PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP1022761 20.07.2006
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001022761
Titel Vakuumschaltgerät
Anmelder Hitachi, Ltd., Tokio/Tokyo, JP
Erfinder Morita, Ayumu, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki 316-0032, JP;
Yano, Makoto, Mito-shi, Ibaraki 310-0912, JP;
Tanimizu, Toru, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki 319-1222, JP
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69931744
Vertragsstaaten DE, FR
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 02.03.1999
EP-Aktenzeichen 991041856
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 26.07.2000
EP date of grant 07.06.2006
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 20.07.2006
IPC-Hauptklasse H01H 33/66(2006.01)A, F, I, 20051017, B, H, EP
IPC-Nebenklasse H01H 3/52(2006.01)A, L, I, 20051017, B, H, EP   

Beschreibung[en]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a vacuum switching apparatus having a function of breaking a large current.

In general, a power receiving/transforming apparatus receives power by a breaker and a disconnector; transforms the power voltage into a voltage suitable for a load by a transformer; and supplies the power thus voltage-transformed to the load. Upon maintenance and inspection of a power receiving/transforming apparatus, in order to keep the safety of an operator, a breaker is turned off and then a disconnector is turned off for preventing power from being applied again from the power supply side, and further an earthing switch is turned on to allow remaining charges and an induction current on the power supply side to flow on the earthing side. As one example of a power receiving/transforming apparatus, a gas insulation switching apparatus disclosed in Japanese Patent Laid-open No. Hei 3-273804 is configured such that a breaker, a disconnector, an earthing switch, and a current transformer are individually prepared and are stored in a unit chamber filled with an insulating gas. As another example of a power receiving/transforming apparatus, a switching apparatus disclosed in Japanese Patent Laid-open No. Hei 9-153320 is configured such that it includes a means of stopping a movable conductor 19 at four positions, specifically, a closing position Y1, an opening position Y2, a disconnecting position Y3, and an earthing position Y4 or stopping the movable conductor 19 at three positions, specifically, at the closing position Y1, disconnecting position Y3, and earthing position Y4, to thus build-up three functions of the breaker, disconnector and earthing switch or two functions of the disconnector and earthing switch in a vacuum bulb.

The above-described former vacuum switching apparatus, in which the breaker and disconnector are individually arranged, has a problem in enlarging the size of the apparatus, and has another problem in making poor the usability and causing the possibility of misoperation of an operator because a series of breaking and disconnecting operations upon maintenance and inspection cannot be continuously performed.

The above-described latter vacuum switching apparatus, in which the breaker and disconnector are built-up in one vacuum vessel, has a problem in complicating the operating mechanism. In a vacuum breaker, there is specified a between-electrode opening distance most suitable for breaking a large current. If the between-electrode opening distance is excessively larger, a region in which metal particles released from both electrodes are diffused increases, to contaminate insulators around the electrodes, thereby reducing the insulating performance of a vacuum bulb; and further, since the arc length increases, to make unstable the behavior of arc, tending to reduce the breaking performance. Meanwhile, if the between-electrode opening distance is excessively small, the electrodes cannot withstand a transient recovery voltage applied between the electrodes after breaking, causing dielectric breakdown, that is, making breaking impracticable. In view of the foregoing, the prior art switching apparatus must be configured to complete the breaking operation in a state in which the movable conductor is stopped once at a suitable opening position, and then to perform the disconnecting operation separately from the breaking operation. This configuration causes an inconvenience in complicating the operating mechanism.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

An object of the present invention is to provide a vacuum switching apparatus which is capable of improving the usability, reducing the possibility of misoperation of an operator, and simplifying and miniaturizing the operating mechanism as compared with that, of the prior art switching apparatus, operated in two stages.

To achieve the above object, according to the present invention, there is provided a vacuum switching apparatus including: a fixed electrode provided in a vacuum vessel; a movable electrode, provided in a vacuum vessel, which is moved between a closing position and an opening position and between the opening position and a disconnecting position, and which is stopped at the closing position and the disconnecting position; a means for bringing the movable electrode into contact with the fixed electrode or separating the movable electrode from the fixed electrode; and a decelerating means for making a moving speed of the movable electrode during movement from the opening position to the disconnecting position smaller than a moving speed of the movable electrode during movement from the closing position to the opening position.

According to the present invention, there is also provided a vacuum switching apparatus including: a fixed electrode provided in a vacuum vessel; a movable electrode, provided in a vacuum vessel, which is moved between a closing position and an opening position and between the opening position and a disconnecting position, and which is stopped at the closing position and the disconnecting position; a means for bringing the movable electrode into contact with the fixed electrode or separating the movable electrode from the fixed electrode; and a decelerating means for making a moving speed of the movable electrode during movement from the opening position to the disconnecting position smaller than a moving speed of the movable electrode during movement from the closing position to the opening position; wherein a between-electrode opening distance D2 between the fixed electrode and the movable electrode at the opening position and a between-electrode opening distance D3 at the disconnecting position satisfy a relationship of 0.5×D3≦D2≦0.7×D3.

According to the present invention, the above decelerating means is preferably composed a shock absorber which begins to be operated when the movable electrode reaches the opening position.

According to the present invention, the above decelerating means is preferably composed of a breaking spring of a spring operating mechanism for driving the movable electrode and a shock absorbing spring which begins to be operated when the movable electrode reaches the opening position.

According to the present invention, a spring constant of the shock absorbing spring is preferably larger than a spring constant of the breaking spring.

According to the present invention, the above decelerating means is preferably composed of a bellows whose spring constant increases when the movable electrode reaches the opening position; and the movable electrode is preferably fixed to the vacuum vessel via the bellows.

According to the present invention, it is possible to improve the usability and reduce the possibility of misoperation of an operator, and to simplify and miniaturize the operating mechanism as compared with that, of the prior art switching apparatus, operated in two stages.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

  • Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view of a vacuum bulb according to a first embodiment of the present invention;
  • Fig. 2 is an enlarged view of an electrode and its neighborhood in the first embodiment of the present invention;
  • Fig. 3 is a graph illustrating a between-electrode opening characteristic in the first embodiment of the present invention;
  • Fig. 4 is a graph illustrating a between-electrode closing characteristic in the first embodiment of the present invention;
  • Fig. 5 is a characteristic diagram showing a relationship between each of a between-electrode withstand voltage and breaking performance and a position of a movable electrode according to the first embodiment;
  • Fig. 6 is a schematic view of an operating mechanism according to a second embodiment of the present invention;
  • Fig. 7 is a vertical sectional view of a vacuum bulb according to a third embodiment of the present invention;
  • Fig. 8 is a sectional side view of a vacuum bulb according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention;
  • Fig. 9 is a sectional view of a breaking spring portion of an operating mechanism according to a fifth embodiment of the present invention, in which the breaking spring portion having a function of a shock absorber includes a tensile type breaking spring;
  • Fig. 10 is a sectional view of a breaking spring portion of an operating mechanism according to a sixth embodiment of the present invention, in which the tensile type breaking spring shown in Fig. 9 is replaced with a compression type breaking spring;
  • Fig. 11 is a vertical sectional view of a vacuum bulb according to a seventh embodiment of the present invention; and
  • Fig. 12 is a vertical sectional view of a vacuum bulb according to an eighth embodiment of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to Figs. 1 to 12.

(Embodiment 1)

Fig. 1 shows a vacuum bulb 1 including a breaking function and a disconnecting function.

First, the structure of the vacuum bulb 1 will be described. The inside of a metal vessel 4 is enclosed in a vacuum state. A movable electrode 2 and a fixed electrode 3 are arranged opposite to each other in the metal vessel 4 which is earthed. The fixed electrode 3 is connected to a bushing 9, more specifically, connected to a bus via the bushing 9. The movable electrode 2 is connected to a bushing 8 via a flexible conductor 12, more specifically, connected to a load via the bushing 8. In the vacuum bulb 1 in a closing state in which the movable electrode 2 is in contact with the fixed electrode 3, a current flows by way of a route of the fixed electrode 3, movable electrode 2, and flexible conductor 12. An arc shield 14 for preventing occurrence of earth fault caused by direct-contact of an arc A with the metal vessel 4 upon breaking is provided around the fixed electrode 3. The arc shield 14 also plays a role in preventing scattering of metal particles released from the electrodes upon breaking, thereby preventing deterioration of an insulating performance, for example, contamination of an insulating rod 7 or the like due to the scattered metal particles. The movable electrode 2 is connected to the insulating rod 7. The movable electrode 2 is vertically driven via the insulating rod 7 by an operating mechanism (not shown) provided separately from the vacuum bulb 1, to be opened/closed with respect to the fixed electrode 3. The insulating rod 7 is connected to the metal vessel 4 via a bellows 11, and therefore, it is drivable by the insulating rod 7 in a state in which the vacuum of the inside of the metal vessel 4 is kept.

The movable electrode 2 is stopped at a closing position Y1 at which both the electrodes are in contact with each other and a disconnecting position Y3 at which insulation is kept even if a surge voltage due to thunder or the like is applied. For example, as described in JEC standard 2300 and 2310, a between-electrode withstand voltage of a disconnector is set higher than that of a breaker. A between-electrode opening distance, an insulating distance between each electrode and an arc shield 14, and the like when the movable electrode 2 is stopped at the disconnecting position Y3 must be designed in accordance with the specification associated with withstand voltage of the disconnector. Also to keep the safety of an operator when the movable electrode 2 is stopped at the disconnecting position Y3, the coordination of insulation must be established such that even in the worst case, the dielectric breakdown does not occurs between the electrodes by introducing the discharge on the earth side. For example, as shown in Fig. 2, an electric field E3 between the electrodes is made smaller than each of an electric field E1 between the electrode 3 and the arc shield 14 and an electric field E2 between the electrode 2 and the arc shield 14, to cause the dielectric breakdown not in a discharge route 41 but in discharge routes 42 and 43. With this configuration, it is possible to keep the safety of an operator.

Next, the switching characteristic of the vacuum switching apparatus in this embodiment will be described with reference to Figs. 3 and 4. Fig. 3 shows a change in position of the movable electrode 2 with an elapsed time in the between-electrode opening operation. In the figure, symbol Y2 designates an opening position in the vacuum switching apparatus, which position is located between the closing position Y1 and the disconnecting position Y3. The movable electrode 2 is forcibly decelerated after an elapse of a time To at which the movable electrode 2 just passes through the opening position Y2, and is then moved to the disconnecting position Y3. Fig. 4 shows a change in position of the movable electrode 2 with an elapsed time in the between-electrode closing operation. The movable electrode 2 is acceleratingly moved from the disconnecting position Y3 to the closing position Y1.

The time to at which the deceleration of the movable electrode 2 begins upon the between-electrode opening operation is determined in accordance with the following procedure.

Fig. 5 shows a relationship between each of the between-electrode withstand voltage and breaking performance and the position (between-electrode distance D) of the movable electrode 2. The between-electrode withstand voltage increases with the between-electrode distance D. Meanwhile, the breaking performance is maximized when the between-electrode distance reaches a value D0 shown in Fig. 5, and it is reduced as the between-electrode distance D becomes larger than the value D0. This is because when the between-electrode distance D is more than the value Do, a region in which insulators are contaminated by metal particles released from the electrodes is increased, with a result that the breaking performance is reduced.

Here, a between-electrode distance D3 is that in a state in which the movable electrode 2 is stopped at the disconnecting position Y3.

As is apparent from Fig. 5, it is desirable that the breaking operation be performed in a state in which the breaking performance is high and also the between-electrode withstand voltage is high, that is, in a hatching region in the figure (the between-electrode distance D lies in a range of 0.5×D3≦D2≦0.7×D3). Accordingly, the between-electrode distance D2 in a state in which the movable electrode 2 is located at the opening position Y2 is desirable to be in a range of 0.5×D3≦D2≦0.7×D3 based on the between-electrode distance D3 in a state in which the movable electrode 2 is stopped at the disconnecting position Y3.

(Embodiment 2)

An operating mechanism for giving a concrete form to the above switching characteristic will be described with reference to Fig. 6. Fig. 6 shows a switching apparatus for operating the vacuum bulb 1 shown in Fig. 1 by a spring operating mechanism 25. In the figure, reference numeral 30 designates a breaking spring portion in which a biased breaking spring 31 is released by a trip mechanism provided separately from the breaking spring portion 30 to generate a drive force. The drive force is transmitted to the insulating rod 7 via a shaft 22 or the like. Reference numeral 20 designates a stopper. The stopper 20 restricts the rotational amount of the shaft 22 to determine the moving distance of the movable electrode 2. The stopper 20 is adjusted such that the shaft 22 is brought in contact with the stopper 20 when the movable electrode 2 reaches the disconnecting position Y3. A shock absorber 21 is provided on a link portion 27. The shock absorber 21 is adjusted such that it begins to be operated when the movable electrode 2 reaches the opening position Y2.

According to the present invention, the operational state automatically comes into the breaking state with the between-electrode distance D kept at the value D0 suitable for breaking. That is to say, a series of the breaking and disconnecting operations can be automatically performed without reducing the breaking performance. This switching apparatus makes it possible to improve the usability and to eliminate the possibility of misoperation of an operator. Also the operating mechanism is simplified as compared with that in the prior art switching apparatus in which the breaking and disconnection have been operated in two steps. Further, since the between-electrode opening speed of the movable electrode 2 is reduced before the movable electrode 2 reaches the stopping position, that is, the disconnecting position Y3, an impact force is reduced, thereby improving the mechanical lives of the vacuum bulb 1, bellows 11, operating mechanism 25 and the like. In this embodiment, the following effect in terms of the throwing performance can be also obtained. Since the throwing begins from the disconnecting position Y3, the throwing stroke becomes longer than that in the prior art switching apparatus, to increase the throwing speed just before the contact between the electrodes. In a vacuum breaker, arc is generated between the electrodes in a state in which the electrodes comes closer to each other with a micro-gap put therebetween just before throwing, giving rise to a problem associated with fusion between the electrodes after throwing. For this reason, the prior art operating mechanism has required a trip force more than the fusion force acting between the electrodes. On the contrary, according to the present invention, since the throwing speed is increased, the generating time of arc, that is, the fusion force produced between the electrodes is reduced. This is effective to make lower the necessary operating force.

(Embodiment 3)

In the first and second embodiments, description is made by example of the vacuum bulb in which the metal vessel is earthed; however, as described in this embodiment, the present invention can be applied to a vacuum bulb in which the metal vessel is not earthed. Fig. 7 shows a vacuum bulb in which a movable electrode 2 is driven in the axial direction, and a ceramic cylinder 16 is provided on the outer peripheral sides of a fixed electrode 3 and the movable electrode 2. An arc shield 14 is provided between the outer peripheries of the fixed electrode 3 and the movable electrode 2 and the ceramic cylinder 16 in order to prevent the insulating performance of the ceramic cylinder 16 from being deteriorated due to adhesion of ions and electrons scattered upon generation of arc on the ceramic cylinder 16. A bellows 11 is provided around a conductor portion of the movable electrode 2, and the inside of the vacuum bulb surrounded by the bellows 11, the ceramic cylinder 16 and the like is kept in vacuum. The above conductor portion is connected to the operating mechanism 25 shown in Fig. 6 via an insulator.

The movable electrode 2 is stopped at a closing position Y1 and a disconnecting position Y3, and the moving speed of the movable electrode 2 is reduced after the movable electrode 2 passes through the opening position Y2. The adjustment of the moving speed of the movable electrode 2 is performed by the shock absorber 21 of the operating mechanism 25 shown in Fig. 6. The between-electrode withstand voltage when the movable electrode 2 is stopped at the disconnecting position Y3 is set higher than the withstand voltage between the outer portion of the vacuum bulb and the earth to realize the coordination of insulation.

A control system such as a servo or feedback system may be provided by mounting a position sensor on an air operating mechanism other than the spring operating mechanism, such as the shock absorber or link portion. In this case, the same effect as that described above can be obtained.

(Embodiment 4)

In this embodiment, the present invention is applied to a vacuum bulb in which a metal vessel is not earthed and an operating blade including a movable electrode 2 is turned around a main shaft 20.

Fig. 8 shows a vacuum bulb in which an operating blade including a movable electrode 2 is turned around a main shaft 20 and a ceramic cylinder 16 is provided on the outer peripheral sides of a fixed electrode 3 and the movable electrode 2. An arc shield 14 is provided between the outer peripheries of the fixed electrode 3 and the movable electrode 2 and the ceramic cylinder 16 in order to prevent the insulating performance of the ceramic cylinder 16 from being deteriorated due to adhesion of ions and electrons scattered upon generation of arc on the ceramic cylinder 16. A bellows 11 is provided around a conductor portion of the movable electrode 2, and the inside of the vacuum bulb surrounded by the bellows 11, the ceramic cylinder 16 and the like is kept in vacuum. The above conductor portion is connected to the operating mechanism 25 shown in Fig. 6 via an insulator.

The movable electrode 2 is stopped at a closing position Y1 and a disconnecting position Y3, and the moving speed of the movable electrode 2 is reduced after the movable electrode 2 passes through an opening position Y2. The adjustment of the moving speed of the movable electrode 2 is performed by the shock absorber 21 of the operating mechanism 25 shown in Fig. 6. The between-electrode withstand voltage when the movable electrode 2 is stopped at the disconnecting position Y3 is set higher than the withstand voltage between the outer portion of the vacuum bulb and the earth to realize the coordination of insulation.

A control system such as a servo or feedback system may be provided by mounting a position sensor on an air operating mechanism other than the spring operating mechanism, such as the shock absorber or link portion. In this case, the same effect as that described above can be obtained.

(Embodiment 5)

In this embodiment, the breaking spring portion 30 of the spring operating mechanism 25 shown in Fig. 6 is modified to have the function of the shock absorber 21. Fig. 9 shows the modified structure of the breaking spring portion 30, which includes a tensile type breaking spring 31 and spring supporting fixtures 32 and 33 for fixing both the ends of the breaking spring 31. The supporting fixture 32 is stopped at a position L1 when the movable electrode 2 is located at the closing position Y1; stopped at a position L3 when the movable electrode 2 is located at the disconnecting position Y3; and passes through a position L2 when the movable electrode 2 reaches the opening position Y2. Here, a shock absorbing spring 34 is separately provided outside or inside the breaking spring 31, which spring 34 begins to be operated when the supporting fixture 32 passes through the position L2. That is to say, the shock absorbing spring 34 is adjusted to begin to be operated when the movable electrode 2 reaches the opening position Y2.

(Embodiment 6)

Fig. 10 shows an embodiment in which the tensile coil of the breaking spring 31 in the fifth embodiment is replaced with a compressive coil. Even in this embodiment, the shock absorbing spring 34 is adjusted such that it begins to be operated when the supporting fixture 32 passes through the position L2. Accordingly, when the movable electrode 2 reaches the opening position Y2, the shock absorbing spring 34 acts as a brake to reduce the between-electrode opening speed of the movable electrode 2. The shock absorbing spring 34 in this embodiment exhibits the same effect as that obtained by using the shock absorber 21 in the first embodiment. It should be noted that the decelerating effect can be increased by making a spring constant of the shock absorbing spring 34 larger than a spring constant of the breaking spring 31.

(Embodiment 7)

Fig. 11 shows an embodiment in which the bellows 11 described in the previous embodiments is modified to have the function of reducing the between-electrode opening speed. The bellows 11 in this embodiment has a portion K1 having a large spring constant and a portion K2 having a small spring constant. With this configuration, when the movable electrode 2 is moved at a high speed, the portion K2 having the small spring constant is mainly actuated, and when the movable electrode 2 reaches the opening position Y2, the portion K2 is sufficiently compressed and the portion K1 having the large spring constant begins to be actuated. That is to say, after the movable electrode 2 passes through the opening position Y2, the portion K1 having the large spring constant is actuated, to thereby reduce the between-electrode opening speed of the movable electrode 2. This embodiment is advantageous in that the operating mechanism adopted in the prior art breaker can be used as it is.

(Embodiment 8)

Fig. 12 shows a vacuum bulb in which a breaker and an earthing switch are built-up. A fixed electrode 3, a movable electrode 2, an earthing switch 15 are arranged in an earthed metal vessel 4 in such a manner as to be insulated from the metal vessel 4. The movable electrode 2 is stopped at a closing position Y1 and an earthing position Y4. During movement of the movable electrode 2 from the closing position Y1 to the earthing position Y4, the between-electrode opening speed of the movable electrode 2 is reduced after the movable electrode 2 passes through an opening position Y2. Either the shock absorber 21 shown in Fig. 6 or the shock absorbing spring 34 shown in Figs. 9 and 10 is used as a decelerating means in this embodiment. With this configuration, the breaking and earthing operations can be automatically, continuously performed only by a single operating mechanism. It should be noted that the vacuum bulb 1 shown in Fig. 12 may be configured such that the movable electrode 2 is stopped at the closing position Y1 and a disconnecting position Y3 for realizing the breaking and disconnecting functions, and the movable electrode 2 and earthing switch 15 are opened/closed by a separate operating mechanism to realize the earthing function. This is advantageous in that the breaking, disconnecting and earthing functions can be built-up in the single vacuum bulb, thereby making small the entire structure of the switching apparatus.

While the preferred embodiments of the present invention have been described using the specific terms, such description is for illustrative purposes only, and it is to be understood that changes and variations may be made without departing from the scope of the following claims.


Anspruch[de]
Vakuumschaltgerät mit: einer in einem Vakuumgefäß (4) vorgesehenen festen Elektrode (3), einer in dem Vakuumgefäß (4) vorgesehenen bewegbaren Elektrode (2), die zwischen einer Schließstellung (Y1) und einer Unterbrechungsstellung (Y3) bewegbar ist, und einer Einrichtung, um die bewegbare Elektrode (2) in Kontakt mit der festen Elektrode (3) zu bringen und von ihr zu trennen, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass zwischen der Schließstellung (Y1) und der Unterbrechungsstellung (Y3) eine Öffnungsstellung (Y2) definiert ist, die bewegbare Elektrode (2) in der Schließstellung (Y1) anhält und eine Verzögerungseinrichtung (11; 21; 31, 34) vorgesehen ist, die die Bewegungsgeschwindigkeit der bewegbaren Elektrode (2) aus der Öffnungsstellung (Y2) in die Unterbrechungsstellung (Y3) kleiner macht als aus der Schließstellung (Y1) in die Öffnungsstellung (Y2). Gerät nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Zwischenelektroden-Öffungsabstand D2 zwischen der festen Elektrode (3) und der bewegbaren Elektrode (2) in der Öffnungsstellung (Y2) und der Zwischenelektroden-Öffungsabstand D3 in der Unterbrechungsstellung (Y3) folgende Beziehung erfüllen: 0.5 × D 3 D 2 0.7 × D 3 . Gerät nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei die Verzögerungseinrichtung einen Stoßdämpfer (21) aufweist, der zu arbeiten beginnt, wenn die bewegbare Elektrode (2) die Öffnungsstellung (Y2) erreicht. Gerät nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei die Verzögerungseinrichtung eine Bremsfeder (31) eines die bewegbare Elektrode (2) antreibenden Federbetätigungsmechanismus sowie eine Stoßdämpferfeder (34) aufweist, die zu arbeiten beginnt, wenn die bewegbare Elektrode (2) die Öffnungsstellung (Y2) erreicht. Gerät nach Anspruch 4, wobei die Stoßdämpferfeder (34) eine größere Federkonstante hat als die Bremsfeder (31). Gerät nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei die Verzögerungseinrichtung einen Balg (11) aufweist, dessen Federkonstante zunimmt, wenn die bewegbare Elektrode die Öffnungsstellung (Y2) erreicht, wobei die bewegbare Elektrode (2) über den Balg (11) in dem Vakuumgefäß (4) befestigt ist.
Anspruch[en]
A vacuum switching apparatus comprising: a fixed electrode (3) provided in a vacuum vessel (4); a movable electrode (2) which is provided in said vacuum vessel (4) and moveable between a closing position (Y1) and a disconnecting position (Y3); and means for bringing said movable electrode (2) into contact with said fixed electrode (3) and for separating it therefrom characterised in that an opening position (Y2) is defined between said closing position (Y1) and said disconnecting position (Y3), that said movable electrode (2) is stopped at said closing position (Y1), and that decelerating means (11; 21; 31, 34) are provided for making the moving speed of said movable electrode (2) from said opening position (Y2) to said disconnecting position (Y3) smaller than from said closing position (Y1) to said opening position (Y2). The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the between-electrode opening distance D2 between said fixed electrode (3) and said movable electrode (2) at said opening position (Y2) and the between-electrode opening distance D3 at said disconnecting position (Y3) satisfy the relationship 0.5 × D 3 D 2 0.7 × D 3 . The apparatus of claim 1 or 2, wherein said decelerating means comprises a shock absorber (21) which begins to be operated when said movable electrode (2) reaches said opening position (Y2). The apparatus of claim 1 or 2, wherein said decelerating means comprises a braking spring (31) of a spring operating mechanism (25) driving said movable electrode (2), and a shock absorbing spring (34) which begins to be operated when said movable electrode (2) reaches said opening position (Y2). The apparatus of claim 4, wherein said shock absorbing spring (34) has a larger spring constant than said braking spring (31). The apparatus of claim 1 or 2, wherein said decelerating means comprises a bellows (11) whose spring constant increases when said movable electrode reaches said opening position (Y2), said movable electrode (2) being fixed to said vacuum vessel (4) via said bellows (11).
Anspruch[fr]
Dispositif de commutation à vide, comportant : une électrode fixe (3) disposée dans une enceinte à vide (4), une électrode mobile (2) qui est disposée dans ladite enceinte à vide (4) et est mobile entre une position de fermeture (Y1) et une position de déconnexion (Y3), et des moyens pour amener ladite électrode mobile (2) en contact avec ladite électrode fixe (3) et pour la séparer de celle-ci, caractérisé en ce que une position d'ouverture (Y2) est définie entre ladite position de fermeture (Y1) et ladite position de déconnexion (Y3), ladite électrode mobile (2) est stoppée à ladite position de fermeture (Y1), et des moyens de décélération (11 ; 21 ; 31, 34) sont prévus pour rendre la vitesse de déplacement de ladite électrode mobile (2) de ladite position d'ouverture (Y2) à ladite position de déconnexion (Y3) inférieure à celle de ladite position de fermeture (Y1) à ladite position d'ouverture (Y2). Dispositif selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la distance d'ouverture entre électrodes D2 entre ladite électrode fixe (3) et ladite électrode mobile (2) à ladite position d'ouverture (Y2) et la distance d'ouverture entre électrodes D3 à ladite position de déconnexion (Y3) satisfont à la relation suivante 0 , 5 × D 3 D 2 0 , 7 × D 3 . Dispositif selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel lesdits moyens de décélération comportent un absorbeur de chocs (21) qui commence à fonctionner lorsque ladite électrode mobile (2) atteint ladite position d'ouverture (Y2). Dispositif selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel lesdits moyens de décélération comportent un ressort de freinage (31) d'un mécanisme de fonctionnement de ressort (25) entraînant ladite électrode mobile (2), et un ressort d'absorption de chocs (34) qui commence à fonctionner lorsque ladite électrode mobile (2) atteint ladite position d'ouverture (Y2). Dispositif selon la revendication 4, dans lequel ledit ressort d'absorption de chocs (34) a une constante de ressort plus grande que ledit ressort de freinage (31). Dispositif selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel lesdits moyens de décélération comportent des soufflets (11) dont la constante de ressort augmente lorsque ladite électrode mobile atteint ladite position d'ouverture (Y2), ladite électrode mobile (2) étant fixée à ladite enceinte à vide (4) via lesdits soufflets (11).






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