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Dokumentenidentifikation EP0898895 28.10.2004
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0000898895
Titel Pökel zur Fleischverarbeitung
Anmelder Ajinomoto Co., Inc., Tokio/Tokyo, JP
Erfinder Susa, Yasuyuki, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa-ken, JP;
Numazawa, Toshiya, Kita-ku, Osaka-fu, JP
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69826393
Vertragsstaaten BE, DE, DK, ES, FR, GB, IT, NL
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 21.07.1998
EP-Aktenzeichen 981136120
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 03.03.1999
EP date of grant 22.09.2004
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 28.10.2004
IPC-Hauptklasse A23B 4/023
IPC-Nebenklasse A23B 4/027   A23B 4/22   

Beschreibung[en]
[Detailed Description of the Invention] [Field of the Invention]

The present invention as defined in the claims relates to the use of a curing agent and its use in a pickle for producing a processed meat such as ham, bacon, roast pork or the like. More specifically, the present invention is that when transglutaminase is used in a pickle, its viscosity is not increased, the problem given in using the pickle is consequently solved, and qualities of a processed meat such as ham, bacon, roast pork or the like are improved when the pickle is injected.

[Prior Art]

Usually, ham, bacon or the like which is a processed meat is obliged to be cured by law (according to Japanese Agricultural Standard(JAS)). As this method, a dry curing method and the method of curing in a pickle have been conducted. Recently, they have been mostly conducted by a pickle injection method. In the pickle used at that time, sodium chloride and color-fixing agents are main components. In addition, polyphosphates, different proteins or the like are incorporated to improve yield, water-holding capacity, binding and the like, and seasonings, preservatives, coloring agents and the like are also incorporated.

Further, transglutaminase (hereinafter abbreviated as "TGase") has been lately incorporated at times in a pickle to improve texture, sliceability(yield of slice) and the like. In this instance, a serious problem is as follows. That is, a pickle is, in most cases, allowed to stand overnight at low temperatures after preparation in order to completely dissolve different proteins or to conduct defoaming through degassing, and is then used. However, there is a defect (problem) that when TGase is added and dissolved in this pickle, both of TG and different proteins are reacted while being allowed to stand, and the viscosity of the pickle is notably increased, making it impossible to conduct injection. Accordingly, in order to satisfactorily exhibit the function of TGase, it is necessary to control the viscosity of the pickle (in other words, to control the TGase reaction). That is, it is required that even when TGase is added and dissolved in a pickle, the reaction be controlled so as not to increase the viscosity and the satisfactory effect by using TGase can be exhibited on a processed meat in which the pickle is injected.

To make processed meat which is relatively highly injected, different proteins at the level of 10% has to be incorporated into the pickle. The amount to be added varies depending on qualities of a processed meat required. Generally speaking, typically, soybean protein is between 1 and 8%, casein such as sodium caseinate or the like is between 0.5 and 3%, albumen is between 2 and 5%, and whey protein is between 2 and 5%.

When, for example, from 2 to 5 units of TGase are added to 100 g of this pickle as such, a crosslinking reaction to polymerize protein molecules by TGase proceeds over the course of time, and there occurs a defect that the viscosity of the pickle is increased, making it impossible to conduct injection. For this reason, the use of TGase in the pickle is much limited at present. To cope with this, a method is known in which TGase is used in such a state that the amount of soybean protein or casein such as sodium caseinate or the like is decreased in a pickle (Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 255,426/1995). However, this method involves defects that since the amount of the protein is limited, the function of the protein is not exhibited satisfactorily and when a long period of time lapses after preparation of the pickle, the viscosity is increased, so that the period of time for which to use the pickle is limited.

[Problems To Be Solved by the Invention]

In the above-mentioned background of the prior art, the present invention aims to provide an excellent pickle in which even when incorporating TGase, the above-mentioned defects are avoided.

[Means For Solving the Problems]

The present inventors have assiduously conducted investigations to solve the above-mentioned problems, and have consequently found that the above-mentioned problems can be treated with the use of a protein partial hydrolysate. The present invention has been completed on the basis of such a finding.

That is, the present invention relates to a curing agent for meat processing characterized by comprising transglutaminase and a protein partial hydrolysate, a pickle in which this is dissolved in water, and a processed meat prepared by using such a pickle.

[Mode of carrying out the Invention]

The present invention is described in detail below. As the protein partial hydrolysate used in the present invention, a partial hydrolysate of a protein which is generally used in a pickle can be used. Examples thereof include partial hydrolysates of casein (including, in addition to free casein, salts such as sodium caseinate and potassium caseinate), soybean protein, albumen, whey protein and plasma.

Of these, it is a soybean protein hydrolysate that increases the viscosity in particular with the addition of TGase. Further, the soybean protein partial hydrolysate imparts an excellent texture to final processed meat in comparison with the other protein partial hydrolysates. Accordingly, the use of the soybean protein partial hydrolysate, among others, especially the soybean protein partial hydrolysate having the hydrolysis rate of from 3 to 20% is quite useful in comparison with the use of the other protein partial hydrolysates.

With respect to the pickle comprising TGase, it is a requisite that the viscosity is less increased, but the viscosity may be increased unless any trouble is caused in practice. Meanwhile, it makes no sense if the function of TGase and the function of the protein are impaired. It is inevitable that the function of TGase and the desired function provided by the use of the protein are satisfactorily exhibited on processed meat such as ham, bacon, roast pork or the like which is prepared by injecting a pickle having the controlled viscosity.

The soybean protein partial hydrolysate is described in detail below. The soybean protein is generally classified into a soy flour type, a separated protein, and a concentrated protein type. As the protein used in the pickle, the concentrated protein type and the separated protein type are mainly used.

In regard to these types, more native ones are used. However, since these native proteins have a higher reactivity with TGase, the viscosity of the pickle tends to increase. Accordingly, studies have been made on a protein in which the pickle hardly increases the viscosity with the addition of TGase while maintaining the function of these native proteins in the pickle. Consequently, the use of the partially hydrolyzed soybean protein has been found.

The protein partial hydrolysate here referred to is a product obtained by partially hydrolyzing protein, such as the soybean protein, with a protein hydrolase (protease). As a protease, a protease type (endo type) which cuts a protein molecule successively from an end and a type (exo type) which cuts only a specific site in a molecule are known. In view of controlling the increase in the viscosity, a protein may be treated with any of these protease. Further, a product which is partially hydrolyzed with a mineral acid such as hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid or the like is also available.

What is important here is the hydrolysis rate. When a protein which is not hydrolyzed at all is incorporated into a pickle, the increase in the viscosity of the pickle is naturally invited. On the contrary, when the hydrolysis rate is extremely high, the increase in the viscosity does not occur, but the effect provided by the use of the protein is not exhibited on the product. Therefore, from this standpoint, the hydrolysis rate to meet the object of the present invention is between 2 and 30%, preferably between 3 and 20%. The hydrolysis rate here referred to is measured as follows. That is, a trichloroacetic acid (TCA) solution is added to a protein solution having an adjusted solid content such that the final concentration of the TCA solution reaches 0.2 M. The mixture is stirred, then maintained at 40°C for 20 minutes, and centrifuged. The total nitrogen amount of the supernatant portion is measured. This nitrogen amount is multiplied by 6.25 to calculate the protein amount of the supernatant portion, and this protein amount is divided by the initial protein amount of the overall solution. The resulting value is defined as a hydrolysis rate.

The amount of the soybean protein in the protein partial hydrolysate used in the present invention is not particularly limited. Generally, it can follow an amount of a soybean protein used in the pickle. That is, generally with respect to an amount of a soybean protein used in a pickle, a ratio occupied in the pickle is between 1 and 8% as described earlier. This amount can be replaced as such with that of the protein partial hydrolysate.

TGase used to prepare the pickle includes a calcium-dependent one and a calcium-independent one, and both can be used in the present invention. As the former, TGase derived from microorganisms (refer to, for example, Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 27,471/1989) can be mentioned. As the latter, TGase derived from the guinea pig liver (refer to Japanese Patent Publication No. 50,382/1989), TGase derived from fish [refer to, for example, Seki Nobuo et al., "NIPPON SUISAN GAKKAISHI, vol. 56, 125-132(1990)"; and "1990th The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science, Annual Meeting in Spring Abstracts, p. 219], and TGase present in the blood or the like, which is called factor XIII (WO 93/15234) can be mentioned. Further, TGase produced through recombination (Japanese Patent Laid-Open Nos. 300,889/1989, 225,775/1994 and European Patent Laid-Open No. EP-0693556A) can all be used. The origin and the process for producing the same are not limited.

The amount of TGase used is the same as the amount which is ordinarily used to make ham or bacon(refer to the above-mentioned Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 255,426/1995 and the like). Naturally, the amount of TGase added to the pickle varies depending on the amount to be injected to meat. Usually, with respect to ham, the amount of from 5 to 15 units per 100 g of the ham product is considered appropriate. Accordingly, when a pickle is injected into pork at a extension level of 50%, from 10 to 30 units of TGase per 100g of the pickle have to be added according to the calculation. However, in general, it is sufficient to incorporate from 2 to 30 units of TGase per 100 g of the pickle. When the amount of TGase(the addition level of TGase) is smaller than this, the effects of improvement of properties (improvement of texture, improvement of binding, and the like) of ham by TGase are not obtained. When the amount of TGase(the addition level of TGase) is larger than this, texture is extremely hard inconveniently. Anyway, when the amount deviates from the above-mentioned range, the desired objects are not provided.

The activity unit of transglutaminase referred to in the present invention is measured and defined by a method in which the reaction is conducted using benzyloxycarbonyl-L-glutaminylglycine and hydroxylamine as substrates, an iron complex is formed using the resulting hydroxamic acid in the presence of trichloroacetic acid, an absorbance of 525 nm is then measured, and the amount is found from a calibration curve (refer to the above-mentioned Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 27,471/1989).

The curing agent and the pickle of the present invention can be produced according to a usual method of producing a curing agent and a pickle except that a predetermined amount of TGase is added (dissolved) and various protein partial hydrolysates including the soybean protein partial hydrolysate are used in the production, and no special means or incorporation is required at all. Needless to say, the method for producing processed meat can follow an ordinary method. Further, the curing agent and the pickle of the present invention can of course be subjected to distribution as such.

[Examples]

The present invention is illustrated more specifically by referring to the following Examples.

Example 1

In the evaluation of soybean protein in a gel, 7.5% solutions were prepared using three products(unhydrolyzed proteins) selected on the basis of the degree of NSI (water-soluble nitrogen index) shown in Table 1 below and one product partially hydrolyzed with a protease. To each of these solutions was added a TGase preparation "Activa TG-S" (made by Ajinomoto Co., Inc., specific activity 100 units/g) such that it reached 7.5 units per 100 g of a pickle. The pickle was then incubated at 25°C for 24 hours. The viscosity of the product was measured according to the lapse of time shown in Table 2 below using a B-type viscometer "Vismetron" Rotor No. 2 supplied by Shibaura Seisakusho.

The results are also shown in Table 2. The hydrolysis rate of "Ajipron"-HO, i.e. a soybean protein partial hydrolysate obtained by partially hydrolyzing a soybean protein with a protease was approximately 7.5%. Soybean protein NSI5 Protease treatment Hydrolysis rate "Ajipron"-HS2 92.3 No - "Ajipron"-SU 79.2 No - "Ajipron"-SY 59.6 No - "Ajipron"-HO 89.8 Yes 7.5%
(NSI5 - water-soluble nitrogen index at 5°C)

Time that lapses (hrs) 0 2 6 12 24 "Ajipron"-HS2 9 11 103 - - "Ajipron"-SU 20 38 280 - - "Ajipron"-SY 46 72 350 - - "Ajipron"-HO 8 8 8 10 23
- : unmeasurable

As is easily understandable from Table 2, the three products which are not treated with an enzyme show an abrupt increase in the viscosity irrespective of the degree of NSI, whereas "Ajipron"-HO (made by Ajinomoto Co., Inc.), an enzyme-treated protein, shows only a slight increase in the viscosity even after 24 hours. By the way, the three products not treated with an enzyme are also those made by Ajinomoto Co., Inc., and they are all isolated soybean proteins.

Example 2

A pickle was prepared according to a recipe shown in Table 3 below. To this was added a TGase preparation "Activa" TG-S (made by Ajinomoto Co., Inc., specific activity 100 units/g) at a ratio of 0.0% (0 unit per 100 g of the pickle), 0.15% (15 units on the same basis), 0.20% (20 units on the same basis) or 0.40% (40 units on the same basis). The mixture was allowed to stand at room temperature of 5°C, and the viscosity thereof was measured over the course of time shown in Table 4 below. The results are also shown in Table 4. The viscosity remains unchanged naturally in the absence of TGase. However, even when TGase is added at a ratio of 0.2% which is presumably an appropriate amount, the viscosity is slightly increased. The viscosity exceeds 100 cp for the first time after 48 hours. Thus, this ratio is considered satisfactorily practical. With the addition of TGase at a ratio of 0.4%, the viscosity is abruptly increased, and the practical use at this ratio is found to be difficult. Further, this proves that the optimum viscosity can be selected by selecting the amount of TGase added. These results are quite suggestive. (%) Pickle (a) (b) (c) (d) Sodium Chloride 3.70 3.70 3.70 3.70 Sugar 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 "Ajinomoto"(*1) 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 Sodium nitrite 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 AscNa (*2) 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.16 Polyphosphate 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 Dextrin 5.50 5.50 5.50 5.50 Sodium caseinate 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 Whey protein 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 Powdery albumen 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 "Ajipron"-HO 3.50 3.50 3.50 3.50 "Activa"TG-S 0.0 0.15 0.20 0.40 Water 76.70 76.55 76.50 76.30 Total 99.60 99.60 99.60 99.60
*1: umami seasoning composed mainly of monosodium glutamate (made by Ajinomoto Co., Inc.) *2 Sodium ascorbate (cp) TG concentration (%) Time that lapses (hrs) 0 6 24 32 48 (a) 0.0 22 22 22 22 22 (b) 0.15 22 22 30 35 70 (c) 0.20 22 22 45 70 135 (d) 0.40 22 45 285 340 -
- : unmeasurable

Example 3

With respect to "Ajipron"-HO, the product of the present invention, the comparative experiment was conducted on the basis of the recipe (c) in Table 3 of Example 2, using "Ajipron"-HS2 selected in Example 1 as a control. Consequently, the results shown in Table 5 below were obtained. Soybean protein TGase Viscosity after 24 hours (cp) Evaluation of expert panelists on qualities of ham "Ajipron"-HO Non Addition 22 Soft, Smooth, and slightly unpleasant texture (Partial hydrolysate) Addition 25 Firm and quite pleasant texture with good bite "Ajipron"-HS2 (Common product) Non Addition 22 Soft and unpleasant texture with weak bite Addition 120 Slightly hard and slightly tough texture However, the viscosity of the pickle is high, injection is difficult and workability is quite bad.

As is seen from Table 5, when TGase is added to "Ajipron"-HS2, a common product (unhydrolyzed protein), the viscosity exceeds 100 cp. Meanwhile, when "Ajipron"-HO, a partial hydrolysate, is used, the viscosity is little increased even with the addition of TGase.

Further, the pickle after 24 hours was actually injected into pig loin, and ham was prepared in a usual manner. Qualities thereof were then evaluated. As a result, qualities of ham prepared by using both the soybean partial hydrolysate and TGase were very good. Further, a pickle obtained from a combination of the protein partial hydrolysate and TGase less increased the viscosity, and the workability was extremely good.

[Effects of the Invention]

When TGase is ordinarily used in prepared meat product such as ham or the like through a pickle, different proteins contained previously in the pickle, especially a vegetable protein such as a soybean protein or the like is reacted with TGase to notably increase the viscosity of the pickle. For this reason, the use of TGase has been greatly limited.

However, according to the present invention, a protein partial hydrolysate, preferably, a soybean protein partial hydrolysate, more specifically, a soybean protein partial hydrolysate having a specific hydrolysis rate is combined with TGase, whereby the limitation of the use of TGase is extremely reduced without increasing the viscosity of the pickle. Further, the function of TGase and the function of the soybean protein are satisfactorily exhibited on prepared meat product such as ham, bacon or the like upon using this pickle, making it possible to satisfy the inherent functions thereof. In other words, according to the present invention, the viscosity of the pickle containing TGase can be controlled by selectively using the protein partial hydrolysate of the soybean protein or the like. Thus, the possibility of using TGase in prepared meat product is greatly enlarged. Still further, TGase is used in prepared meat product, making it possible to produce a product having an improved texture, an improved slice yield during the production and an excellent binding capacity at a low cost.

Thus, it contributes very much toward the production of prepared meat products.


Anspruch[de]
  1. Verwendung eines Konservierungsmittels zur Fleischbearbeitung,dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das Konservierungsmittel Transglutaminase und ein Proteinteilhydrolysat umfaßt.
  2. Verwendung nach Anspruch 1, worin das Proteinteilhydrolysat ein Sojabohnenproteinteilhydrolysat ist.
  3. Verwendung nach Anspruch 2, worin ein Sojabohnenproteinteilhydrolysat verwendet wird, welches eine Hydrolyserate von 3 bis 20 % aufweist.
  4. Verwendung eines Konservierungsmittels nach einem der Ansprüche 1-3 in einem Pökel, in welchem eine Zunahme der Viskosität kontrolliert wird.
  5. Verwendung nach Anspruch 4, worin Transglutaminase in einer Menge von 2 bis 30 Einheiten pro 100 g des Pökels enthalten ist.
  6. Bearbeitetes Fleisch, dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß das Fleisch unter Verwendung des in einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3 angegebenen Konservierungsmittels oder des in einem der Ansprüche 4 oder 5 angegebenen Pökels behandelt wurde.
Anspruch[en]
  1. Use of a curing agent for meat processing characterized in that the curing agent comprises transglutaminase and a protein partial hydrolysate.
  2. Use of claim 1, wherein the protein partial hydrolysate is a soybean protein partial hydrolysate.
  3. Use of claim 2, wherein a soybean protein partial hydrolysate having a hydrolysis rate of from 3 to 20% is used.
  4. Use of a curing agent according to any one of claims 1-3 in a pickle in which an increase in the viscosity is controlled.
  5. Use acording to claim 4, wherein transglutaminase is comprised in an amount of from 2 to 30 units per 100 g of the pickle.
  6. A processed meat characterized in that said meat has been treated using the curing agent as recited in any of claims 1 to 3 or the pickle as recited in any of claims 4 to or 5.
Anspruch[fr]
  1. Utilisation d'un agent de traitement pour le traitement de la viande caractérisée en ce que l'agent de traitement comprend la transglutaminase et un hydrolysat partiel de protéines.
  2. Utilisation selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle l'hydrolysat partiel de protéines est un hydrolysat partiel de protéines de soja.
  3. Utilisation selon la revendication 2, dans laquelle un hydrolysat partiel de protéines de soja ayant un taux d'hydrolyse de 3 à 20 % est utilisé.
  4. Utilisation d'un agent de traitement selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3 dans une saumure dans laquelle une augmentation de la viscosité est contrôlée.
  5. Utilisation selon la revendication 4, dans laquelle la transglutaminase est comprise en une quantité de 2 à 30 unités pour 100 g de saumure.
  6. Viande traitée caractérisée en ce que ladite viande a été traitée en utilisant l'agent de traitement selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3 ou la saumure selon l'une quelconque des revendications 4 ou 5.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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