure, the surface-modifying compound will be directed to the surface of the membrane as a consequence of the more hydrophilic nature of the surface-modifying compound.

A bioactive agent is then coupled to the surface modified membrane as described in Method A.

The present invention provides a method of preparing biocompatible membranes for use in hemofiltration and other blood purification treatments. By incorporating functional compounds, preferably polymeric amines in the membrane during the production of said membranes, and immobilising heparin by means of the amino-groups, membranes with improved blood-compatibility compared to the corresponding membranes without immobilised heparin are obtained. As the functional compounds are incorporated during the production of the membranes, and not in a reaction step afterwards, the physical properties of the membrane such as pore size, clearance of water and passage of molecules of a certain size, can easily be controlled. Another advantage of the present invention is that the coupling of heparin can be performed in one step, as functional groups are present on the membrane surface.

Examples

The following non-limiting examples further illustrate the invention.

Example 1 Preparation of aminated cellulose acetate membranes according to Method A.

A casting solution was prepared by dissolving 25g of cellulose acetate (Eastman CA-398-10 USP grade) in 75g of mixture of dimethylformamide and formamide in ratio 5:1 respectively. 1 cm3 of the casting composition was spread out on a clean glass plate and then immersed into a coagulating bath, which was a 1% water solution of Polymin SN (BASF). The aminated membranes were kept in the bath for several minutes to set, washed extensively with water, immersed in a 15% glycerol solution in water for 1 hour and dried at ambient conditions.

Heparinisation of aminated cellulose acetate membranes.

Heparin was covalently coupled to the flat sheet aminated membrane prepared as described by keeping the membrane in a solution of partially nitrous acid degraded heparin, essentially prepared as described in EP-86186, (25mg) in water containing sodiumcyanoborohydride (2.5mg) and sodium chloride (880mg) at pH 3.9 and 50° for 2 hours. The heparinised membrane was extensively rinsed with water, borate buffer pH 9 and water, to remove not covalently bound heparin.

The amount of surface-immobilised heparin as measured by the method described by Riesenfeld and Roden, Anal. Biochem. 188 (1990) p.383-389, and corrected for background values, was 2.8µg/cm2.

Comparative Example 1

Membranes of cellulose acetate, were prepared as described as in Example 1, but omitting the addition of PEI or other functional polymers. These membranes were treated with heparin as described above. No surface bound heparin could be detected.

Example 2 and Comparative Example 2 Preparation of aminated polysulfon membranes according to Method A.

20g polysulfone (Udel polysulfone P3500 Natural 11, AMOCO,molecular weight 45000) was dissolved in 80g of a mixture of dimethylacetamide and polyvinylpyrrolidone in the ratio 6:2 and processed as in Example 1. Heparinisation of the membrane according to Example 1 yielded a heparinised membrane with a surface density of 1.0 µg heparin/cm2. Membranes of polysulfone were prepared as described above, but omitting the addition of PEI or other functional polymers. These membranes were treated with heparin as described above. No surface bound heparin could be detected.

Example 3 Preparation of aminated cellulose acetate membranes according to Method B.

Example 1 was repeated, but to the casting solution Polymin P (BASF,1%) was added, and the coagulation bath was water. Heparinisation of the membrane according to Example 1 yielded a heparinised membrane with a surface density of 8.8µg heparin/cm2.

Example 4 Preparation of aminated polysulfone membranes according to Method B.

Example 2 was repeated, but to the casting solution Polymin P (1 %) was added, and the coagulation bath was water. Heparinisation of the membrane according to Example 1 yielded a heparinised membrane with a surface density of 2.9µg heparin/cm2.

Examples 1 - 4 show that by the practice of this invention amino-groups are available for coupling of substantial amount of heparin on the surfaces of the membranes.

Example 5 Leakage test of heparinised membranes.

The heparinised membranes from Example 3 and 4 were treated with a solution of albumin for 24 hours, thoroughly rinsed with water and assayed for heparin. The heparin content was 7.6 and 2.8µg/cm2 respectively indicating minimal or no leakage of the immobilised heparin.

Example 6 Preparation of cellulose acetate membranes containing anhydrido groups according to Method B.

Example 1 was repeated, but the casting solution contained polymaleic anhydride (1 %, Polysciences Inc.). The coagulating bath was water containing 1,3-diaminopropane (1 %w/w). Heparinisation of the membrane according to Example 1 yielded a heparinised membrane with a surface density of 1.9µg heparin/cm2.

Example 7 Preparation of aminated cellulose acetate hollow fibre membranes according to Method A.

A spinning solution was prepared by dissolving 25g of cellulose acetate in 75g of a mixture of dimethylformamide and formamide in a of ratio 5:1 respectively. This spinning solution was injected at the rate of 4cm3/min into the ring shaped orifice of a spinneret (internal diameter of the ring: 0.3mm, external diameter of the ring 0.5mm). The spinneret was placed 2cm above the coagulating bath (water). Through the tube positioned in the centre of the orifice (outer diameter of the tube 0.3mm, inner diameter of the tube 0.15mm) the core liquid, which was a 1% water solution of Polymin SN, was pumped. The nascent hollow fibre moved through the coagulating bath at the rate of 9m/min; from the outlet of coagulating bath the hollow fibre was guided to the washing bath and after that it was wound on a wheel rotating in second washing bath

The hollow fibres were cut in bundles, immersed in 10% solution of glycerol for several hours and then dried and closed in plastic housing of the type commonly used for dialysis units but of length 6 cm and 1 cm in diameter The surface area of the membrane was 36cm2.

Heparinisation of aminated hollow fibres.

A hollow fibre dialysis unit, prepared as described, was heparinised essentially according to Example 1. To obtain heparin surface coating on end-caps and glue-surfaces, they were treated with Polymin SN in water, essentially as described in EP 0086 187B2 before assembling and heparinising the hemofiltration unit. Amount surface bound heparin on the fibres of the heparinised unit was 3.6µg/cm2.

This example demonstrates that heparin can be coupled to hollow fibres prepared according to the present invention.

Example 8 Blood compatibility test of heparinised hollow fibre filtration modules (rat).

Heparinised hollow fibre minimodules were prepared according to Example 7 to obtain minifilters of a size suitable for experiments in rats. The coagulation compatibility of the filters was evaluated in a rat model using blood pressure drop over the filter as a measure of coagulation (clot formation) in the filter. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 325-420 g were anaesthetised with Inactin (Thiobarbiturat 120 mg/kg body weight). Heparinised polyetylene catheters (heparinised essentially as described in EP 0086 187 B2) were inserted in v. jugularis sin and a. carotis dx. The catheter from a. carotis dx. was connected to a peristaltic pump (Ismatec Mölnlycke, Sweden) calibrated to give a blood flow of 2.0 ml/min. A minifilter unit was connected to the pump and to the catheter inserted into v. jugularis sin. The filtrate side of the filter module was filled with saline and the filtrate ports were closed. Gould P 23 ID transducers for pressure measurements were connected to the extracorporeal blood circuit immediately before and after the filter module and pressure drop over the filter was continuously monitored using a Grass Polygraf model 7A. All blood contacting tubings and connectors in the circuit were heparinised essentially according to EP 0086 187 B2. No heparin was injected systemically.

The pressure difference over the minifilters with fibres according to the invention was constant at 10-30 mm Hg (indicative of insignificant activation of coagulation) for 50-75 minutes (typically 60 minutes) whereafter an abrupt increase in the pressure up to 400 mm Hg occured, indicating clot formation in the filter-module and the experiment was interrupted.

Control experiments using the described rat model were performed with minifilters made up from hollow fibres prepared according to Example 7, but excluding Polymin SN in the core liquid and omitting the heparinisation procedure. The pressure difference over the filters immediately started to increase after initiation of the rat experiment indicating immediate activation of coagulation and clot formation. Typical values were 50, 100 and 150-200 mm Hg at 10, 15 and 20 minutes respectively after start of the experiments. After 40-50 minutes the pressure difference was 400 mm Hg indicating extensive clot formation in the filter module.

After the experiment, the filter modules were dismounted, rinsed with saline and inspected. Clot formation was observed mainly in the entrance ports, but also in the outlets of both the control filter and the filter with fibres prepared according to the present invention. Rinsing of the blood in the control fibres with saline could not be performed due to massive clot formation in fibres. The blood in the fibres prepared according to the present invention was readily rinsed with saline and after rinsing no sign of clot formation in the fibres could be observed.

Blood samples were taken from the rat immediately before, 1.5 and 10 minutes after initiation of the experiment and immediately after the experiment. The citrated blood samples were immediately centrifuged to obtain platelet poor plasma that was stored at -20°C until analysis. The plasma samples were analysed for heparin activity using an assay based on inhibition of thrombin. The assay utilises the chromogenic substrate S-2238 (Chromogenix, Mölndal, Sweden) and has a detection limit of 0.02 IU/ml. (Mätzsch, T. et al., Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, 1991, 2, 651-657). No heparin activity could be detected in any of the plasma samples thereby demonstrating the in vivo stability of the heparin bonding according to the present invention. It further demonstrates that the improved performance of the heparinised filters is not due to leakage of heparin into the blood circulation but caused by improved biocompatibility attributable to the present invention.

Example 9 Blood compatibility test of heparinised hollow fibre filtration modules (pig).

Full size hollow fibre modules with a surface area of 0.73m2 were prepared according to Example 7. For the experiment, a pig with body weight of 37 kg was used. In both groins of the animal, 10Fr polyurethane catheters were inserted into the femoral artery and the femoral vein. To the catheters in the left groin, a heparinised filter prepared according to Example 7 was connected via a PVC-tubing set. To the catheters in the right groin, a filter of the same size, but with fibres made of non-heparinised, non-aminated cellulose acetate was connected in the same way. All other components in the circuit were heparinised essentially according to EP0086187B2. No external pump was used, thus the driving force was the arterial pressure of the pig. During the experiment, the pressure before and after both filter modules was recorded with a Grass Polygraf. Blood flow through the filter modules was measured with a transonic T101 flowmeter equipped with a clamp-on probe. Because of the large size of the filter modules, the development of blood clots at the in- and outlets could be followed visually. No heparin or other anticoagulants were given during the experiment.

Small blood-clots could be seen at the outlet of the heparinised filter module after 5.5 hours, the flow remaining constant. No clots were observed at the inlet. The experiment was intentionally stopped after 9 hours. The clots had increased somewhat in size and the flow was reduced with 25%. The first blood-clot appeared after 1 hour at the outlet and after 2.5 hours at the inlet of the non-heparinised control filter module. After 3 hours, the blood flow started to decrease rapidly, and after 4 hours it was only 25% of the initial blood-flow. At that point the filter module became completely occluded with blood clots, the flow stopped, and the filter module was removed.

This experiment demonstrates the improved blood-compatibility of a full size hollow fibre hemofiltration module prepared according to the present invention.

Example 10 Permeability studies of heparinised hollow fibre membranes.

Heparinised mini filter units for rat experiments were prepared according to Example 7. Non-heparinised mini filters without polyethyleneimine in the fibres were prepared according to Example 7 for control experiments. Diffusive clearance, ultra filtration rates and sieving coefficients of the mini filters were investigated in anaesthetised and nephrectomized Sprague-Dawley rats essentially using the experimental set up as described in Example 8 but giving 100IU of heparin I.V. to the rat immediately before the start of the experiment. The sieving coefficients were 1.0 for urea and creatinine both for the heparinised (n=3) and non-heparinised filters (n=2) and ultrafiltration rates were also similar for both filters. The diffusive transport was studied with respect to clearance of urea, creatinine and inulin in heparinised-(n=4) and non-heparinised (n=3) filters. The mean values ± S.D. for heparinised- and non-heparinised filters were respectively 0.47 ± 0.07 ml/min and 0.44 ± 0.08 ml/min for urea: 0.34 ± 0.08 ml/min and 0.31 ± 0.04 ml/min for creatinine and 0.22 ± 0.08 ml/min and 0.16 ± 0.04 ml/min for inulin. In conclusion heparinisation of hollow fibres can be achieved according to the present invention without significantly changing the properties of the fibres with respect to convective and diffusive transport of metabolites.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Oberflächen-modifizierte Membran, die im Kontakt mit Körperflüssigkeiten oder Gewebe verwendet wird, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie einschliesst:
    • (a) mindestens ein Oberflächen-modifizierendes Polymer, inkorporiert in das Membranmaterial während der Membranbildung, um funktionelle Gruppen auf der Membranoberfläche in ausreichend grosser Menge zu bilden, diese erlauben, eine adäquate Zahl einer antithrombotischen Verbindung zu koppeln, um die Aktivierung der Verteidigungssysteme des Körpers zu verhindern oder die Inaktivierung von Verbindungen, die in solchen Verteidigungssystemen gebildet werden, zu verhindern, wobei das Oberflächen-modifizierende Polymer ausgewählt ist aus Polyaminen, Polyanhydriden, Polycarbonsäuren, Polyisocyanaten, Polyepoxiden, Polycarbodiimiden, Polyalkoholen und Polysacchariden, und
    • (b) eine antithrombotische Verbindung, die auf der Membran durch Koppeln an die funktionellen Gruppen auf der Membranoberfläche immobilisiert ist.
  2. Oberflächen-modifizierte Membran gemäss Anspruch 1, wobei das Oberflächen-modifizierende Polymer funktionelle Gruppen, ausgewählt aus Amin-, Anhydrid-, Carboxy-, Isocyanat-, Epoxy-, Carbodiimid-, Sulfonsäure- und Hydroxygruppen, umfasst.
  3. Oberflächen-modifizierte Membran gemäss Anspruch 1, wobei das Oberflächen-modifizierende Polymer ein polymeres Amin mit einem Molekulargewicht von etwa 25.000 ist.
  4. Oberflächen-modifizierte Membran gemäss Anspruch 3, wobei das Oberflächen-modifizierende Polymer Polyethylenimin ist.
  5. Oberflächen-modifizierte Membran gemäss einem der vorherigen Ansprüche, wobei das Membranmaterial Cellulose, Celluloseacetat, Polysulfon, sulfoniertes Polysulfon, Polyamid, Polyacrylnitril oder Polymethylmethacrylat umfasst.
  6. Oberflächen-modifizierte Membran gemäss einem der vorherigen Ansprüche, wobei das antithrombotische Mittel Heparin ist.
  7. Oberflächen-modifizierte Membran gemäss einem der vorherigen Ansprüche, wobei die Membran in Form einer Hohlfaser ist.
  8. Verfahren zur Herstellung einer Oberflächenmodifizierten Membran mit an funktionelle Gruppen auf der Membranoberfläche gekoppelter antithrombotischer Verbindung, umfassend die Schritte:
    • (a) Herstellung einer Membran aus einer Gusslösung, umfassend ein membranbildendes Polymer und
    • (b) Präzipitieren des membranbildenden Polymers in einem Koagulationsbad, wobei das Oberflächen-modifizierende Polymer aus Polyaminen, Polyanhydriden, Polycarbonsäuren, Polyisocyanaten, Polycarbodiimiden, Polyalkoholen und Polysacchariden ausgewählt ist, und
    • (c) anschliessendes Koppeln eines antithrombotischen Mittels, das in der Lage ist, mit dem Verteidigungssystem des Körpers zu interagieren, um die Aktivierung des Verteidigungssystems zu verhindern oder um das Inaktivieren von durch das Verteidigungssystem gebildeten Verbindungen zu verhindern, an funktionelle Gruppen auf der Oberfläche der Membran.
  9. Verfahren gemäss Anspruch 8, wobei das Oberflächen-modifizierende Polymer funktionelle Gruppen, ausgewählt aus Amin-, Anhydrid-, Carboxy-, Isocyanat-, Epoxy-, Carbodiimid-, Sulfonsäure- und Hydroxygruppen, umfasst.
  10. Verfahren gemäss einem der Ansprüche 8 bis 9, wobei die Konzentration des Oberflächen-modifizierenden Polymers in der Gusslösung oder in dem Koagulationsbad zwischen 0,5 und 4 % ist.
  11. Verfahren gemäss einem der Ansprüche 8 bis 10, wobei das membranbildende Polymer Cellulose, Celluloseacetat, Polysulfon, sulfoniertes Polysulfon, Polyamid, Polyacrylnitril oder Polymethylmethacrylat umfasst.
  12. Verfahren gemäss einem der Ansprüche 8 bis 11, wobei die antithrombotische Verbindung Heparin ist.
  13. Verfahren gemäss einem der Ansprüche 8 bis 12, wobei die Membran in Form einer Hohlfaser hergestellt wird.
Anspruch[en]
  1. A surface-modified membrane used in contact with body fluids or tissue, characterised in that it includes
    • (a) at least one surface modifying polymer incorporated into the membrane material during formation of the membrane to give functional groups on the membrane surface in sufficiently large amounts to allow coupling of an adequate number of an antithrombotic compound in order to avoid activation of the defence systems of the body or of inactivating compounds created in such defence systems, which surface modifying polymer is selected from polyamines, polyanhydrides, polycarboxylic acids, polyisocyanates, polyepoxides, polycarbodiimides, polyalcohols and polysaccharides, and
    • (b) an antithrombotic compound immobilised on the membrane by being coupled to said functional groups on the membrane surface.
  2. A surface-modified membrane according to Claim 1, wherein the surface modifying polymer comprises functional groups selected from amine, anhydride, carboxy, isocyanate, epoxy, carbodiimido, sulfonic acid and hydroxy groups.
  3. A surface-modified membrane according to Claim 1, wherein the surface-modifying polymer is a polymeric amine with a molecular weight above 25,000.
  4. A surface-modified membrane according to Claim 3, wherein the surface-modifying polymer is a polyethyleneimine.
  5. A surface-modified membrane according to any preceding claim, wherein the membrane material comprises cellulose, cellulose acetate, a polysulfone, a sulfonated polysulfone, polyamide, polyacrylonitrile or polymethylmetacrylate.
  6. A surface-modified membrane according to any preceding claim, wherein the antithrombotic compound is heparin.
  7. A surface-modified membrane according to any preceding claim, wherein the membrane is in the form of a hollow fibre.
  8. A method for preparing a surface modified membrane an antithrombotic compound coupled to functional groups on the membrane surface, comprising the steps:
    • (a) preparing a membrane from a casting solution comprising a membrane-forming polymer, and
    • (b) precipitating the membrane forming polymer in a coagulation bath, wherein
    • (c) functional groups to which antithrombotic compounds can be coupled are incorporated on the surface of the membrane by adding a surface-modifying polymer providing said functional groups either to the casting solution or to the coagulation bath, which surface modifying polymer is selected from polyamines, polyanhydrides, polycarboxylic acids, polyisocyanates, polyepoxides, polycarbodiimides, polyalcohols and polysaccharides, and
    • (d) thereafter coupling a antithrombotic compound capable of interacting with the defence systems of the body in order to prevent activation of said defence systems, or of inactivating compounds created in such defence systems, to the functional groups on the surface of the membrane.
  9. A method according to Claim 8, wherein the surface-modifying polymer comprises functional groups selected from amine, anhydrido, carboxy, isocyanate, epoxy, carbodiimido, sulfonic acid and hydroxy groups.
  10. A method according to any one of Claims 8-9, wherein the concentration of the surface-modifying polymer in said casting solution, or in said coagulation bath, is between 0.5 and 4%.
  11. A method according to any one of Claims 8-10, wherein the membrane-forming polymer comprises cellulose, cellulose acetate, a polysulfone, a sulfonated polysulfone; polyamide, polyacrylonitrile or polymethylmethacrylate.
  12. A method according to any one of Claims 8-11, wherein the antithrombotic compound is heparin.
  13. A method according to any one of Claims 8-12, wherein said membrane is prepared in the form of a hollow fibre.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Membrane modifiée en surface utilisée en contact avec des liquides ou un tissu biologique caractérisée en ce qu'elle comprend :
    • (a) au moins un polymère modifiant la surface intégré dans le matériau de la membrane au cours de la formation de la membrane afin de donner des groupes fonctionnels à la surface de la membrane en quantité suffisamment importante pour permettre le couplage d'un nombre approprié d'agents antithrombotiques de manière à éviter l'activation des systèmes de défense du corps ou l'inactivation des composés créés dans ces systèmes de défense, lequel polymère modifiant la surface est choisi parmi les polyamines, les polyanhydrides, les acides polycarboxyliques, les polyisocyanates, les polyépoxydes, les polycarbodiimides, les polyalcools et les polysaccharides, et
    • (b) un agent antithrombotique immobilisé sur la membrane par couplage aux dits groupes fonctionnels à la surface de la membrane.
  2. Membrane modifiée en surface selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle le polymère modifiant la surface comprend des groupes fonctionnels choisi parmi les groupes amine, anhydride, carboxy, isocyanate, époxy, carbodiimide, acide sulfonique et hydroxy.
  3. Membrane modifiée en surface selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle le polymère modifiant la surface est une amine polymèrique avec un poids moléculaire supérieur à 25 000.
  4. Membrane modifiée en surface selon la revendication 3, dans laquelle le polymère modifiant la surface est une polyéthylène imine.
  5. Membrane modifiée en surface selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans laquelle le matériau de la membrane comprend la cellulose, l'acétate de cellulose, un polysulfone, un polysulfone sulfonaté, un polyamide, un polyacrilonitrile ou un polyméthylméthacrylate.
  6. Membrane modifiée en surface selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans laquelle l'agent antithrombotique est l'héparine.
  7. Membrane modifiée en surface selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans laquelle la membrane se présente sous forme d'une fibre creuse.
  8. Procédé de préparation d'une membrane modifiée en surface, un agent antithrombotique couplé aux groupes fonctionnels à la surface de la membrane, comprenant les étapes suivantes :
    • (a) préparation d'une membrane à partir d'une solution de coulée comprenant un polymère formant une membrane, et
    • (b) précipitation du polymère formant une membrane dans un bain de coagulation, dans lequel
    • (c) des groupes fonctionnels auxquels les agents antithrombotiques peuvent être couplés sont intégrés à la surface de la membrane par ajout d'un polymère modifiant la surface fournissant lesdits groupes fonctionnels soit à la solution de coulée soit au bain de coagulation, lequel polymère modifiant la surface est choisi parmi les polyamines, polyanhydrides, acides polycarboxyliques, polyisocyanates, polyépoxydes, polycarbodiimides, polyalcools et les polysaccharides, et
    • (d) ensuite couplage d'un agent antithrombotique, capable d'interagir avec le système de défenses du corps afin d'empêcher l'activation desdits systèmes de défenses ou l'inactivation des composés produits par ces systèmes de défenses, avec les groupes fonctionnels à la surface de la membrane.
  9. Procédé selon la revendication 8, dans lequel le polymère modifiant la surface comprend des groupes fonctionnels choisi parmi les groupes amine, anhydride, carboxy, isocyanate, époxy, carbodiimide, acide sulfonique et hydroxy.
  10. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 8 à 9, dans lequel la concentration du polymère modifiant la surface dans ladite solution de coulée ou dans ledit bain de coagulation se situe entre 0,5 et 4 %.
  11. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 8 à 10, dans lequel le polymère formant une membrane comprend de la cellulose, de l'acétate de cellulose, un polysulfone, un polysulfone sulfonaté, un polyamide, un polyacrilonitrile ou un polyméthylméthacrylate.
  12. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 8 à 11, dans lequel l'agent antithrombotique est l'héparine.
  13. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 8 à 12, dans lequel ladite membrane se présente sous forme d'une fibre creuse.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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