PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP1372251 08.06.2006
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001372251
Titel Linearmotor
Anmelder Fanuc Ltd., Yamanashi, JP
Erfinder Yamamoto, Tomonaga, Fujiyoshida-shi, Yamanashi, 403-0005, JP;
Maeda, 7-104 Fanuc Manshonharimomi, Takuya, Minamitsuru-gun, Yamanashi, 401-0511, JP
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 60304937
Vertragsstaaten DE
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 23.05.2003
EP-Aktenzeichen 032532814
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 17.12.2003
EP date of grant 03.05.2006
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 08.06.2006
IPC-Hauptklasse H02K 41/02(2006.01)A, F, I, 20051017, B, H, EP
IPC-Nebenklasse H02K 41/03(2006.01)A, L, I, 20051017, B, H, EP   H02K 29/03(2006.01)A, L, I, 20051017, B, H, EP   

Beschreibung[en]

The present invention relates to a linear motor, and more particularly, to a linear motor in which a gap portion is defined by magnetic poles or teeth having characteristic shapes.

In a linear motor, magnetic poles on a stator (or moving element) and teeth on a moving element (or stator) face one another to form a gap. The cogging force of the linear motor is settled depending on the shapes of the magnetic poles and the teeth that are opposed to the poles. In order to lower the cogging force, therefore, various magnetic poles or teeth having special shapes have been proposed.

FIG. 11 shows a prior art example of a stator or moving element (slider) of which the magnetic poles are formed of permanent magnets. The stator or slider is constructed in a manner such that a plurality of permanent magnets 1 are arranged parallel to one another on a plate 10 that is formed of a magnetic material such as iron. If each permanent magnet 1 is cut in a direction parallel to the direction of relative movement of the slider with respect to the stator, in the example shown in FIG. 11, the gap-side external shape of its cross section is a straight line 31. Thus, the gap-side surface (the surface opposite the plate 10) of each magnet 1 is flat.

FIGS. 12 to 14 show alternative prior art examples of the stator or moving element of which the magnetic poles are formed of permanent magnets. If each of permanent magnets 1 that are arranged side by side on a plate 10 is cut in a direction parallel to the direction of relative movement of the slider with respect to the stator, in the example shown in FIG. 12, the gap-side external shape of its cross section is a circular arc 32. Likewise, in the example shown in FIG. 13, the gap-side external shape of the cross section of each permanent magnet 1 is a parabola 33. In the example shown in FIG. 14, the gap-side external shape of the cross section of each permanent magnet 1 is a hyperbola 34. Such pole shapes are disclosed in JP(A)03207256.

As described above with reference to FIGS. 11 to 14, many attempts have been made to vary the shapes of the magnetic poles to lower the cogging force. Pole shape variation for other purposes is found in EP-A-1164684 and DE-C-19829052.

The object of the present invention is to provide a linear motor of which the cogging force is reduced.

According to the present invention there is provided a linear motor having two members which are to move relatively to one another in a linear manner with a gap between the two members and on at least one of the two members the gap-side surface of each magnetic pole and/or tooth forming a gap portion comprises a curred shape the whole of which is represented by a reciprocal function of cosine in trigonometric function, whereby cogging force of the linear motor is reduced owing to said curred shape function of said gap-side surface.

The reciprocal function of cosine in trigonometric function may be given by R = A B / cos ( C &thgr; ) , where R is the distance from a certain point on the center line of each magnetic pole or each tooth opposite thereto, &thgr; is the angle to the center line, and A, B and C are constants. Alternatively, furthermore, the reciprocal function of cosine in trigonometric function, in an XY coordinate system in which the central axis of each magnetic pole or each tooth opposite thereto is the X-axis and an axis perpendicular to the X-axis is the Y-axis, and the point of intersection of the X- and Y-axes is the origin, may be given by X = A B / cos ( C Y ) , where A, B and C are constants.

With the above construction, the cogging force of a motor according to the present invention can be made lower than that of a conventional motor.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

  • FIG. 1 is a view illustrating a stator or slider according to an embodiment which is not part of the invention, of which the magnetic poles are formed of permanent magnets;
  • FIG. 2 is a view illustrating a stator or slider according to another embodiment which is not part of the invention, of which the magnetic poles are formed of permanent magnets ;
  • FIG. 3 is a view illustrating a stator or slider according to a further embodiment which is not part of the invention, of which the magnetic poles are formed of permanent magnets;
  • FIG. 4 is a view illustrating a stator or slider on the non-exciting side according to yet another embodiment which is not part of the invention, in which a linear motor is formed of a reluctance-type motor;
  • FIG. 5 is a view illustrating a stator or slider according to a first embodiment of the invention, of which the magnetic poles are formed of permanent magnets;
  • FIG. 6 is a view illustrating a stator or slider according to a second embodiment of the invention, of which the magnetic poles are formed of permanent magnets;
  • FIG. 7 is a view illustrating a stator or slider according to a third embodiment of the invention, of which the magnetic poles are formed of permanent magnets;
  • FIG. 8 is a view illustrating a stator or slider on the non-exciting side according to a fourth embodiment of the invention, in which a linear motor is formed of a reluctance-type motor;
  • FIG. 9 is a view showing a model configuration for linear motors for the comparison of cogging forces generated in a linear motor of the invention and a conventional linear motor;
  • FIG. 10 is a diagram showing external shapes of magnetic poles for comparison;
  • FIG. 11 is a view illustrating a stator or slider of a conventional linear motor of which the cross section of each magnetic pole has a straight external shape;
  • FIG. 12 is a view illustrating a stator or slider of a conventional linear motor of which the cross section of each magnetic pole has a circular external shape;
  • FIG. 13 is a view illustrating a stator or slider of a conventional linear motor of which the cross section of each magnetic pole has a parabolic external shape; and
  • FIG. 14 is a view illustrating a stator or slider of a conventional linear motor of which the cross section of each magnetic pole has a hyperbolic external shape.

Figs 1 to 4 show embodiments which are not in accordance with the present invention, and which are included merely for completeness.

FIG. 1 is a view illustrating a stator or slider (moving element) according to an embodiment of which the field poles are formed of permanent magnets.

The stator or slider is constructed in a manner such that a plurality of permanent magnets 1 to form the magnetic poles are arranged parallel to one another on a plate 10 that is formed of a magnetic material such as iron. An external shape 20 of the cross section of each permanent magnet 1 on the gap side (the side opposite the plate 10) can be represented by a hyperbolic function according to this embodiment.

Thus, when the permanent magnets 1 are cut in the direction of their arrangement, that is, in the direction parallel to the relative movement of the slider with respect to the stator (horizontal direction of FIG. 1), the gap-side external shape 20 of the cross section of each permanent magnet 1 can be represented by a hyperbolic function.

A center line indicated by dashed line in FIG. 1 is supposed to be the X-axis. This line passes through the center of the cross section of each permanent magnet 1 and extends in the vertical direction (direction in which the magnetic poles face teeth across a gap). Thereupon, the hyperbolic function can be given by R = A B ( e C &thgr; + e C &thgr; ) , where R is the distance from a certain point on the X-axis, &thgr; is the angle to the X-axis, A, B and C are constants, and e is the base of a natural logarithm or a constant.

If an axis that horizontally extends at right angles to the X-axis (in the direction of relative movement of the slider with respect to the stator) is the Y-axis, FIG. 1 shows the respective cross sections of the permanent magnets 1 on the XY-plane. In this XY coordinate system, the aforesaid hyperbolic function is given by X = A B ( e C Y + e C Y ) , where A, B and C are constants, and e is the base of a natural logarithm or a constant.

As seen from equation (2), X has its maximum when Y is zero. In other words, X = A - 2B is obtained when Y = 0 is given. Thus, the vertex of each permanent magnet 1 shown in FIG. 1 is on the X-axis, and the origin (0, 0) of the XY coordinate system is in a position on the X-axis that is lower than the vertex by (A - 2B).

The cogging force can be lessened by creating the shape 20 represented by the hyperbolic function given by equation (1) or (2) over the whole surface of each permanent magnet 1 that faces the gap. Alternatively, the cogging force can be lessened by creating the same shape only over the region near the vertex of each permanent magnet 1 (central region covering the X-axis).

FIG. 2 is a view illustrating a stator or slider according to another embodiment not of the invention, of which the field poles are formed of permanent magnets. In this embodiment, a core 2 is bonded to the top of each permanent magnet 1, as shown in FIG. 2. The combined cross section of the magnet 1 and the core 2 has the same shape with the cross section of each permanent magnet 1 shown in FIG. 1. Thus, the gap-side external shape 20 of the cross section of the core 2 can be represented by the aforesaid hyperbolic function. This embodiment has the same construction with the first embodiment shown in FIG. 1 except for the shape of the cross section of each permanent magnet 1.

FIG. 3 is a view illustrating a stator or slider according to a further embodiment not of the invention, of which the field poles are formed of permanent magnets. In this embodiment, a core 2 covers each permanent magnet 1, as shown in FIG. 3. The cross section of the covered magnet 1 has the same shape with that of each permanent magnet 1 shown in FIG. 1. Thus, the gap-side external shape 20 of the cross section of the core 2 can be represented by the aforesaid hyperbolic function. This embodiment has the same construction with the first embodiment shown in FIG. 1 except for the shape of the cross section of each permanent magnet 1.

FIG. 4 is a view illustrating yet another embodiment not of the invention, in which a linear motor is formed of a reluctance-type motor, and shows the configuration of teeth of a stator or slider on the no-coil side (secondary side) to which no power is supplied. For the stator or slider that constitutes the linear motor, the side to which power is supplied is referred to as the primary side, and the side to which no power is supplied is referred to as the secondary side, hereinafter.

In the case of the reluctance-type motor, teeth 3 on the secondary side are formed of cores. In the linear motor of FIG. 4, the gap-side external shape 20 of the cross section of each tooth 3 that is formed of a core is represented by the aforesaid hyperbolic function. Thus, the cross section of each tooth 3 shown in FIG. 4 resembles that of each permanent magnet 1 shown in FIG. 1 (first embodiment).

In the first to fourth embodiments described above, the cogging force can be lessened by creating the shape 20 represented by the hyperbolic function given by equation (1) or (2) over the whole surface of each magnetic pole (permanent magnet 1) or tooth 3 that faces the gap.

FIGS. 5 to 8 are, views illustrating stators or sliders according to first to fourth embodiments of the invention, respectively, of which the magnetic poles are formed of permanent magnets. In the embodiments of FIGS 1 to 4 described above, the external shape of the cross section of each magnetic pole or tooth that faces the gap of the motor can be represented by the hyperbolic function given by equation (1) or (2). In the first to fourth embodiment of the invention, on the other hand, the cross section has an external shape represented by a reciprocal function of cosine in trigonometric function in place of the hyperbolic function.

In the first inventive embodiment shown in FIG. 5, an external shape 21 of the cross section of each permanent magnet 1 that constitutes a magnetic pole can be represented by a reciprocal function of cosine. This embodiment has the same construction with the embodiment shown in FIG. 1 except for the shape of the cross section of each permanent magnet 1.

As in the case of FIG. 1, a center line that passes through the center of the cross section of each permanent magnet 1 and extends in the vertical direction (direction in which the magnetic poles face teeth across a gap) is supposed to be the X-axis. Further, a line that horizontally extends at right angles to the X-axis (in the direction of relative movement of the slider with respect to the stator) is supposed to be the Y-axis. Thereupon, FIG. 5 shows the respective cross sections of the permanent magnets 1 on the XY-plane. The gap-side external shape of the cross section of each permanent magnet 1 can be represented by a reciprocal function of cosine in trigonometric function of the following equation: R = A B / cos ( C &thgr; ) , where R is the distance from a certain point on the X-axis, &thgr; is the angle to the X-axis, and A, B and C are constants.

Using the XY coordinate system, moreover, the gap-side external shape of the cross section of each permanent magnet 1 can be represented by a reciprocal function of cosine in trigonometric function of the following equation: X = A B / cos ( C Y ) , Where A, B and C are constants. In equation (4), X has its maximum when Y is zero. In other words, X = A - B is obtained when Y = 0 is given. Thus, the vertex of each permanent magnet 1 shown in FIG. 5 is on the X-axis, and the origin (0, 0) of the XY coordinate system is in a position on the X-axis that is lower than the vertex by (A - B).

The second inventive embodiment shown in FIG. 6 has the same construction with the first inventive embodiment shown in FIG. 5 except that a core 2 is bonded to the top of each permanent magnet 1. The combined cross section of the magnet 1 and the core 2 has the same shape with the cross section of each permanent magnet 1 shown in FIG. 5. Thus, the gap-side external shape of the cross section of the core 2 can be represented by the reciprocal function of cosine in trigonometric function given by equation (3) or (4).

The third inventive embodiment shown in FIG. 7 has the same construction with the first inventive embodiment shown in FIG. 5 except that a core 2 covers each permanent magnet 1. The cross section of the covered magnet 1 has the same shape with that of each permanent magnet 1 shown in FIG. 5. Thus, the gap-side external shape 21 of the cross section of the core 2 can be represented by the reciprocal function of cosine in trigonometric function given by equation (3) or (4).

In the fourth inventive embodiment shown in FIG. 8, as in the non-inventive embodiment shown in FIG. 4, a reluctance-type linear motor has a stator or slider on its secondary side. This embodiment has the same construction with the embodiment of FIG. 4 except for the shape of the cross section of each tooth 4. A gap-side external shape 21 of the cross section of each tooth 4 shown in FIG. 8 can be represented by the reciprocal function of cosine in trigonometric function given by equation (3) or (4).

In these inventive embodiments shown in FIGS. 5 to 8, the cogging force is lessened by creating the shape 21 represented by the reciprocal function of cosine given by equation (3) or (4) over the whole surface of each magnetic pole (permanent magnet 1) or tooth 4 that faces the gap.

Each permanent magnet 1 shown in FIG. 1 or each tooth 3 shown in FIG. 4 is worked so that its cross section has the gap-side external shape 20 represented by the hyperbolic function. Alternatively each permanent magnet 1 shown in FIG. 5 or each tooth 4 shown in FIG. 8 is worked so that its cross section has the gap-side external shape 21 represented by the reciprocal function of cosine in trigonometric function. In doing this, a plurality of points set on the shape 20 or 21 are connected by means of a straight or curved line. If the cross section of each core 2 has the gap-side external shape 20 represented by the hyperbolic function or the shape 21 represented by the reciprocal function of cosine in trigonometric function, as in the embodiment shown in FIG. 2, 3, 6 or 7, the shape 20 or 21 is created by successively laminating thin steel sheets to one another.

To examine the advantageous effect of the present invention, a test was conducted to compare a prior art example in which the external shape of each magnetic pole or tooth is a straight line circular arc; parabola, or hyperbola, the first non-inventive embodiment shown in FIG. 1 in which the external shape of each magnetic pole or tooth can be represented by a hyperbolic function, and the first inventive embodiment shown in FIG. 5 in which the external shape of each magnetic pole or tooth can be represented by a reciprocal function of cosine in trigonometric function.

FIG. 9 shows a common configuration for tested linear motors. In FIG. 9, a slider 60 is on the primary side (power supply side), and a stator 50 is on the secondary side. The stator 50 is formed of a plurality of permanent magnets 1 arranged side by side on the plate 10. The slider 60 is provided with core teeth 40 wound with a coil. The coil to be wound on the teeth 40 is not shown in FIG. 9.

The depth of each permanent magnet (magnetic pole) 1 (in the direction perpendicular to the drawing plane in FIGS. 1, 5, 11, 12 and 13) is fixed, and the gap between the stator 50 and the slider 60 (gap between the vertex of each permanent magnet 1 and the distal end of each corresponding tooth 40 in FIG. 9) is also fixed. Further, the maximum height of each permanent magnet 1 (distance from the upper surface of the plate 10 to the vertex of each magnet 1) and its volume are fixed. However, only the gap is fixed for each permanent magnet 1 of which the cross section has a straight gap-side external shape, as shown in FIG. 11.

FIG. 10 shows the gap-side external shapes of the respective cross sections of these magnetic poles (permanent magnets) for comparison. In FIG. 10, shapes represented by a reciprocal function of cosine in trigonometric function, hyperbolic function, circular arc, parabola (broken line), and hyperbola are drawn ranging from outside to inside in the order named. The shapes represented by the circular arc and the parabola (broken line) are substantially coincident with each other.

The following table shows the result of measurement of cogging force. The cogging force is given in Newton (N), a unit of force, and the ratio is based on the shape represented by the hyperbolic function. External shape of magnetic pole: Cogging force: Ratio Reciprocal function of cosine 25.0 N -16.2% Hyperbolic function 29.8 N 0 Circular arc 31.0 N +3.9% Parabola 31.7 N +6.5% Hyperbola 35.2 N +18.0% Straight line 89.6 N 201.0%

Thus, the cogging force has its minimum when the magnetic poles have an external shape represented by the reciprocal function of cosine in trigonometric function. The second lowest cogging force is obtained with use of an external shape represented by the hyperbolic function.

As mentioned before, according to the invention the gap-side external shape of the cross section of each magnetic pole or tooth, cut in a direction parallel to the direction of relative movement of the slider with respect to the stator, is the shape represented by the reciprocal function of cosine in trigonometric function throughout its area.

According to the inventive embodiments described above, each magnetic pole or tooth on the secondary side has an external shape represented by the reciprocal function of cosine in trigonometric function. However, the same effect can be obtained by using the shape represented by the reciprocal function of cosine in trigonometric function for the external shape of each tooth or magnetic pole on the primary side. In this case, each magnetic pole or tooth on the secondary side may be formed having the straight shape shown in FIG. 11. Alternatively, in an inventive embodiment each magnetic pole or tooth on each of the primary and secondary sides may be formed having an external shape represented by the reciprocal function of cosine in trigonometric function.


Anspruch[de]
Linearmotor mit zwei Bauteilen, die sich relativ zueinander linear bewegen sollen mit einem Spalt zwischen den zwei Bauteilen, wobei auf mindestens einem der zwei Bauteile von jedem Element aus Magnetpolen und/oder Zähnen, die einen Spaltabschnitt bilden, die spaltseitige Oberfläche eine gekrümmte Form aufweist, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die gesamte gekrümmte Form durch eine trigonometrische Kehrwertfunktion des Cosinus wiedergegeben wird, wodurch die Rastkraft des Linearmotors aufgrund der gekrümmten Gestaltsfunktion der spaltseitigen Oberfläche kleiner wird. Linearmotor nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Kehrwertfunktion des Cosinus in einer trigonometrischen Funktion gegeben ist durch R = A B / cos ( C &thgr; ) wobei R der Abstand von einem bestimmten Punkt auf der Mittellinie von jedem Magnetpol oder jedem diesem gegenüberliegenden Zahn ist, &thgr; der Winkel zur Mittellinie ist und A, B und C Konstanten sind. Linearmotor nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Kehrwertfunktion des Cosinus in einer trigonometrischen Funktion in einem XY-Koordinatensystem, in dem die Mittelachse von jedem Magnetpol oder jedem diesem gegenüberliegenden Zahn die X-Achse ist, eine Achse senkrecht zur X-Achse die Y-Achse ist und der Schnittpunkt der X- und der Y-Achse der Ursprung ist, gegeben ist durch X = A B / cos ( C Y ) wobei A, B und C Konstanten sind. Linearmotor nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Magnetpole gebildet werden durch Binden von Kernen an die oberen Abschnitte von Permanentmagneten oder durch Bedecken von Permanentmagneten mit Kernen, wobei jeder Kern hergestellt wird durch Laminieren einer Mehrzahl Stahlbleche aneinander.
Anspruch[en]
A linear motor having two members which are to move relatively to one another in a linear manner with a gap between the two members, and on at least one of the two members the gap-side surface of each of magnetic poles and/or teeth forming a gap portion comprises a curved shape, characterised in that the whole of said curved shape is represented by a trigonometric reciprocal cosine function, whereby cogging force of the linear motor is reduced owing to said curved shape function of said gap-side surface. A linear motor according to claim 1, wherein the reciprocal function of cosine in trigonometric function is given by R = A B / cos ( C &thgr; ) , where R is the distance from a certain point on the center line of each magnetic pole or each tooth opposite thereto, &thgr; is the angle to the center line, and A, B and C are constants. A linear motor according to claim 1, wherein the reciprocal function of cosine in trigonometric function, in an XY coordinate system in which the central axis of each magnetic pole or each tooth opposite thereto is the X-axis, an axis perpendicular to the X-axis is the Y-axis, and the point of intersection of the X- and Y-axes is the origin, is given by X = A B / cos ( C Y ) , where A, B and C are constants. A linear motor according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said magnetic poles are formed by bonding cores to the tops of permanent magnets or by covering permanent magnets with cores, each said core being formed by laminating a plurality of steel sheets to one another.
Anspruch[fr]
Moteur linéaire comportant deux éléments destinés à se déplacer l'un par rapport à l'autre d'une manière linéaire avec un espace entre les deux éléments, et sur au moins l'un des deux éléments, la surface côté espace de chacun de pôles magnétiques et/ou de dents formant une partie d'espace comprend une forme incurvée, caractérisé en ce que l'ensemble de ladite forme incurvée est représenté par une fonction trigonométrique cosinusoïdale réciproque, moyennant quoi une force due à la denture du moteur linéaire est réduite grâce à ladite fonction de forme incurvée de ladite surface côté espace. Moteur linéaire selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la fonction cosinusoïdale réciproque dans la fonction trigonométrique est donnée par R = A B / cos ( C &thgr; ) , où R est la distance par rapport à un certain point sur la ligne médiane de chaque pôle magnétique ou de chaque dent opposée à celui-ci, &thgr; est l'angle par rapport à la ligne médiane, et A, B et C sont des constantes. Moteur linéaire selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la fonction cosinusoïdale réciproque dans la fonction trigonométrique, dans un système de coordonnées XY dans lequel l'axe central de chaque pôle magnétique ou de chaque dent opposée à celui-ci est l'axe X, un axe perpendiculaire à l'axe X est l'axe Y, et le point d'intersection des axes X et Y est l'origine, est donnée par X = A B / cos ( C Y ) , où A, B et C sont des constantes. Moteur linéaire selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel lesdits pôles magnétiques sont formés en collant des noyaux aux sommets d'aimants permanents ou en recouvrant des aimants permanents de noyaux, chaque dit noyau étant formé en déposant une pluralité de tôles d'acier les unes sur les autres.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
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E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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