PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP1272052 20.07.2006
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001272052
Titel GELIERBARE UNG GELIERTE ZUSAMMENSETZUNGEN FÜR NAHRUNGSMITTEL
Anmelder CP Kelco APS, Wilmington, Del., US
Erfinder HAUKSSON, Helgi, 4652 Haarlev, DK
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 60120384
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, CH, CY, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LI, LU, MC, NL, PT, SE, TR
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 03.04.2001
EP-Aktenzeichen 019283514
WO-Anmeldetag 03.04.2001
PCT-Aktenzeichen PCT/US01/10747
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 2001074176
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 11.10.2001
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 08.01.2003
EP date of grant 07.06.2006
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 20.07.2006
IPC-Hauptklasse A23L 1/05(2006.01)A, F, I, 20051017, B, H, EP
IPC-Nebenklasse A23L 1/314(2006.01)A, L, I, 20051017, B, H, EP   A23B 4/023(2006.01)A, L, I, 20051017, B, H, EP   A23B 4/027(2006.01)A, L, I, 20051017, B, H, EP   

Beschreibung[en]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to gel-in-place compositions for food products, as well as to food products including the gel-in-place compositions. The present invention also relates to the preparation, storage, distribution and cooking of food products without excessive seepage of liquid from the food products. Moreover, the food products according to the present invention are tender and have excellent texture.

2. Discussion of Background Information

In the curing of meat cuts, the dressed meat is usually injected with a brine solution, usually by multi-needle injection or by stitch or artery pumping, followed in sequence by resting, tumbling and/or massaging and finally cooking. Alternatively the meat cuts can simply be tumbled or massaged in the brine solution. Typical pickling procedures are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,565,539, 3,683,789, 3,922,357.

In the injection of a solution, brine or marinade into the food product, the food product should most desirably be cooked at the injection site or near the injection site, because there is a tendency for the injected brine to leak out of distributed uncooked food products, in either fresh, chilled or frozen condition, during distribution or sale or at the final customer. For example, in fresh and chilled products seeping out of the brine can occur during distribution and sales, whereby the products loose much of their consumer appeal due to excess liquid present in the packaging. This can lead to a high incidence of returned products from distribution and sales end of the meat packaging and shipping business, such as supermarkets, meat processing plants, and other types of food handling locations.

There is also a need to reduce the liquid seepage in food products associated with larger packaging which is processed at a distributor or sale location, such as where the originally packaged food product is sold in smaller units than the original packaging. Distributors and resellers, such as supermarkets, often feel cheated when there is excess liquid in the packaging and therefore often request a reduction in price for excess liquid or at least what corresponds to the weight of the excess liquid.

As for frozen food products, liquid seepage can show up as excess liquid present in the form of higher than desired natural thawing loss. This undesired thawing loss of liquids can occur at or during distribution and sales, or when sold frozen, and the final consumer thaws the product. For example, a consumer that experiences excessively high thawing loss in a food product may not buy the same product again.

Food products into which solutions are incorporated also normally have the problem of excess cooking loss. Thus, for example, the incorporated solution can leak out in an unacceptably high manner during cooking, creating higher than acceptable cooking loss. Thus, while injected food products can also be cooked at a consumer location, instead of at or near the site of injection, there is a need to reduce seepage of the injected composition from the food products during shipping, as well as a need to reduce cooking loss during food preparation.

Moreover, it is noted that solutions that are incorporated into food products do not always increase the juiciness and/or tenderness of the cooked food product. Thus, many conventional solutions that are incorporated into food products will, for the most part, leak out during cooking, whereby such solutions will not significantly contribute to juiciness and/or tenderness of the cooked food product.

It is noted that in the prior art, it is known to mix brine and gelling polysaccharides, such as carrageenan or gellan, and the resulting solution can be injected into food products. Typically the brines used in such pickling processes will comprise one or more inorganic salts, particularly chlorides (sodium chloride), phosphates, nitrates or nitrites, organic compounds such as sugar, amino acids, protein extracts, and/or flavoring agent, natural as well as synthetic, spices (fresh, dried, extracted, etc.) sauces, wines, spirits, liquors, and any other flavor contributing and/or enhancing component and tenderizing agents, for example, enzymes such as papain, bromealin and other proteases, or foods, ingredients or compounds containing these enzymes, any type of animal or vegetable proteins in their natural or modified form, such as gelatine, collagen, egg proteins, milk proteins, soy proteins, and wheat proteins, any type of starches native or modified.

In prior art processes, it is the objective of the mixing of brine and polysaccharide so that the resulting solution can be injected into the meat utilizing normal injection equipment. Thus, in forming the injectable solution, salts are first added and then the polysaccharide is added. In this manner, the solution can be injected. In this regard, it is noted that salt generally decreases the solubility of polysaccharides. The more salt in the solution the higher the possible concentration of polysaccharide that can be added while still enabling injection. Thus, the prior art seeks to maintain a sufficiently high concentration of salt in the solution prior to addition of the polysaccharide in order to enable injection while maintaining the polysaccharide undissolved before cooking. This conventional method for making up a brine solution is described in Copenhagen Pectin A/S publication, Handbook for the Meat Processing Industry, Chapter 3, page 3-28 (1995).

Addition of a dry mix of carrageenan and salt is disclosed by Mason, et al. in U.S. Patent No. 5,380,545. The efficacy of the invention disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 5,380,545 results from the fact that the salt in combination with carrageenan provides a rapid infusion system into the foodstuff matrix. Specifically, the salt extracts a portion of the protein at the surface of the foodstuff and opens surface pores on the foodstuff thereby allowing the carrageenan to be rapidly assimilated into the matrix. The carrageenan will then be strategically placed to hold and bind water during the cooking process. Thus, this invention draws on the insolubility of carrageenan in the presence of salt.

US 3,798,334 discloses a method of tenderizing (uncooked) meat by injection of an enzyme aqueous solution, together with 0.1-0.4 wt.-% of tragacanth. After injection and distribution of the enzyme solution, the tragacanth in the aqueous enzyme solution swells without gelation to form a firm matrix promoting the retention of natural moisture, meat juices and proteins.

GB-A-2 137 066 describes a heat stable emulsion and its use in poultry products. The emulsion of concern is an oil-in-water emulsion comprising an edible fat suspended in an aqueous medium and a stabilizer consisting of a mixture of a glycomannan (e.g. a galactomannan such as locust bean gum) and a polysaccharide hydrocolloid (e.g. xanthan gum or carrageenan). The described process of treating poultry meat involves the injection of this emulsion at a suitable temperature of e.g. about 50°C, at which temperature the mixture is converted into a liquid state suitable for injection. Upon contact with the meat the mixture cools down and the mixture forms a full and firm gel.

US 2,786,764 discloses a process of making a semi-gel of a polysaccharide, which is added to a meat product. In more detail, sausage-like food products are described deriving their mass and structural rigidity from a colloidal gel structure. A premixed powder containing an edible insoluble salt and a suitable colloid is wet mixed with water to form a semi gel-like substance, and to the resulting mixture, an acid and a meat mixture is rapidly added, thus initiating the gelling process of the polysaccharide. This gelation, due to the presence of the salt, is irreversible. As a result, a product containing a firm gel is obtained.

US 5,690,990 concerns a process of high shear mixing a colloid gel with spices and flavors, which is a stable liquid suspension of encapsulated materials in a gel matrix, and adding it into a meat product. According to one embodiment gelatin is dissolved in water at a low temperature 15°C, and then a polysaccharide (carrageenan) is added to obtain a very viscous gel matrix comprising the polysaccharide in a hydrated but undissolved state. Upon cooking and cooling full gelation of the mixture occurs, i.e. a stable, non-thixotropic gel is obtained, which is cut into pieces and added to an uncooked meat(e.g. ground beef). In another embodiment, trisodium phosphate is additionally used in the preparation of the colloid gel to at least partially prevent the hydration of the carrageenan, thus achieving a lower viscosity allowing the mixture to remain pumpable.

US 5,358,731 concerns a process for producing processed minced meat foods comprising adding 0.01-0.04 parts by weight (pbw) of an alkaline substance to an aqueous sol containing at least one pbw of konjak mannan, 0.2-10 pbw of other gel-forming materials and 15-50 pbw of water, mixing the resulting composition with minced meat and freezing the resulting mixture. The entire process serves to replace meat by a gel in a meat product without deteriorating the texture thereof, i.e. it aims at the imitation of the meat texture This is achieved by preparing a stable gel, which is then minced and mixed with minced meat and other optional constituents.

US 2,992,925 aims at multi-phased food products having a thermostable polymeric carbohydrate base and having incorporated therein comminuted, granulated or powdered foods. For the production of such a gelled food product a process is described, involving the preparation of a solution (i.e. a colloidal suspension, dispersion or solution) of sodium alginate by dissolving sodium alginate in water, and adding a sequestrant (tetrasodiumpyrophosphate) to obtain a non-gelling solution. This is then mixed with a food product, and upon heating the resulting mixture and cooling various gel textures are obtained. To prepare the "outer shell phases" and the "inner core phases" of the desired multiphase food product dry calcium gluconate powder is then added.

Research Disclosure RD 389012 describes a hot gellan gum solution comprising 8-11% NaCl (keeping the gellan out of the solution), so that no gelation occurs upon cooling. Gel formation only starts when the solution is diluted to such an extent that the gellan can no longer be prevented from being dissolved.

In Fleischwirtschaft, 77(9), 781-783 (1997) the use of carrageenan in cooked meat products is discussed in general terms, i.e. components and/or mixtures to be added to food products, which are able to form a gel at a later stage of processing are described. The addition of a gel to a food product is not mentioned therein.

EP-A-0 345 886 relates to calcium alginate gels, and in particular to encapsulated calcium salts dispersed in soluble alginate systems. By using these encapsulated calcium salts the release of the calcium salt into the alginate solution can be controlled, and a rapid interaction of the salt with the alginate under formation and precipitation of fibrous calcium alginate can be prevented. These alginate systems having controllable gelling properties can be used for the production of structured meat products.

Similarly, US 3,956,173 discloses cold water gellable compositions based on sodium salt of kappa-carrageenan and a potassium salt. Gelation is controlled so that good quality gels result by encapsulating the potassium salt in a water-soluble hydroxypropyl cellulose.

FR 2 213 021 discloses the addition of gelling agents, such as pectin, to milk products. The gelling agent that is added to the milk product is not an aqueous thixotropic gel composition as defined in the present claim 1. At most, the resulting food product gelling agent may be thixotropic. It is described that the resulting food that is formed upon addition of the gelling agent (but not the gelling agent itself) may be thixotropic.

Similarly, also FR 2 738 460 concern a technical teaching, according to which certain gelling agents are added to a liquid food product (beverage) to form a modified food product (beverage) than may gel upon cooling, and may show a temperature-dependent viscosity change, e.g. by warming up the liquid food product in the mouth upon drinking it.

Accordingly, there is a need to provide compositions that are easily injectable and/or diffusible. There is also a need for compositions that can be added to food products, and the food products can be shipped while avoiding excessive liquid seepage. There is also a need for compositions that can be added to food products that enable the food product to be handled without unacceptable liquid seepage during handling. Still further, there is a need for compositions that can be added to food products in order to permit the food product to be cooked without unacceptable weight loss. Still further, there is a need, especially with red meats, and breast meat of turkey and chicken, to maintain these food products tender and juicy upon cooking, even with low levels of food treating composition incorporated therein.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention concerns compositions that form gels in food products.

The present invention also concerns compositions that can be added to food products in order to produce food products with reduced liquid seepage. More specifically, the compositions according to the present invention can be used to reduce liquid seepage during shipping, handling and/or cooking of the food product.

The present invention also concerns compositions that are in a liquid form when added to a food product, and form a gel in the uncooked food product.

The present invention also concerns compositions that have changing viscosities, including lower viscosities, at least during a time period when the compositions are to be added to food products, and obtain a higher viscosity in the uncooked food product.

The present invention also concerns thixotropic gel compositions that can be agitated to form liquid compositions, with the liquid compositions being added to food products for subsequent re-gelling in the food products.

The present invention also concerns the maintaining of food products, especially meats, from wild or domesticated animals or seafood in general, with or without bones and skin, and, for example, breast meat of turkey and chicken, and dry types of fish, such as tuna and swordfish, tender and juicy upon cooking, even with low levels of food treating composition incorporated therein.

Thus, the present invention is directed to a process of treating an uncooked food product comprising:

  • i) providing an uncooked food product comprising at least one of meat, seafood and poultry,
  • ii) providing an aqueous thixotropic gel composition comprising a gellable polysaccharide, and
  • iii) adding the aqueous thixotropic gel composition to the uncooked food product in a shear thinned condition.

Also, the present invention is directed to a treated food product obtainable by this process.

The thixotropic gel composition can be formed by mixing water and a gellable polysaccharide under conditions so that the gellable polysaccharide is at least one of dissolved or hydrated, and mixing the at least one of dissolved or hydrated gellable polysaccharide with at least one gelling cation in an amount effective to form a thixotropic gel.

The water can comprise at least one of tap water, distilled water, demineralized water, and de-ionized water.

The gelling cation can comprise at least one salt, such as at least one of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium phosphate, potassium phosphate, salts of citric acid, salts of carbonic acid, and salts of tartaric acid, preferably sodium chloride.

The gellable polysaccharide can comprise at least one of carrageenans, carrageenans in combination with at least one of locust bean gum, cassia gum or konjac gum; xanthan gum; xanthan gum in combination with seed gums; meal or flour of seaweeds containing gelling polysaccharides, either untreated or treated; fruit or vegetable powder containing gelling polysaccharides; gelling pectin; gellan gum; alginates; and gelling starch. The gellable polysaccharide can comprise fruit or vegetable powder containing gelling polysaccharides comprising at least one of citrus peel powder, apple peel powder or the part of sugar beet, which remains after extraction of sugar. The gellable polysaccharide can comprise low ester pectin, as well as low ester pectin in combination with carrageenan. The meal or flour of seaweeds containing gelling polysaccharides can comprise meal or flour of seaweed treated with alkali. The meal or flour of seaweeds containing gelling polysaccharides can comprise meal or flour of seaweed selected from the group consisting of Eucheuma Spinosum, Eucheuma Cottonii, Chondrus Crispus, Gigartina species, and Hypnea species.

The gellable polysaccharide can comprise at least one of iota carrageenan, kappa carrageenan, lambda carrageenan, xanthan gum and low ester pectins, and mixtures of these gellable polysaccharides with seed gums. The gellable polysaccharide can comprise a sodium carrageenan.

The water with which the gellable polysaccharide is mixed can have a salt concentration of less than 2 wt%, more preferably less than wt%, even more preferably less than 0.75 wt%, and even more preferably less than 0.5 wt%.

The thixotropic gel, when thinned sheared, preferably has a viscosity of up to 100,000 cps, with preferred ranges of greater than the viscosity of distilled water to 100,000 cps, more preferably 3 to 50,000 cps, even more preferably 5 to 30,000 cps, and even more preferably 10 to 20,000 cps. The thixotropic gel, when shear thinned, preferably has a viscosity of less than 2,000 cps, more preferably less than 1,500 cps, even more preferably less than 1,000 cps, with preferred ranges including greater than the viscosity of distilled water to 1,000 cps, 3 to 900 cps, 5 to 800 cps, 10 to 800 cps. and 20 to 800.

The gelling polysaccharide can be granulated or agglomerated.

After formation of the thixotropic gel, additional polysaccharide can added.

The gellable polysaccharide can comprise at least one carrageenan, and the at least one carrageenan can be present in the thixotropic composition in a concentration up to 10 wt%, more preferably up to 5 wt%, with preferred ranges including 0.01 to 2 wt%, and 0.1 to 1 wt%.

At least one food additive can be included in the processes and compositions of the present invention.

The food product can comprise at least one of meat, seafood and poultry.

The present invention is also directed to food products produced with the process of the present invention, such as meat, seafood and poultry food products.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The above and other features and advantages of the present invention will be made apparent from the following description of the preferred embodiments, given as non-limiting examples, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

  • Fig. 1 shows a plot of viscosity vs. NaCl concentrations.
  • Fig. 2 shows the relation between salt concentration (in solution before addition of carrageenan) and carrageenan concentration, which is practically in solution and is gelled by adding additional 2% NaCl and thereafter shear thinned, at a constant viscosity.
  • Fig. 3 shows thixotrophy illustration of food treatment composition.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PRESENT INVENTION

The particulars shown herein are by way of example and for purposes of illustrative discussion of embodiments of the present invention only and are presented in the cause of providing what is believed to be the most useful and readily understood description of the principles and conceptual aspects of the present invention. In this regard, no attempt is made to show structural details of the present invention in more detail than is necessary for the fundamental understanding of the present invention, the description making apparent to those skilled in the art how varying forms of the present invention may be embodied in practice.

Unless otherwise stated, all percentages, parts, ratios, etc., are by weight.

Unless otherwise stated, a reference to a compound or component includes the compound or component by itself, as well as in combination with other compounds or components, such as mixtures of compounds.

Further, when an amount, concentration, or other value or parameter, is given as a list of upper preferable values and lower preferable values, this is to be understood as specifically disclosing all ranges formed from any pair of an upper preferred value and a lower preferred value, regardless whether ranges are separately disclosed.

In order to provide a fuller understanding of the present invention and the terms associated therewith, the following definitions are provided.

By "uncooked food product" is meant a food product, which has not received a heat treatment, or has received a heat treatment at one or more temperatures below the temperature, which renders the proteins in food denatured. This temperature is typically below about 60°C, but varies according to the protein composition of the food. For meat and poultry, the heat treatment would comprise one or more temperatures of preferably less than about 60°C, and even more preferably less than about 55°C. For fish, the heat treatment would comprise one or more temperatures of preferably less than about 50°C, and even more preferably less than about 40°C. Thus, uncooked food product includes food product that is uncooked, such as food product that has not being subjected to any treatment temperature, such as chilled or frozen food product, as well as food that has been heated, but not heated sufficiently to arrive at a protein denaturing temperature, such as semi-warm smoking.

The present invention is directed to a process involving food treating compositions comprising a thixotropic (shear thinning) gel that is to be added to the food product. In this aspect of the present invention, the thixotropic gel can be subjected to agitation prior to adding to the food product to thereby reduce the viscosity of the gel. The shear thinned composition can then be added to the food product during the time that it is of a sufficiently low viscosity so that it can be added to the food product, such as, but not limited to, using injection equipment, mixing, blending, and tumbling equipment Once the shear thinned composition is in the food product, it will re-gel to thereby provide the advantageous minimal seepage of liquids from the food product in accordance with the present invention.

The thixotropic gel food treating composition can be prepared in any manner that enables the formation of a gel that is shear thinning, is capable of re-gelling in a food product, and is capable of maintaining itself as a gel during food storage and distribution, and to a limited degree during food preparation. Therefore, the following description of thixotropic gel preparation is non-limiting.

In the preparation of the thixotropic gel, a gelling polysaccharide (also referred herein for ease of reference as polysaccharide) and water are mixed together to form an initial polysaccharide containing composition. The polysaccharide can comprise various polysaccharides that can form a thixotropic gel, such as, but not limited to, at least one of carrageenans, such as kappa, lambda, and iota carrageenan, either alone or in combination with one or more of locust bean gum, cassia gum or konjac gum; xanthan gum; xanthan gum in mixture with seed gums such as locust bean gum, guar gum, konjac gum and/or cassia gum; meal or flour of seaweeds containing gelling polysaccharides, such as red and brown seaweeds, either untreated or treated with for instance alkali; fruit or vegetable powder containing gelling polysaccharides, such as citrus peel powder, apple peel powder or the part of sugar beet, which remains after extraction of sugar; gelling pectin such as low ester pectin; gellan gum; alginates; gelling starch.

Preferably, the polysaccharide comprises one or more of the following:

Iota carrageenan, kappa carrageenan, xanthan gum and low ester pectins, and mixtures of these with seed gums.

Polysaccharides are water-soluble or strongly swellable substances, so-called hydrocolloids, which in aqueous systems give colloidal, more or less highly viscous solutions or dispersions having plastic or pseudo-plastic flow. From this are derived the functional properties desired in the present case, such as a thickening action, water-binding capacity, stabilization of suspensions and emulsions in polyphase systems, and gel formation.

Bayerlein, et al., U.S. Patent No. 4,826,700, describe carrageenans and agar as extracts of red algae and belong chemically to the group of the galactans. However, unlike cellulose and starch, they do not exhibit merely one type of 1,4-glycoside bond. The red algae galactomannans instead have alternate &agr;-1,3-bonds and &bgr;-1,4-bonds, and are therefore characterized as an a-b-a type of polysaccharide. Carrageenan is chemically not a homogeneous product but comprises the product group of sulfated galactans, with a proportion of the galactopyranose residues being present as a 3,6-anhydrogalactose residue. Certain fractions of carrageenans can be isolated from red algae extracts which are chemically defined with respect to their structure and are designated by Greek letters. Only lambda-, iota- and kappa-carrageenan are of commercial importance. Their different properties are principally explicable in terms of differences in the content of anhydrogalactose and sulfate ester groups. The 3,6-anhydrogalactose ring makes the galactans more strongly hydrophobic, i.e., the water solubility diminishes.

On the other hand, the sulfate group imparts more hydrophilic properties to the galactans, i.e., the water solubility increases. Moreover, the presence of the sulfate groups has the consequence that the properties of carrageenan as an anionic polysaccharide can be modified by the presence of cations in the aqueous system. Thus, the gelling properties of kappa-carrageenan are greatly influenced by potassium ions and those of iota-carrageenan by calcium ions.

On the other hand, in agar, an electrically neutral galactan having a high anhydrogalactose content, gelling takes place independently of cations. Kappa-carrageenan has the highest anhydrogalactose content and the lowest sulfate content among the carrageenans, and as a result has the most powerful gel-forming properties. As already mentioned, it has a high dependence on the potassium ion concentration.

Lambda-carrageenan, on the other hand, does not contain any anhydrogalactose and has the highest sulfate ester content among the carrageenans. This has the consequence that it can no longer be caused to gel.

Carrageenan can be produced by different methods, such as by dissolving the carrageenan in hot alkali before purifying it, and leaving the carrageenan undissolved while impurities are extracted. The latter process is far less energy intensive. For example, carrageenan can be extracted from many species of red seaweeds, some examples being Eucheuma Spinosum, Eucheuma Cottonii, Chondrus Crispus, Gigartina species, and Hypnea species.. The process begins with harvesting, followed by drying, cleaning, bagging or bailing for shipment to warehouses. The seaweeds are washed to remove dirt and marine organisms and then extracted in hot alkaline. When the carrageenan is dissolved, it can be clarified through conventional filtration and then concentrated by membrane ultrafiltration, or other suitable processes. The carrageenan can be precipitated by alcohol or potassium chloride to separate it from soluble impurities. This is followed by drying and grinding to appropriate particle size.

When the carrageenan is not dissolved, i.e., when the carrageenan is not separated from the seaweed, no clarification is carried out and no precipitation steps are necessary. This therefore leads to energy saving and cost reduction.

Galactomannans are, like the starches, vegetable reserve polysaccharides which occur in the endosperm cells of numerous seeds of Leguminosae. Upon germination of the seeds, they undergo enzymatic degradation and serve as nutrients for the seedling. The collective term "galactomannan" or "polygalactomannan" comprises all polysaccharides which are built up of galactose and/or mannose residues and in addition can also contain minor amounts of other sugar residues. There is a relatively large number of galactomannans, depending on their origin. The materials principally occur in the endosperm portions and seeds of various Leguminosae (legumes) such as guar, locust bean, tara, honey bean, flame tree, sesbania and species of Cassia. Galactomannans are built up of a linear mannose chain which itself is built up of mannopyranose rings linked by &bgr;-(1,4-glucoside bonds. To these rings are attached, as branches, isolated galactopyranose residues by &agr;-(1,6-glucoside bonds.

Among the numerous known galactomannans, three in particular have been isolated and used:

  1. 1. Locust bean gum (carubin) has long been known. It is obtained from the seeds of the locust bean tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.), which is a native of Mediterranean countries.
  2. 2. Guar gum (Guaran) is today the most important galactomannan. It is isolated from the seeds of the guar bean Cyamopsis tetragonolobus L. taub.) which is a native of India and Pakistan.
  3. 3. Tara gum has only in recent times been produced in small amounts from the seeds of the tara tree (Cesalipinia spinosa), which grows particularly in Peru.

Xanthan is a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide which is obtained in a fermentation process employing a microorganism Xanthomonas campestris. The main chain of xanthan has a cellulose structure. It consists of D-glucose units with &bgr;-1,4-bonds. The trisaccharide side-chains consist of two mannose units and one glucuronic acid unit. The terminal &bgr;-D-mannose unit is linked by a glycoside bond to the 4-position of the &bgr;-D-glucuronic acid, which in turn is linked by a glycoside bond to the 2-position of &agr;-D-mannose. This side-chain is linked to the 3-position of every second glucose residue of the polymer main chain. Roughly half the terminal D-mannose residues bear a pyruvic acid radical which is linked by a ketal bond to the 4- and 6-positions of the mannose ring. The non-terminal D-mannose unit of the side chain carries an acetyl group in the 6-position. The glucuronic acid group is present as a mixed potassium, sodium and calcium salt.

According to Sugiyama , et al., U.S. Patent No. 3,973,008, konjac (Amorphophalus Konjac C. Koch) is a perennial plant belonging to the family Araceae. "Konnyaku", which is made from the tuber of this plant, has been used traditionally for food in Japan for several hundred years. The predominant component of edible konnyaku is a glucomannan called konjac mannan. Edible konnyaku is made from the konjac flour, which is obtained from the dried tuber of this plant.

According to Williams, et al., U.S. Patent No. 4,268,533, pectin is a gellable substance, derived from fruits and vegetables which structurally is partially methoxylated polygalacturonans built up from D-galacturonic acid units forming long chain-like molecules. The pectin is available in two forms, each of which gels by a different mechanism, that is a high methoxyl (HM) type having a degree of methoxylation (DM), or ratio of methoxylated galacturonic acid groups to total acid groups of 50% or above, and a low methoxyl (LM) type having a DM of less than 50%. One method of producing an LM pectin involves reacting methoxyl groups with ammonia to form amide groups. The resulting pectin usually contains from about 2.5 to 4.5% methoxyl groups by weight as compared to the HM pectin which generally contains from 8-14% methoxyl groups by weight. HM pectin requires a sugar or soluble solid content of approximately 55% by weight or higher and a pH of about 3.0-3.2 to achieve set. When the methoxyl ester content of LM pectin goes below about 7 %, the pectin loses its ability to form sugar-acid gels as in the HM pectin, but acquires the ability to form gels through crosslinking of the carboxyl groups on neighboring adjacent pectin molecules or chains in the presence of polyvalent calcium ions.

Morris, et al., U.S. Patent No. 5,869,118, describe gellan gum as a high molecular weight extracellular heteropolysaccharide produced by fermentation of a culture of Pseudomonas elodea, ATCC 31461. During fermentation, oxygen, temperature and pH are strictly controlled. When the fermentation is complete, the gellan gum is isolated from the broth by alcohol extraction and dried. It is known that gellan gums form gels with a wide variety of cations, notably calcium (Carrageenan 2+), magnesium (Mg 2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and also hydrogen ions (H+) from acid. These cations cause the gellan molecules to associate and form a gel. Calcium and magnesium are known to be much more efficient gel formers than sodium or potassium.

According to Kershaw, et al., U.S. Patent No. 5,986,164, alginates are produced by a variety of micro-organisms and marine algae which are the normal commercial source. The alginates being natural materials show considerable variety but are characterized in being block copolymers, the individual monosaccharide units being arranged into groups as blocks of mannuronic (M) and guluronic (G) residues. In addition to the repeating blocks each polymer chain can contain a proportion of alternating M and G monosaccharide units.

According to Wesdorp, et al., U.S. Patent No. 5,279,844, gelling starches may be derived from any starch source, including corn, potato, tapioca, sweet potato, wheat rice, sago, waxy maize, high amylose corn, sorghum, and the like. These may be converted to fluidity or thin-boiling starches prepared by oxidation, alpha-amylase (enzyme) conversion, mild acid hydrolysis or heat dextrinization. Other gelling starches include pregelatized, precooked, cold water swelling starches, and derivatized starches such as ethers and esters and other modified starches. Methods for preparing modified food starches are well known in the art.

Examples of carrageenans according to the present invention include GENUGEL® carrageenan type CJ, GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524 which is similar to GENUGEL® Carrageenan type CJ, but is agglomerated, GENUVISCO® carrageenan type J, GENUGEL® carrageenan type C-59, GENUGEL® carrageenan type C-160, GENUGEL® carrageenan type C-151 and GENUGEL® carrageenan type C-209. These carrageenans are manufactured by Hercules Copenhagen A/S, Ved Banen 16, DK-4623 Lille Skensved, Denmark.

An especially preferred hydrocolloid is GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524 which reduces the normally high liquid seepage during distribution in un-cooked condition of injected meat, poultry and seafood products, and also the normally high thawing loss associated with injected and frozen poultry, fish and meat products, and also reduces the normally high cooking-loss associated with injected meat, poultry and fish products.

The polysaccharide is preferably in agglomerated or granulated form, or prepared in any other manner so as to facilitate dissolution, hydration and dispersion of the polysaccharide. Moreover, glycerol and/or oils or other materials that facilitate dispersion, hydration and/or dissolution can be used.

Moreover, when referring to the polysaccharide, it is noted that the discussion is with respect to active polysaccharide ingredient. In other words, the polysaccharide can be a portion of a polysaccharide containing material. Thus, for example, when referring to a concentration of polysaccharide, this means that the polysaccharide portion of the polysaccharide containing material is present at that concentration. Thus, for example, red seaweed contains a percentage of carrageenan, and in referring to the concentration of carrageenan, reference is being made to the percentage of carrageenan in the seaweed, and not the total amount of seaweed. Also, for example, the gelling polysaccharide may constitute a portion of fruit or vegetable powder.

Expanding upon the above, it is noted that the polysaccharide can be in any form that enables gelling. For example, the polysaccharide can be in its natural state, such as, for example, carrageenan or alginate in seaweed, it can be separated from its natural state, such as by extraction, and it can be modified in situ, or during or after separation. Still further, the polysaccharide can be produced by any synthetic technique, or can be produced by biotechnical procedures.

Still further, it is noted that polysaccharides, such as carrageenans, primarily require two conditions for gelling. In particular, the temperature must be below a gelling temperature, such as 50°C to 70°C, and about 20°C for cold gellable polysaccharides. Moreover, cations that can cause gelling of the polysaccharide, such as potassium, calcium, barium and magnesium cations, need to be present, and sodium when present in high concentrations, such as, but not limited to, sodium chloride of greater than about 0.1 wt%. Thus, for example, if the polysaccharide is in a sodium form, as compared to a potassium or a calcium form, then one of the conditions for gelling is not present For example, in the absence of sodium ions in high concentrations, GENUGEL® carrageenan type CJ or GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524 cannot form a gel in the absence of gelling cations, such as potassium and/or calcium, because it is a sodium iota carrageenan. In contrast, even in the absence of sodium ions in high concentrations, GENUVISO® carrageenan type J can form a gel in the absence of additional gelling cations, because it is a calcium iota carrageenan, and therefore has calcium present to enable gelling at an appropriate gelling temperature.

The mixing of the polysaccharide with water is preferably performed under agitation that is adequate to ensure that the polysaccharide is dissolved in the water. For example, agitation can be achieved by using industrial brine preparation equipment, a bowl chopper, a high speed mixer, high speed stirring device, an emulsifier or a colloid-mill.

The water can be any source of water, including but not limited to, distilled water, demineralized water, tap water, and ion-exchanged water. The water can contain no salt or substantially no salt therein prior to the addition of the polysaccharide. However, the water can include amounts of salts therein, such as up to 2 wt%, more preferably up to 1 wt%, still more preferably up to 0.75 wt% of salts, and even more preferably up to 0.5 wt%, such as, but not limited to, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium phosphate or potassium phosphate.

It is noted that salt decreases the solubility of polysaccharides. Therefore, the higher the concentration of salt in the water when the polysaccharide is added thereto, the higher the concentration of polysaccharide that can be added without causing excessive viscosity in the shear thinned gel. Thus, salts will partially suppress the solubility of the polysaccharide, such as carrageenan, and thereby permit higher concentrations of polysaccharide, such as carrageenan, to be added while still keeping viscosity within the limitations of desired viscosity, such as a viscosity needed to use a multineedle injector. A benefit of having higher concentrations of polysaccharide in the food treating composition is that higher concentrations of polysaccharide are good for even further reducing water loss during shipping and storage, as well as cooking-loss reduction and for providing good texture of the food product after cooking.

The salt concentration of the water can be changed prior to the addition of the polysaccharide. For example, if the concentration of salt is lower than desired for the addition of the polysaccharide, then salt can be added to the water to provide the desired concentration. Conversely, if the concentration of natural salts is higher than desired, such as when the water is too hard, then calcium and magnesium ions can be sequestered using a sequestrant, such as, but not limited to, polyphosphates, such as sodium polyphosphate and hexametaphosphate, pyrophosphates, such as sodium pyrophosphate, or organic acids, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA).

It is noted that the solubility of the salt affects the ability of the salt to influence the solubility of the polysaccharide. Thus, lower solubility salts would have less effect on the polysaccharide, and therefore higher concentrations of lower solubility salts can be included in the composition than higher solubility salts. For example, for GENUGEL® carrageenan type CJ or GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524, when about 0.15 wt% NaCl is in solution, about 1 wt% of the carrageenan can be used to provide a viscosity of about 600 cps; when about 1 wt% NaCl is in solution, about 2 wt% of the carrageenan can be used; when about 1.5 wt% NaCl is in solution, about 3 wt% of the carrageenan can be used; when about 2 wt% NaCl is in solution, about 4 wt% of the carrageenan can be used. For less soluble carrageenans, the corresponding carrageenan concentration will be higher than for GENUGEL® carrageenan type CJ or GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524. As will be discussed below, it is preferred that the composition have a viscosity of less than about 1,000 cps to be useful in typical industrial multineedle injectors.

The order of addition of salt, such as NaCl and the polysaccharide is important, because once the polysaccharide, such as carrageenan, in solution is gelled by salt addition, no other addition of salt or polysaccharide will redissolve the polysaccharide into solution. For example, it is possible to first add some salt to the water to partially suppress the solubility of a first addition of polysaccharide. Then, an initial addition of polysaccharide can be made, such as an amount of polysaccharide the solubility of which is not completely suppressed by the earlier added salt so that at least a portion of the polysaccharide is dissolved. Additional salt can then be added, which additional salt concentration can be the desired total concentration of salt in the composition or a portion thereof. It is noted that even a small addition of salt at this stage will gel the dissolved part of the polysaccharide, so as to gel the composition. At this point, additional polysaccharide can added; however, the additional polysaccharide will not dissolve, or swell if the salt concentration is of a sufficiently high concentration.

The above-described multiple addition is normally not commercially practical, and therefore other methods of being able to work with higher concentrations of polysaccharides in the composition, without having too high a viscosity, are desirable. In this regard, one manner of achieving higher concentrations of polysaccharide in the food product includes dissolving some amount of salt which will partially suppress the solubility of the polysaccharide, and then dissolving, hydrating, or swelling the polysaccharide, and thereafter adding the remainder of the salts, so that the brine gels. Alternatively, another more practical manner of achieving higher polysaccharide concentrations, is to first dissolve the amount of polysaccharide that gives the needed viscosity after gelation, then add all the salts, and gel the solution. After gelling, additional polysaccharide can be added in practically any useful amount.

It is noted that the lower the temperature of the water, the higher the concentration of polysaccharide that is needed for a given viscosity. Polysaccharides are generally more soluble at higher temperatures than at lower temperatures. Thus, if the water temperature is low, for instance around 5°C, more polysaccharide must be added in order to achieve enough polysaccharide in solution to create gelation, than would be the case at around ambient temperature. At about 0°C, about twice as much polysaccharide, e.g., GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524, is needed as compared to 20°C. Moreover, at about 20°C, about twice as much polysaccharide, e.g., GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524, is needed as compared to 50°C. However, high temperatures, such as 50°C, are not as preferred as lower temperatures, such as 20°C, because high temperatures are not as convenient and more costly for being acceptable practice by most food processing companies. With the above in mind, the temperature of the water to which the polysaccharide is added is preferably within a preferred range of -5°C to 100°C. More preferably, the temperature of the water ranges from -5°C to 70°C, even more preferably -5°C to 55°C, even more preferably 0°C to 30°C, and even more preferably 5°C to 30°C. Moreover, a temperature of about 20°C is a particularly preferred temperature of the water when adding the polysaccharide.

Expanding upon the above, it is noted that the polysaccharide can be present in the solution in both dissolved/hydrated (or swelled) form, and in an undissolved (non-hydrated, non-swelled) form. The dissolved (hydrated, swelled) form of the polysaccharide primarily contributes to the viscosity of the shear thinned food treating composition. As indicated above, there are various manners of achieving greater solubility of the polysaccharide. Moreover, as noted above, the salt concentration in the water and the temperature of the water affect how much polysaccharide can be dissolved in the water. As discussed, higher salt concentrations, lower the solubility of the polysaccharide. Moreover, lower temperatures decrease the solubility of the polysaccharide. Thus, when utilizing a specific polysaccharide in the thixotropic gel food treating composition, the parameters to be considered are the temperature of the water, the salt concentration in the water, the concentration of the polysaccharide, the solubility of the polysaccharide and the order of addition of the components. By varying any one or more of these parameters, the amount of polysaccharide dissolved in the water can be controlled to provide a thixotropic gel food treating composition that has a desirable viscosity when shear thinned.

Thus, other less soluble polysaccharides can be used in higher concentrations for obtaining the same viscosity, at a same temperature. For example, with respect to the above, GENUGEL® carrageenan type CJ or GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524 is more soluble than GENUVISCO® carrageenan type J, obtained from Hercules Copenhagen A/S, Ved Banen 16, DK-4623 Lille Skensved, Denmark. In particular, GENUVISCO® carrageenan type J is a less soluble carrageenan type that hydrates or swells at 40°C to 60°C, whereas GENUGEL® carrageenan type CJ or GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524 hydrates or swell at 5°C to 25°C. Moreover, it is noted that iota carrageenan is more soluble than kappa carrageenan.

Expanding upon the above, increasing the yield of polysaccharide dissolved, such as, GENUGEL® carrageenan type CJ or GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524, can be achieved by using higher dissolution temperature, and thereby permitting lowering of the carrageenan concentration. For example, a 50% reduction of carrageenan concentration would be possible if dissolution temperature is 40°C; a 75% reduction of carrageenan concentration would be possible if dissolution temperature is 60°C to 70°C.

After the polysaccharide is dissolved in the water, either with or without salt being present, salt that is capable of forming a thixotropic gel is added to the composition in at least an amount effective to initiate gelling. The salt should be present in at least an amount effective to effect gelling, with higher concentrations of salts being limited by taste and cost considerations. Such salts to effect gelling include, but are not limited to sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium phosphate, potassium phosphate, salts of citric acid, salts of tartaric acid. For example, an effective amount of sodium chloride would preferably be present at a concentration of at least 0.1 wt%, more preferably of at least 0.5 wt%, with upper limits of the sodium chloride being controlled amongst other parameters by taste and cost considerations.

It is noted that, before gelling can occur, the polysaccharide must first be at least partially in solution before the addition of the salt causing gelation.

The object of the formation of the thixotropic gel food treating composition is to enable the gel, after thin shearing, to be capable of being added to food products to promote the retention of moisture in the food products during handling, storage, shipping and/or cooking. Therefore, the sheared thinned food treating composition should be capable of being added to the food product in any manner that enables the shear thinned food treating composition to diffuse through the food product, or at least diffuse through the food product to a sufficient extent to provide sufficient reduction of water loss, e.g., syneresis or purge. Thus, depending upon the technique for addition of the shear thinned food treating composition to the food product, the shear thinned food treating composition can have different viscosities. In this regard, in instances wherein the viscosity of the shear thinned food treating composition can be higher, then higher concentrations of the polysaccharide (i.e., higher concentrations of polysaccharide can be in solution in the food treating composition, and gelled to thereby provide higher viscosity) can be included in the food treating composition. In this regard, it is noted that undissolved, non-hydrated/non-swelled polysaccharide will not significantly affect the viscosity of the food treating composition.

Expanding upon the above, in instances wherein injection equipment is utilized to add the shear thinned food treating composition to the food product, the viscosity of the composition is preferably within a viscosity so that conventional injection equipment, such as a Fomaco Multineedle Injector Equipment model FGM 20/40, can be utilized to inject the composition. For example, it is preferred that the shear thinned food treating composition have a viscosity that is less than 2,000 cps, more preferably less than 1,500 cps, and even more preferably less than 1,000 cps. Moreover, it is preferred that the viscosity of the shear thinned food treating composition be greater than the viscosity of distilled water, more preferably greater than 3 cps, even more preferably greater than 5 cps, even more preferably greater than 10 cps, even more preferably greater than 20 cps, with preferred ranges including greater than the viscosity of distilled water to 1,000 cps, 3 to 900 cps, 5 to 800 cps, 10 to 800 cps. and 20 to 800.

Viscosity of the shear thinned food treating composition is measured in accordance with the present invention using a Brookfield LVT viscosity meter, as discussed in the Examples herein. In particular, UL adaptor or spindles 1 to 4 and the rpm are chosen according to the viscosity to be measured, at 20°C after a 60 second run time, and the viscosity measurement is started at 1 minute after stopping agitation to achieve the shear thinned composition using agitation as in the viscosity measurement example set forth in the Examples. For purposes of uniformity, the viscosity measurement is preferably made of the composition containing water, salt and gelling polysaccharide in the absence of additional components.

Still further, a preferred viscosity range for the shear thinned food treating composition for use with a conventional injection equipment, such as a Fomaco Multineedle Injector Equipment model FGM 20/40, according to the present invention is up to about 1,000 cps, and more preferably up to about 900 cps, and even more preferably up to about 800 cps, with the viscosity being greater than the viscosity of distilled water, more preferably at least about 3, even more preferably at least about 5, even more preferably at least about 10, and even more preferably at least about 20.

Still further, in instances where the food treating composition is to be mixed with the food, such as in high shear equipment, the viscosity of the shear thinned food treating composition can be higher. Thus, in instances wherein the incorporation of the shear thinned food treating composition into the food product will take place in a grinder, cutter or emulsifiers, e.g. colloid mills, then higher concentrations of polysaccharides can be utilized to provide higher viscosity compositions. For example, when making sausage products, for example any type of sausage or grill sausage to be distributed in un-cooked condition, and English breakfast sausage, or, for example, when making a ham paste using cooked ham as one ingredient and shear thinned food treating composition as another ingredient, prepared depending on product type in a mixer, blender, grinder, cutter, emulsifiers or colloid mill. Viscosities that can be handled in these instances can be the same as for the injection of the food treating composition; however, the viscosities can be as high as 100,000 cps, with ranges including greater than the viscosity of distilled water to 100,000 cps, as well as 1,000 to 50,000 cps, and 1,500 to 30,000 cps, and 2,000 to 20,000 cps.

As discussed above, the concentration of polysaccharide included in the food treating composition can be varied depending upon the manner of addition to the food product, and can also be varied depending upon the specific polysaccharide utilized in the composition. For example, with respect to the use of carrageenan, such as GENUGEL® carrageenan type CJ or GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524, the carrageenan can be included in the composition at a concentration up to 10 wt% or greater, more preferably up to 5 wt%, in instances where the shear thinned food treating composition is to be added to the food product by, for example, mixing, cutting, emulsifying. If the shear thinned food treating composition is to be added using injection equipment, then it is preferred that the carrageenan be included in the composition at a concentration that permits the use of injection equipment, such as up to 5 wt%, more preferably 0.01 to 2 wt%, more preferably 0.1 to 1 wt%, with specifically preferred concentrations being 1 wt%, 0.75 wt% and 0.5 wt% when using GENUGEL® carrageenan type CJ and/or GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524.

As with the initial inclusion of polysaccharide in the water, the polysaccharide can be added at one or more times after the initiation of the gelling. Thus, after gelling takes place, extra polysaccharide can be added, such as in one or more additions, but preferably in one addition as there is no practicable reason to perform several additions after gelling has taken place because after gelling takes place additional polysaccharide will, in principle, remain undissolved/non-hydrated/non-swelled until at cooking.

As discussed above, salt lowers the solubility of polysaccharides. Therefore, before addition of a higher concentration of salt to achieve gelling, polysaccharide can be added which is dissolved to obtain increased viscosity. In contrast, polysaccharide can be added after gelling salt addition. This polysaccharide does not dissolve because salt is also present. It is preferred to add up to 20 wt%, more preferably up to 10 wt%, and even more preferably up to 5 wt% of additional polysaccharide after the composition is gelled. Thus, any amount extra of carrageenan can be added.

The temperature of the composition to which the salt is added to form the thixotropic gel food treating composition can have the same temperatures as the water to which the polysaccharide is added. Thus, the temperature of the water to which the polysaccharide is added is preferably within a range of from -5°C to 100°C. More preferably, the temperature of the water ranges from -5°C to 70°C, even more preferably -5°C to 55°C, even more preferably 0°C to 30°C, and even more preferably 5°C to 30°C. Moreover, a temperature of about 20°C is a particularly preferred temperature of the water when adding the polysaccharide. It is also preferred to have the temperature of the thixotropic gel food treating composition or the shear thinned food treating composition at a temperature of 0°C up to 55°C, more preferably up to 40°C, and more preferably up to about 30°C when added to the food product. For microbiological reasons, most industries would prefer up to 10°C, and more specifically up to 5°C, especially when added to the food product.

The various ingredients in any of the compositions can be combined in any manner that adequately mixes the various ingredients. For example, the various ingredients can be combined by utilizing injection, tumbling, stirring, mixing and emulsifying.

Additives can be added, in amounts that do not affect or substantially affect the properties of the food treating composition. Moreover, basically any ingredient at all can be added after the gelling of the food treating composition. For example, one or more of the following can be added to the thixotropic gel food treating composition: inorganic salts, particularly chlorides (sodium chloride), phosphates, nitrates or nitrites, organic compounds such as sugar, amino acids, protein extracts, and/or flavoring agent, natural as well as synthetic, spices (fresh, dried, extracted, etc..) sauces, wines, spirits, liquors, and any other flavor contributing and/or enhancing component and tenderizing agents will comprise one or more inorganic salts, particularly chlorides (sodium chloride), phosphates, nitrates or nitrites, organic compounds such as sugar, amino acids, protein extracts, and/or flavoring agent, natural as well as synthetic, spices (fresh, dried, extracted, etc.) sauces, wines, spirits, liquors, and any other flavor contributing and/or enhancing component and tenderizing agents, for example, enzymes such as papain, bromealin and other proteases, or foods, ingredients or compounds containing these enzymes, any type of animal or vegetable proteins in their natural or modified form, such as gelatine, collagen, egg proteins, milk proteins, soy proteins, and wheat proteins, any type of starches native or modified, alcohols, such as wine or liquors.

Shear thinning of the thixotropic gel food treating composition can be accomplished utilizing various techniques to agitate the thixotropic gel food treating composition. Thus, any technique can be utilized to apply agitation to the thixotropic gel food treating composition to cause a change of the composition from a gel to a liquid having a desired viscosity for a particular situation, so that the shear thinned food treating composition can be added to the food product. For example, the thixotropic gel food treating composition can be shear thinned by a high speed mixer, such as Rotostat type XP01, made by Jorgen Jorgensen Ltd, 65 Prags Bouleward, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark and Silverson model L4RT, made by Silverson Machines LTD, Waterside, Chesham, Bucks, England, HP5 IPQ.

The shear thinned food treating composition will not reform as long as the shear thinned food treating composition remains under agitation or mechanical stress, such as pumping, stirring and/or injection. After the shear thinned food treating composition is added to the food, such as by injection, the gel starts slowly to reform and gel inside the food product, thereby reducing leakage of the food treating composition. After being added to the food product, such as by injection, the gel will usually partially form within one hour and be mostly gelled within a few hours. The gel will start to reform when no longer subjected to shear stress.

To assist in an understanding of the present invention, the following examples of thixotropic gel food treating compositions for use with injection equipment is defined. Thus, non-limiting examples of thixotropic gel food treating compositions for use with Fomaco Multineedle Injector Equipment model FGM 20/40, with 40 needles include solutions of preferably up to 1 wt%, more preferably up to 0.75 wt%, and even more preferably up to 0.5 wt% GENUGEL® carrageenan type CJ or GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524 dissolved in 20°C tap water, with later addition of the gelling salt. It has been found that a solution of about 0.5 wt% GENUGEL® carrageenan type CJ or GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524 has a viscosity of about 500 cps, which is easily handled by the Fomaco injector. Moreover, a solution of 0.75 wt% GENUGEL® carrageenan type CJ or GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524 has a viscosity of about 800 cps, which can still be handled by this type of Fomaco injector. It appears that for this type of Fomaco injector an approximate maximum viscosity would be 1000 cps, whereby the maximum concentration of GENUGEL® carrageenan type CJ in solution should be less than 1 wt%. Still further, if a carrageenan having a solubility higher than GENUGEL® carrageenan type CJ is used, such as GENUGEL® carrageenan type C-209, lower concentrations of the carrageenan are desirably used, such as 0.75 wt% or lower. Of course, higher concentrations of soluble polysaccharide would be useable with injectors that can handle higher viscosities, and lower concentrations of soluble polysaccharide (in solution and gelled) would be useable with injectors that handle lower viscosities.

As to food products that can generally be used with the present invention, using the thixotropic gel food treating composition it is noted that the compositions are utilizable with diverse food products. Thus, the food products can comprise meat, poultry and seafood, such as salmon, tuna, and swordfish, For example, by using the gelled thixotropic food treating compositions all types of un-cooked meat and seafood products and preparations, pastes and spreads, both coarse and fine minced can be made, and the shear thinned thixotropic food treating composition will principally contribute with spreadability. The compositions will help reduce or prevent the seepage of juices, will render the preparations, spreads or pastes spreadable or sliceable, and will reduce or eliminate the technical need for use of fats in the pastes and spreads. For example, the preparation, spread or paste can be, but is not limited to, smoked salmon preparation, for example in the form of spread, fine paste or coarse minched or in chunks, e.g., raw smoked salmon, caviar sauce as used in normal caviar production, caviar preparations and caviar paste, herring preparations, spreads and paste, etc. These preparations, spreads and pastes can be "a naturel", spiced or unspiced with or without other raw materials, ingredients or taste components. For example, the preparations, spreads and pastes can also be of a fermented type or directly acidified type, such as meat paste, or spread, such as, teewurst or mettwurst, German traditional spreadable raw sausage products (in some countries called fermented pate, in other countries called tee-sausage, etc.. but some variation or another are found in most western countries), and seafood fermented paste, such as, oriental fish paste.

Gelled solution can be incorporated into beef to be used in the production of dry jerky products, such as produced and sold in the USA (as compared to the Latin type which is semi dry), will solve the toughness problem often associated with traditional jerky. By creating upon drying a porous structure and/or texture in the jerky, bite-resistance as compared to traditional jerky will be substantially reduced. The degree of porosity and hence the firmness of the bite or bite resistance can be adjusted by changing the composition of the gelled solution, as well as how much of the solution is incorporated into the beef before drying.

The food products can be any type of meat, poultry or seafood, from wild or domesticated animals with or without bones or skin, whole or in parts, minced, comminuted or emulsified, in any state of natural, fresh, chilled frozen and jerked meats, or in another condition, which is uncooked.

After the food treating composition is added to the food product, and before packaging the surface of the food product can be coated with, for example, spices and/or condiments. Similarly, prior to treatment of the food with the food treating composition, the surface of the food product can be treated with various materials, such as spices, flavour compounds and/or condiments, also batters and breadings. Thus, the food product can be treated both before and after addition of the food treating composition, but preferably after, with coatings of spices, batter and/or breadings.

After adding the food treating composition by injection, it is preferred to let the food product sit (rest) for a period of time. For example, the food product can be permitted to drain for at least about 10 minutes, more preferably at least about 20 minutes, and even more preferably for a period of a least about 60 minutes. Preferred periods of time for draining of the food product after injection include about 10 minutes to 20 minutes, and more preferably about 20 minutes to 60 minutes. When the food product is whole poultry or parts with skin, it is preferred to have a higher resting time in order that food treating composition that is caught between skin and meat can drain out, as only food treating composition which actually gets injected into food product will stay inside.

Still further, it is pointed out that if the food product, such as meat or poultry, is tumbled for 20 - 40 minutes at about 6 to 10 rpm under vacuum, such as an 80% vacuum, after adding the food composition thereto, such as by injection, there will be lower liquid loss from the product during transport and storage, and more important the consumer will experience lower cooking loss during preparation.

Food products including the gel-in-place technology of the present invention will show less liquid loss during transport, storage and distribution than achievable by other injection methods. Actually, the loss of liquid can be comparable with non-injected products, but even the present gel-in-place technology will normally not completely eliminate liquid loss.

With the gel-in-place technology of the present invention, the consumer will appreciate the reduction of liquid in the packaging, the good appearance of the food product, such as meat, the excellent juiciness of the cooked, broiled or grilled food product, and the clean, natural taste and the low cooking loss compared to other food products, such as those which have been injected with other technologies. Accordingly, the gel-in-place technology of the present invention correctly applied does not lead to complaints concerning excess liquid in the package, complaints about dry meat, and complaints about soy taste, or other non-meat taste.

Another aspect for the food treatment compositions and methods of the present invention, is that they also offer economic advantage of being able to inject or otherwise add large amounts of brine to food products without unacceptable seepage.

The invention will now be described with respect to certain examples which are merely representative of the invention and should not be construed as limiting thereof.

EXAMPLES

The invention is illustrated in the following non-limiting examples, which are provided for the purpose of representation, and are not to be construed as limiting the scope of the invention. All parts and percentages in the examples are by weight unless indicated otherwise.

Preparation and viscosity measurements of compositions Materials

Silverson model L4RT - heavy duty laboratory mixer/emulsifier using stator-ring having 6 holes of 9mmØ diameter (produced by Silverson Machines LTD, Waterside, Chesham, Bucks, England, HP5 IPQ)

Brookfield Viscometer model LVT, with placement attachment for securing correct placement of the spindle in the viscosity measurement glass, and adaptor UL and spindles 1-4 used according to the viscosity (produced by Brookfield Engineering Laboratories INC., Stoughton, MA02072, USA)

Cylindrical viscosity measurement glasses made by Pyrex, with internal height of 11cm and internal diameter of 4.9cm.

VIT-LAB - 2000 ml plastic jug with handle (internal height of 21 cm, bottom internal diameter of 11cm and top internal diameter of 13.5 cm (made in Germany).

Lab scale with 2 decimals ( Mettler Toledo PB3002-S - DeltaRange with 0.01 g precision).

Analytical lab scale with 4 decimals (Sartorius BP 110S with 0.0001g precision)

Refrigerator at 7°C (Gram refrigerator type KF195)

Electric heating plate (Kervel type PX, 1500W - produced by Kervel Fabrikken, Sken, Norway).

Cooking pot 2 liter.

Thermometer

Timer

Diverse weighing utilities (beakers, spoons etc..)

Permanent marker

Tap water comprising hard water with a hardness degree of 20-22 °dH (hardness measured according to Danish Standard DS250:1973 "Water analysis - Determination of the sum of calcium and magnesium. The method can be used for calculation of hardness.") Using softer water will generally result in improved yield of the polysaccharide used and therefore higher viscosity. Moreover, any reference to tap water in the examples, is hard tap water having a hardness degree of 20-22°dH.

Ion-exchanged water

NaCl obtained from Merck, Sodium Chloride, pro analysis, Merck prod.no: 1.06404.1000

Preparation of solution and viscosity measurement

The solutions are prepared to 800 g, unless otherwise specified.

Weigh water on lab scale to 2 decimals, and measure the temperature of the water to ensure it is within +/- 1°C of the of temperature to be utilized in the test.

Measure the water into the 2000 ml plastic jug, and place the 2000 ml plastic jug under the Silverson mixer, and adjust mixing head to be 3-4 cm above the bottom. Use low speed (1000-2000 rpm) on the Silverson mixer, and make sure to avoid air entrapment. Dissolve the salt, and make sure that all the salt is dissolved prior to going to the next step.

Adjust Silverson to 3000 rpm (use higher rpm if viscosity is so high or gelling so firm that 3000 rpm is not enough to keep all the solution in circulation in the plastic jug, and then adjust to the lowest speed above 3000 rpm that keeps the solution in circulation - and make sure to avoid air entrapment).

Dissolve the gellable polysaccharide, such as GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524, and make sure to avoid air entrapment, and mix for 3 minutes and stop. Start the viscosity measurement at 1 minute of stopping of mixing.

Depending on the viscosity measurements to be made, fill up the 3 viscosity glasses with the solution, and mark them clearly. One can be used immediately for measuring viscosity after preparation, the second viscosity glass can be stored for 24 hours at room temperature (22°C), and the third viscosity glass can be put into the refrigerator at 7°C for 24 hours, unless otherwise sated in the examples.

Put lab film (Nescofilm selfsealing - produced by Banda Chemical Ind. Ltd. - Japan) over the viscosity glasses that are stored for 24h before measurement.

Measure viscosity with Brookfield LVT viscosity meter. Choose adaptor UL or spindles 1 to 4 and rpm according to the viscosity to be measured, at 20°C, unless otherwise stated in the example. Select the correct spindle, attach the center-placement-attachment, then lower the viscosity meter so that the grove in the spindle is in the surface of the solution, then select the correct rpm that produces a reading within the scale of the instrument, and let the viscosity meter run for 60 seconds, then read the measured value, register the value and find in the user manual the correct multiplication factor and find the viscosity and register the calculated value.

Rinse the equipment immediately after use after each test.

Example 1 Preparation of thixotropic gel food treating composition

Formulations were prepared utilizing the following procedure to obtain thixotropic gel treating compositions having the weight percentage of ingredients indicated in Table 1, which was prepared based upon 40 kg batches as also indicated in Table 1.

Using a high-speed mixer (Rotostat type XP01, made by Jorgen Jorgensen Ltd, 65 Prags Bouleward, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark; and using the higher speed: low 1410rpm / high 2760 rpm) mounted on a brine-preparation-tank (50 cm high cylindrical tank with 40 cm diameter and a conical bottom with discharge valve, made in stainless steel), slowly add agglomerated GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524 (made by Hercules Copenhagen A/S) to water having a temperature of about 20°C.

When the carrageenan is completely in solution, and no particles or fisheyes (transparent swelled carrageenan particles) are left, add and dissolve sodium tripolyphosphate (obtained from BK-Ladenburg, Germany), and make sure that the sodium tripolyphosphate is completely in solution before adding the NaCl.

Then add and dissolve the NaCl (from Brøste A/S, Denmark). Then add the ice, and continue to mix until all the ice is melted. This will result in temperature of the composition to be less or about 5°C. Using a multineedle injector (Fomaco automatic multineedle brine injector model FGM 20/40, with 40 needles), which is adjusted for strokes/min and brine pressure as indicated in Table 2, inject bone and skinless turkey breasts with the composition. It is noted that Examples 7-9 were not injectable, and therefore, in this example, the maximum workable concentration of the GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524 was below 1 wt%, and concentrations of 0.75 wt% and 0.5 wt% were easily workable.

After injection, permit the injected food products to rest for 10 minutes before being weighed (on Scanvægt DS-570 digital scale) and packaged (in clear plastic bags 300 x 500 mm, made of 120my PE, closed with a knot), in order to have brine caught in-between membranes leak out (brine that does not enter meat is not secured).

For the dryp test, the bags with the injected turkey breast are placed on a shelf in a cooling room having a temperature of 3-5°C, for 6 days. The dryp test is carried out by opening up the bags, removing all liquid from the bags by pouring the liquid out of the bags, and remove the liquid from the surface of the meat by wiping the liquid off by hand, then weighing the turkey breast, and the dryp-loss percentage is then calculated as wt% weight-loss from the injected weight. Results from the dryp-loss test are indicated in Table 2.

The dry turkey breasts from the dryp test are put into vacuum bags (Grace, Cryovac CN 300x500mm cook-in-bags) and sealed under vacuum on vacuum packaging machine (Röscher VM-19/S chamber vacuum packaging machine made by Röscherwerke GmbH, Behälterbau und Machinenfabrik - Germany). The packaged turkey breasts are the placed in trays (and on a tray-trolley) and cooked at 80°C with 100% RH for 3 hours in a cooking-oven (Bastramat smoke and cooking oven Model 701C - made in Germany).

After cooking, the trolley with the vacuum package turkey breasts is removed from the cooking oven and placed at ambient temperature 20°C for 1 hour and then in a cooling room at 3-5°C for about 12 to 24 hours.

For the cooking-loss test the vacuum bags are opened and all excess liquid from the bag and the surface of the meat is removed, by pouring out and wiping by hand, respectively, and then the meat is weighed. Cooking-loss is then calculated as wt% weight-loss from the weight of the turkey breasts after the dryp-loss measurement. Results from the cooking-loss measurements are also indicated in Table 2. TABLE 1 Ex. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 INDICATED AS WEIGHT PERCENT Water (wt%) 73 72.975 72.95 72.9 72.5 72.25 72 71.75 71.5 Ice (wt%) 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 Sodium 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 NaCl (wt%) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Genugel X-7524 (wt%) 0 0.025 0.05 0.1 0.5 0.75 1.25 1.5 Total (wt%) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 INDICATED AS BASED UPON 40 KG TOTAL WEIGHT Water (kg) 29.2 29.19 29.18 29.16 29 28.9 28.8 28.7 28.6 Ice(kg) 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Sodium 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 NaCl (kg) 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 Genugel X-7524 --- 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Total 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40
TABLE 2 The Example No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Dry Weight (kg) 8.19 8.342 7.861 8.814 8.516 8.179 After Injection (kg) 10.1 10.41 9.874 10.995 10.708 9.992 Kg. Injected 2.00 2.075 36568 2.181 2.192 1.813 % Injected 24.4 24.87 25.61 24.74 25.7 22.17 Injector, Brine Pressure (bar) 2.2 2 1.8 1.8 1.5 1.2 Injector, Strokes/Minute 30 30 30 30 30 30 Dry, After Cool Store 9.51 1 9.733 9.298 10.389 10.374 9.862 Dryp (kg) 0.67 0.684 0.576 0.606 0.334 0.13 Dryp (%) 6.66 6.57 5.83 5.51 3.12 1.3 Dry, After Cooking 7.94 8.255 7.91 8.843 9.012 8.748 Cooking-Loss (kg) 1.57 1.478 1.388 1.546 1.362 1.114 Cooking-Loss (%) 16.5 15.19 14.93 14.88 13.13 11.3

Example 2

This example is directed to the preparation of two solutions which are identical in composition but prepared in two different ways, first by using the method according to the present invention, and the second method according to prior art. A third solution is also prepared, using the method described in the present invention where additional GENUGEL Carrageenan X-7524 is added after gellation of the first addition of GENUGEL Carrageeenan X-7524, where this second addition will remain un-dissolved/un-hydrated, and thereby not affecting notably the viscosity of the food treatment composition.

Formulations expressed in percentage wt%, and expressed in kg's for making 40 kg batches of food treating composition. Ingredients included in the composition are indicated in Table 3 below.

Formulations 1 and 3

Using a high-speed mixer (Rotostat type XP01, made by Jorgen Jorgensen Ltd, 65 Prags Bouleward, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark ; and using the higher speed: low 1410rpm/high 2760 rpm) mounted on a brine-preparation-tank (50cm high cylindrical tank with 40cm diameter and a conical bottom with discharge valve, made in stainless steel), slowly add agglomerated GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524 (made by Hercules Copenhagen A/S) to water having a temperature of approximately 20°C - (for formulation 3, only the first part of GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524 is added here).

When the carrageenan is completely in solution, and no particles or fisheyes (transparent swelled carrageenan particles) are left, add and dissolve the phosphate (Sodium tripolyphosphate obtained from BK-Ladenburg, Germany), and make sure that the phosphate is completely in solution before adding the NaCl.

Then add and dissolve the NaCl (from Broste A/S, Denmark). Then add the ice, and continue to mix until all the ice is melted. This will result in temperature of the composition to be less or about 5 °C.

For formulation 3: After the salt is dissolved add the second addition of GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524.

Formulation 2

Using the same method as for formulations 1 and 3, but with the exception of adding all of the GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524 after having dissolved the phosphate and the NaCl.

Using a multineedle injector (Fomaco automatic multineedle brine injector model FGM 20/40, with 40 needles)(for adjustment of strokes/min and brine pressure refer to Table 2) inject the bone and skinless turkey breasts with the composition.

After injection the meat rests 10 minutes before being weighed (on Scanvaegt DS-570 digital scale) and packaged (in clear plastic bags 300 x 500 mm, made of 120my PE, closed with a knot), in order to have brine caught in-between membranes leak out (brine that does not enter meat is not secured).

For the dryp test the bags with the injected turkey breast are placed on a shelf in a cooling room having a temperature of 3-5°C, for 5 days. The dryp test is carried out by opening up the bags, removing all liquid from the bag and from the surface of the meat by hand wiping, then weighting the turkey breast, and the dryp-loss percentage is then calculated as wt% weight-loss from the injected weight. Results from the dryp-loss test are depicted in Table 4.

Now the dry turkey breasts from the dryp test are put into vacuum bags (Grace, Cryovac CN 300 x 500 mm cook-in-bags) and sealed under vacuum on vacuum packaging machine (Röscher VM-19/S chamber vacuum packaging machine made by Röscherwerke GmbH, Behälterbau und Machinenfabrik - Germany), then the packaged turkey breasts are placed in trays (and on a tray-trolley) and cooked at 80°C with 100%RH for 3 hours in a cooking-oven (Bastramat smoke and cooking oven Model 701C - made in Germany).

After cooking, the trolley with the vacuum package turkey breasts is removed from the cooking oven and placed at ambient temperature 20°C for 1 hour and then in cooling room at 3-5°C for about 1 hour.

For the cooking-loss test the vacuum bags are opened and all excess liquid from the bag and the surface of the meat is removed and then the meat is weighed. Cooking-loss is then calculated as wt% weight-loss from the weight of the turkey breasts after the dryp-loss measurement. Results from the cooking-loss measurements are depicted in Table 4.

Example 3A - 3F

These examples demonstrate a range of most effective salt concentrations, for viscosity and carrageenan use level adjustments. This example also shows a range of salt concentrations where the different carrageenan types hydrate/swell or dissolve sufficiently to produce useful viscosity in tap water at 20°C.

Soluble salts in solution suppress solubility of polysaccharides, such as carrageenan, with different salts having different effects, thereby reducing the viscosity of the resulting solution. Increasing the concentration of salt in solution will allow higher use levels of polysaccharide, such as carrageenan, while keeping the viscosity within a workable range.

Thus, these examples demonstrate a range of salt concentrations where solubility of carrageenan is most affected. In these tests, salt is not added in order to gel the dissolved carrageenan and create a thixotropic food treating composition. The objective of is these examples is to demonstrate the influence of salt in solution on the solubility of various polysaccharides, such as carrageenan types. The solubility is here expressed as viscosity in cps.

1 wt% carrageenan is added to ion-exchanged water and normal tap water at 20°C without any salt dissolved, and then to tap water at 20°C, with 0.1 wt% - 4 wt% NaCl dissolved before the addition of the carrageenan.

The carrageenan types tested are GENUGEL® Carrageenan type X-7524, GENUVISCO® Carrageenan type J, GENUGEL® Carrageenan type C-59, GENUGEL® Carrageenan type C-160, GENUGEL® Carrageenan type C-151 and GENUGEL® Carrageenan type C-209.

In Tables 5A to 5F below are the exact weight of each component used in the tests illustrated in Tables 5A-1 to 5F-1. Moreover Table 5A-1 show an additional example at the bottom thereof. Table 5A ion-ex water tap water 0% 0.05% NaCl 0.10% NaCl 0.25% NaCl 0.50% NaCl 0.75% NaCl 1.00% NaCl 1.25% NaCl 1.50% NaCl 2.00% NaCl 3.00% NaCl 4.00% NaCl ion-exch. water, gr 792 tap water, gr 792 791.6 791.2 790 788 786 784 782 780 776 768 760 NaCl, gr 0.4 0.8 2 4 6 8 10 12 16 24 32 Genugel X-7524, gr 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
Table 5B ion-ex water tapwater 0% 0.05% NaCl 0.10% NaCl 0.25% NaCl 0.50% NaCl 0.75% NaCl 1.00% NaCl 1.25% NaCl 1.50 % NaCl 2.00% NaCl 3.00% NaCl 4.00% NaCl ion-exch. water, gr 792 tap water, gr 792 791.6 791.2 790 788 786 784 782 780 776 768 760 NaCl, gr 0.4 0.8 2 4 6 8 10 12 16 24 32 Genuvisco J, gr 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
Table 5C ion-ex water tap water 0% 0.05% NaCl 0.10% NaCl 0.25% NaCl 0.50% NaCl 0.75% NaCl 1.00% NaCl 1.25% NaCl 1.50% NaCl 2.00% NaCl 3.00% NaCl 4.00% NaCl ion-exch. water, gr 792 tap water, gr 792 791.6 791.2 790 788 786 784 782 780 776 768 760 NaCl, gr 0.4 0.8 2 4 6 8 10 12 16 24 32 Genugel C-59, gr 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
Table 5D ion-ex water tap water 0% 0.05% NaCl 0.10% NaCl 0.25% NaCl 0.50% NaCl 0.75% NaCl 1.00% NaCl 1.25% NaCl 1.50% NaCl 2.00% NaCl 3.00% NaCl 4.00% NaCl ion-exch. water, gr 792 tap water, gr 792 791.6 791.2 790 788 786 784 782 780 776 768 760 NaCl, gr 0.4 0.8 2 4 6 8 10 12 16 24 32 Genugel C-160, gr 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
Table 5E ion-ex water tap water0% 0.05% NaCl 0.10% NaCl 0.25% NaCl 0.50% NaCl 0.75% NaCl 1.00% NaCl 1.25% NaCl 1.50% NaCl 2.00% NaCl 3.00% NaCl 4.00% NaCl ion-exch. water, gr 792 tap water, gr 792 791.6 791.2 790 788 786 784 782 780 776 768 760 NaCl, gr 0.4 0.8 2 4 6 8 10 12 16 24 32 Genugel C-151, gr 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
Table 5F ion-ex water tap water 0% 0.05% NaCl 0.10% NaCl 0.25% NaCl 0.50% NaCl 0.75% NaCl 1.00% NaCl 1.25% NaCl 1.50% NaCl 2.00% NaCl 3.00% NaCl 4.00% NaCl ion-exch. water, gr 792 tap water, gr 792 791.6 791.2 790 788 786 784 782 780 776 768 760 NaCl, gr 0.4 0.8 2 4 6 8 10 12 16 24 32 Genugel C-209, gr 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
Table: 5A-1 Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. %NaCl in solution Immediately Br.field Br.field Br.fiel before addition of after preparation at 22°C LVT after 24h at LVT after 24h at 22C LVT 1% Genugel X-7524 22°C rpm rpm rpm % CPS spindle CPS spindle CPS spindle ion-exchanged water 42 1 60 41 1 60 62.5 1 60 0 1920 3 30 2480 3 30 6900 4 30 0.05 1700 3 30 2300 3 30 8450 3 12 0.10 1708 3 30 2448 3 30 6400 4 30 0.25 264 3 30 864 3 30 984 3 30 0.50 36 1 30 212 3 30 44 1 30 0.75 9.1 1 60 66 1 60 16 1 60 1.00 7.5 1 60 24 1 60 10.7 1 60 1.25 6 1 60 15.5 1 60 8 1 60 1.50 6 1 60 10.5 1 60 7.8 1 60 2.00 5 1 60 9 1 60 6.5 1 60 3.00 4.5 1 60 6 1 60 5.3 1 60 4.00 4.5 1 60 6 1 60 5.5 1 60 spindle: 3, rpm 30 %NaCl in solution before Immediately addition of carrageenan after preparation at 22C after 10min at after 3h at 22C after 24h at 22C % CPS CPS CPS CPS 0.1 1708 3 30 2420 3 30 2860 3 30 2448
Table: Lab 5B-1 Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. %NaCl in solution Immediately Br.field Br.field Br.field before addition of after preparation at 22C LVT after 24h at 22C LVT after 24h at 7C LVT 1% Genuvisco J carrageenan rpm rpm % CPS spindle CPS spindle CPS spindle rpm ion-exchanged water 1340 3 30 2800 3 30 4200 4 30 0 13.5 1 60 32.5 1 60 19.5 1 60 0.10 18 1 60 43 1 60 42 1 60 0.25 8 1 60 17.5 1 60 10.5 1 60 0.50 7.5 1 60 13.5 1 60 9.5 1 60 0.75 7 1 60 10.5 1 60 9 1 60 1.00 7 1 60 8.5 1 60 8.5 1 60 1.25 7 1 60 8 1 60 8 1 60 1.50 6 1 60 8 1 60 7.5 1 60 2.00 5.5 1 60 7.5 1 60 6.5 1 60 3.00 4.5 1 60 5.5 1 60 6 1 60 4.00 4 1 60 5 1 60 5.5 1 60
Table: Lab 5C-1 Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. %NaCl in solution Immediately Br.field Br.field Br.field before addition of LVT LVT LVT 1% C-59 carrageenan after preparation at 22C rpm after 24h at 22C rpm after 24h at 7C % CPS spindle CPS spindle CPS spindle rpm ion-exchanged water 23 1 60 24 1 60 2760 3 30 0 164 1 30 352.5 1 12 560 3 30 0.1 58 1 60 91.5 1 60 347 1 12 0.25 30.5 1 60 60 1 60 54.9 1 60 0.50 19.5 1 60 36 1 60 31.5 1 60 0.75 12 1 60 19.5 1 60 15.5 1 60 1.00 9.5 1 60 12 1 60 10.5 1 60 1.25 7 1 60 9 1 60 8 1 60 1.50 6 1 60 7.5 1 60 7.5 1 60 2.00 5 1 60 5.5 1 60 5 1 60 3.00 4.5 1 60 4.5 1 60 4.5 1 60 4.00 4 1 60 3.5 1 60 4 1 60
Table: 5D-1 Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. %NaCl in solution Immediately Br.field Br.field Br.field before addition of LVT LVT LVT 1% C-160 carrageenan after preparation at 22C rpm after 24h at 22C rpm after 24h at 7C % CPS spindle CPS spindle CPS spindle rpm ion-exchanged water 100 3 30 110 3 60 10400 4 30 0 840 3 30 2700 4 30 *3875 4 30 0.1 940 3 30 2000 4 30 *2700 4 30 0.25 620 3 30 1200 3 30 *2200 4 30 0.50 400 1 12 580 3 30 940 3 30 0.75 20 1 60 120 1 30 110 3 60 1.00 7 1 60 9 1 60 7.5 1 60 1.25 5.5 1 60 6 1 60 5 1 60 1.50 5 1 60 4.5 1 60 5 1 60 2.00 3.5 1 60 4.5 1 60 4.5 1 60 3.00 3 1 60 3.5 1 60 3.5 1 60 4.00 3 1 60 3 1 60 4 1 60 * were not measurable, because the spindle makes a hole around itself * these 3 measurements are therefore unreliable and thereby excluded
Table: 5E-1 Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. %NaCl in solution Immediately Br.field Br.field Br.field before addition of LVT LVT LVT 1% C-151 carrageenan after preparation at 22C rpm after 24h at 22C rpm after 24h at 7C % CPS spindle CPS spindle CPS spindle rpm ion-exchanged water 1440 3 30 7100 4 30 11200 4 30 0 5 1 60 5.5 1 60 6 1 60 0.10 6 1 60 14.5 1 60 19 1 60 0.25 5 1 60 11 1 60 18 1 60 0.50 4.5 1 60 16 1 60 9 1 60 0.75 5 1 60 9 1 60 14.5 1 60 1.00 4.5 1 60 16 1 60 8.5 1 60 1.25 4 1 60 4 1 60 6 1 60 1.5 3.5 1 60 3.5 1 60 4.5 1 60 2.00 4 1 60 3.5 1 60 4.5 1 60 3.00 3 1 60 3 1 60 4 1 60 4.00 3.5 1 60 3.5 1 60 4 1 60
Table: 5F-1 Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. %NaCl in solution Immediately Br.field Br.field Br.field before addition of LVT LVT LVT 1% C-209 carrageenan after preparation at 22C rpm after 24h at 22C rpm after 24h at 7C % CPS spindle CPS spindle CPS spindle rpm ion-exchanged water 180 3 30 182 1 30 640 3 30 0 3060 3 30 3800 4 30 11100 1 30 0.10 2040 3 30 5800 4 30 13200 4 30 0.25 540 3 30 6200 4 30 3000 4 30 0.50 73.5 1 60 2700 4 30 220 3 60 0.75 20.5 1 60 580 3 30 63 1 60 1.00 13.5 1 60 160 3 30 38 1 60 1.25 9 1 60 141 1 30 17.5 1 60 1.5 8 1 60 57.5 1 60 19.5 1 60 2.00 6.5 1 60 25.5 1 60 9 1 60 3.00 5.5 1 60 12 1 60 8 1 60 4.00 5 1 60 9 1 60 7 1 60

As can be seen from a review of Tables 5A-1 to 5F-1, each of the carrageenans shows the same tendency, irrespective of carrageenan type, that rising salt concentrations give falling viscosity in the solutions.

The carrageenan types that show low initial viscosity in ion-exchanged water and show higher viscosity in tap water and when small amount of salt is present, are the most soluble types at this temperature, and therefore the preferred types, at this preparation temperature, for the thixotropic food composition.

The carrageenan types that show high initial viscosity in ion-exchanged water and then fall fast in viscosity, or loose almost completely the viscosity, when in tap water, are the less soluble types at this temperature, and these types are therefore less preferable in this invention, at this preparation temperature, although they can be used in both embodiments of this invention at this temperature if the water used is ion-exchanged (or very soft or that the hardness in hard water is sequestered using sequestrants, such as for example sodium hexametaphosphate).

It can be seen that each carrageenan type behaves in a different manner as to the salt concentration at which is has its highest and lowest viscosity.

Example 4

This example 2 shows measurements of the maximum viscosity of food treating compositions, which can be prepared using conventional brine mixers and is injectable using conventional multi-needle-injectors, according to Example 1. This example also shows measurements of viscosity of food treating compositions with the lowest functional concentrations of GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524 that give at least some reduction in dryp loss of injected turkey breast during storage.

All injectors have a maximum viscosity they can handle, but more importantly all meat industry brine preparation systems have a maximum viscosity they can handle and this viscosity is in some cases lower than the injectors can handle. This example therefore seeks to measure viscosity of brine where carrageenan is dissolved before any salt addition, using the already established maximum workable carrageenan use levels, according to Example 1.

Water at 20°C, using both tap water and ion-exchanged water

0.025%, 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.20%, 0.30%, 0.40% and also 0.5% and 0.75 wt% GENUGEL® carrageenantype X-7524 (established as maximum use level when used in the preferred method of making thixotropic food treating composition - as in Example 1.

In Tables 6A-6D below are the exact weight of each component used in this example. 0.025% X-7524 in tap water gr 0.025% X-7524 in ion-exch. water gr 0.05% X-7524 in tap water gr 0.05% X-7524 in ion-exch. water gr Table 6A ion-exch. water, gr 783.8 783.6 tap water, gr 783.8 783.6 NaCl, gr 16 16 16 16 Genugel X-7524, gr 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4
Table 6B 0.1% X-7524 in tap water gr 0.1% X-7524 in ion-exch. water gr 0.2% X-7524 in tap water gr 0.2% X-7524 in ion-exch. water gr ion-exch. water, gr 783.2 782.4 tap water, gr 783.2 782.4 NaCl, gr 16 16 16 16 Genugel X-7524, gr 0.8 0.8 1.6 1.6
Table 6C 0.3% X-7524 in tap water gr 0.3% X-7524 in ion-exch. water gr 0.4% X-7524 in tap water gr 0.4% X-7524 in ion-exch. water gr ion-exch. water, gr 781.6 780.8 tap water, gr 781.6 780.8 NaCl, gr 16 16 16 16 Genugel X-7524, gr 2.4 2.4 3.2 3.2
Table 6D 0.5% X-7524 in tap water gr 0.5% X-7524 in ion-exch. water gr 0.75% X-7524 in tap water gr 0.75% X-7524 in ion-exch. water gr ion-exch. water, gr 780 780 tap water, gr 780 780 NaCl, gr 16 16 16 16 Genugel X-7524, gr 4 4 4 4

In Tables 6A-1 to 6D-1, the huge effect, on viscosity, of salt addition to a carrageenan solution, can be seen.

The maximum workable viscosity for Fomaco FGM 20/40 multineedle injector is measured to be 780 cps. This viscosity of approximately 800 cps is still reasonable to work with. Also, somewhat higher viscosities can be used with this injector model, but will require extra care and patience. Viscosities over 1000 cps have been injected using this injector, but such high viscosities are not practical for use with this injector pe, due to excessive reduction of the injectors production capacity.

The minimum viscosity of food treating composition when using the minimum concentrations of GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524 that at least show some reduction of dryp loss of injected turkey breast during storage, is almost down to viscosity of water which is defined as having viscosity of 1. The low viscosity measurements are carried out using an UL (low viscosity adapter) on the Brookfield LVT Viscometer. This adapter gives the solution relatively high shear compared to for example spindle 1-4, and therefore the viscosity measurements obtained with the UL adapter in place, when measuring the gelled shear thinned food treatment composition are very low. So when using the UL adapter the viscosity readings obtained are perhaps more showing the real lowest viscosity during pumping like when the food treatment composition is inside the pumping system of a multi-needle-injector. Table 6A-1 Visc. Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. meas. Before NaCl Br.field After 2% NaCl Br.field Br.field Br.field addition LVT addition LVT LVT LVT at 22°C at 22°C after 24h at 22°C after 24h at 7°C CPS spindle rpm CPS spindle rpm CPS spindle rpm CPS spindle rpm 0.025% X-7524, in tap water 1.2 UL 60 1.25 UL 60 1.1 UL 60 1.45 UL 60 0.1%X-7524, in ion-exch. water 3.3 UL 60 1.15 UL 60 1.15 UL 60 1.55 UL 60 0.05% X-7524, in tap water 1.3 UL 60 1.3 UL 60 1.1 UL 60 1.45 UL 60 0.05% X-7524, in ion-exch. water 1.55 UL 60 1.25 UL 60 1.3 UL 60 1.9 UL 60
Table 6B-1 Visc. Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. meas. Before NaCl Br.field After 2% NaCl Br.field Br.field Br.field addition LVT addition LVT LVT LVT at 22°C at 22°C after 24h at 22°C after 24h at 7°C CPS spindle rpm CPS spindle rpm CPS spindle rpm CPS spindle rpm 0.1% X-7524, in tap water 1.45 UL 60 1.45 UL 60 1.2 UL 60 1.7 UL 60 0.1% X-7524, in ion-exch. water 1.95 UL 60 1.95 UL 60 2.35 UL 60 3.45 UL 60 0.2% X-7524, in tap water 2.2 UL 60 1.9 UL 60 2.05 UL 60 2.25 UL 60 0.2% X-7524, in ion-exch. water 8 1 60 20.5 1 60 40 1 60 75 1 60
Table 6C-1 Visc. Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. meas. Before NaCl Br.field After 2% NaCl Br.field Br.field Br.field addition LVT addition LVT LVT LVT at 22°C at 22°C after 24h at 22°C after 24h at 7°C CPS spindle rpm CPS spindle rpm CPS spindle rpm CPS spindle rpm 0.3% X-7524, in tap water 3.7 UL 60 2.7 UL 60 2.95 UL 60 3.45 UL 60 0.3% X-7524, in ion-exch. water 10.5 1 60 173 1 30 300 3 30 600 3 30 0.4% X-7524, in tap water 23.5 1 60 20 1 60 28.5 1 60 52.5 1 60 0.4% X-7524, in ion-exch. water 17 1 30 560 3 30 600 3 30 1040 3 30
Table 6D-1 Visc. Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. meas. Before NaCl Br.field After 2% NaCl Br.field Br.field Br.field addition LVT addition LVT LVT LVT at 22°C at 22°C after 24h at 22°C after 24h at 7°C CPS spindle rpm CPS spindle rpm CPS spindle rpm CPS spindle rpm 0.5% X-7524, in tap water 174 1 30 480 3 30 540 3 30 1020 3 30 0.5% X-7524, in ion-exch. water 20 1 60 1860 3 30 1740 3 30 3020 3 30 0.75% X-7524, in tap water 400 3 30 780 3 30 740 3 30 1320 3 30 0.75% X-7524, in ion-exch. water 28.5 1 60 5000 4 30 4300 4 30 8000 4 30

Example 5

This example attempts to define the maximum use level of carrageenan using a range of salt concentrations.

Utilizing some amount of NaCl in solution before dissolution of carrageenan reduces viscosity permitting higher use levels of carrageenan, while keeping viscosity below the maximum viscosity that the brine preparation equipment and brine injectors can handle.

0.15 wt%, 0.25 wt%, 0.35 wt%, 0.50 wt% 1.00 wt%, 1.50 wt% and 2.00 wt% NaCl was dissolved in tap water at 20°C. Then 1 wt%, 2 wt%, 3 wt%, 4 %wt or 5 wt% GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524 was added after the dissolution of the salt. Then 2 wt% NaCl was added.

In Table 7A to 7E below are the exact weight of each component used in the tests illustrated in the Tables. Table: 7A 1% X-7524 first dissolved 0.15% NaCl first dissolved 0.25% NaCl first dissolved 0.35% NaCl first dissolved 0.50% NaCl first dissolved 1.00% NaCl first dissolved 1.50% NaCl first dissolved 2.00% NaCl tap water, gr 774.8 774 773.2 772 768 764 760 first - NaCl, gr 1.2 2 2.8 4 8 12 16 Genugel X-7524, gr 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 second - NaCl, gr 16 16 16 16 16 16 16
Table: 7B 2% X-7 524 first dissolved 0.15% NaCl first dissolved 0.25% NaCl first dissolved 0.35% NaCl first dissolved 0.50% NaCl first dissolved 1.00% NaCl first dissolved 1.50% NaCl first dissolved 2.00% NaCl tap water, gr 766.8 766 765.2 764 760 756 752 first - NaCl, gr 1.2 2 2.8 4 8 12 16 Genugel X-7524, gr 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 second - NaCl, gr 16 16 16 16 16 16 16
Table: 7C 3% X-7524 first dissolved 0.15% NaCl first dissolved 0.25% NaCl first dissolved 0.35% NaCl first dissolved 0.50% NaCl first dissolved 1.00% NaCl first dissolved 1.50% NaCl first dissolved 2.00% NaCl tap water, gr 758.8 758 757.2 756 752 748 744 first - NaCl, gr 1.2 2 2.8 4 8 12 16 Genugel X-7524, gr 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 second-NaCl, gr 16 16 16 16 16 16 16
Table: 7D 4% X-7524 first dissolved 0.15% NaCl first dissolved 0.25% NaCl first dissolved 0.35% NaCl first dissolved 0.50% NaCl first dissolved 1.00% NaCl first dissolved 1.50% NaCl first dissolved 2.00% NaCl tap water. gr 750.8 750 749.2 748 744 740 736 first - NaCl, gr 1.2 2 2.8 4 8 12 16 Genugel X-7524, gr 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 second - NaCl, gr 16 16 16 16 16 16
Table: 7E 5% X-7524 first dissolved 0.15% NaCl first dissolved 0.25% NaCl first dissolved 0.35% NaCl first dissolved 0.50% NaCl first dissolved 1.00% NaCl first dissolved 1.50% NaCl first dissolved 2.00% NaCl tap water, gr 742.8 742 741.2 740 736 732 728 first - NaCl, gr 1.2 2 2.8 4 8 12 16 Genugel X-7524, gr 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 second-NaCl, gr 16 16 16 16 16 16 16

In Table 7F it can be seen that viscosity of most of the solutions could not be measured due to extreme viscosity or gelling of the solution. However, some of the solutions were measurable without difficulties and the measured values show clearly how, by adjusting the NaCl concentration in solution before addition of GENUGEL carrageenan type X-7524, it is possible to choose any concentration of GENUGEL®carrageenan type X-7524 plus the desired end viscosity of the solution. This demonstrates one manner of being able to work with practically any carrageenan concentration desired, with the resulting solution still being injectable. As by dissolving, before the addition of carrageenan, the correct amount of NaCl, the resulting viscosity can be choosen, according to the carrageenan concentration choosen. Table: 7F Visc. Visc. Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. meas. meas. Br.field Br.field Br.field Br.field Br.field 1%X-7524 LVT 2%X-7524 LVT 3%X-7524 LVT 4%X-7524 LVT 5%X-7524 LVT +2% salt spindle rpm +2% salt spindle rpm +2% salt spindle rpm +2% salt spindle rpm +2% salt cps cps cps cps *cps spindle rpm 0.15% salt before carr. 620 3 30 0.25% salt before carr. 65 1 60 0.35% salt before carr. 13 1 60 13800 4 30 0.50% salt before carr. 6 1 60 1320 3 30 1.00% salt before carr. 1700 3 30 1.50% salt before carr. 340 3 60 2260 3 30 10500 4 30 2.00% salt before carr. 155 1 30 900 3 30 5200 4 30 *The missing measurements are for solutions that - were too thick and/or gelled to measure.

Figures 1 shows a plot of viscosity vs. NaCl concentrations based on the results noted in Table 7F. Figure 2 shows the relation between salt concentration (in solution before addition of carrageenan) and carrageenan concentration at a constant viscosity. This relation was made by extrapolation of the measured values from Table 7F, and is therefore not accurate but serves as an illustration of the relation between salt in solution and its effect on solubility of carrageenan added to the solution and the resulting viscosity.

Example 6

This example shows the influence of lower dissolution temperature on viscosity of food treating compositions.

The results from this test can also be used as a guidance for use level selection for polysaccharides, such as GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524, in the case where lower dissolution temperatures are to be used in order to comply with possible legal restrictions on temperature during preparation of solutions to be injected or added to food products, while still maintaining the best possible functionality of the food treating compostion.

Tap water at 0°C, 5°C, 10°C and 20°C, using ice to adjust the temperature, was utilized. GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524 at a 1 wt% concentration was added to the tap water without prior salt addition. After the carrageenan was dissolved, 2 wt% of salt was added.

In Table 8, below are the exact weight of each component used in example. Table 8 water at 0°C water at 5°C water at 10°C water at 20°C tap water, gr 776 776 776 776 NaCl, gr 16 16 16 16 Genugel X-7524, gr 8 8 8 8

In Table 8A, the effect of lower dissolution temperature is clearly illustrated, by the stepwise lowering of viscosity caused by each step of lowering dissolution temperature. Table 8A Visc. Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. meas. Br.field Br.field Br.field Br.field 1%X-7524+2%NaCl LVT 1%X-7524+2%NaCl LVT 1%X-7524+2%NaCl LVT 1%X-7524+2%NaCl LVT measurement in O°C tap water spindle rpm in 5°C tap water spindle rpm in 10°C tap water spindle rpm in 20C tap water spindle rpm immediately after preparation 580 3 30 2720 3 30 3220 3 30 6500 4 30

Example 7

This example shows the influence of dissolution temperatures higher than 20°C on viscosity of food treating compositions with GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524. The use of higher dissolution temperatures normally brings more of the polysaccharide into solution and thereby increases the yield obtainable from the polysaccharide used. The use of higher dissolution temperatures can therefore be used in order to reduce the use levels of polysaccharide, such as GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524, compared with dissolution at 20°C, while still maintaining the same amount of functionality of the food treating composition in a food product.

This examples therefore determines the effect of dissolution temperatures above 20°C on final viscosity of food treating compostions using GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524, as well as determines after which dissolution temperature the viscosity of the cooled down solution stops giving increases in viscosity, thereby indicating that the polysaccharide has been brought 100% into solution, and the temperature that acheives that goal.

0.5 wt% of GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524 was dissolved directly in the tap water at temperatures of 20°C, 30°C, 40°C, 50°C, 60°C, 70°C. After dissoluton of the GENUGEL® xarrageenan type X-7524, 2 wt% NaCl was added.

In Table 9, below are the exact weight of each component used in this example. Table: 9 20°C tap water 30°C tap water 40°C tap water 50°C tap water 60°C tap water 70°C tap water tab water, gr 780 780 780 780 780 780 NaCl, gr 16 16 16 16 16 16 Genugel X-7524, gr 4 4 4 4 4 4

In Table 9A, there can be clearly seen the effect of higher dissolution temperatures on the solubility/viscosity of GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524. Still at 70°C, the GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524 food treating compostion is showing tendency of rising viscosity, therefore indicating that the GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524 is not 100% dissolved at this temperature. When the food treating compostion is measured at 22°C (after 24h at 22°C), the rate of increase in viscosity slows down after 50°C. However, when the food treating composition is measured at 7°C (after 24h at 7°C), the viscosity is still showing a very clear rising tendency even between solutions made at 60°C and 70°C, signaling that still higher temperatures can increase the yield of GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524. Table: 9A Visc. Visc, Visc. meas. meas. meas. Br.field Br.field Br.field 0.5%X-7524 LVT 0.5%X-7524 LVT 0.5%X-7524 LVT +2% salt +2% salt +2% salt measurement in CPS in 20C tap water spindle rpm in 30C tap water spindle rpm in 40C tap water spindle rpm after 24h at 22°C 840 3 30 1400 3 30 1600 3 30 after 24h at 7°C 1520 3 30 3060 3 30 2960 3 30 Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. Br.field Br.field Br.field 0.5%X-7524 LVT 0.5%X-7524 LVT 0.5%X-7524 LVT +2% salt +2% salt +2% salt measurement in CPS in 50C tap water spindle rpm in 60C tap water spindle rpm in 70C tap water spindle rpm after 24h at 22°C 2100 3 30 2380 3 30 2540 3 30 after 24h at 7°C 3680 3 10 4500 4 30 5100 4 30

Example 8

This example shows the temperature at which various carrageenan types start to hydrate or dissolve. This provides an indication of the temperature at which these carrageenan types give sufficient viscosity for preparation of a thixotropic food treating compostion. Thus, this example is being run to study similar functionality as with GENUGEL® carrageenan type X-7524, using other carrageenan types, by using dissolution temperatures higher than 20°C. This example studies temperatures at which GENUVISCO® type J, GENUGEL® Carrageenan type C-59, GENUGEL® Carrageenan type C-160, GENUGEL® Carrageenan type C-151 and GENUGEL® Carrageenan type C-209, start to hydrate and/or dissolve, giving similar viscosity as GENUGEL® Carrageenan type X-7524 does at 20°C.

Tap water, temp. 20°C, 30°C, 40°C, 50°C, 60°C, 70°C.

Carrageenan concentration 0.5 wt%.

Salt addition 2 wt%, after dissolution of carrageenan

Measurement of viscosity after 24h, at 22C and 7C.

In Tables 10A-10E below are the exact weight of each component used in tests illustrated in Tables 10A-1 to 10E-1. Table 10A 20°C tap water 30°C tap water 40°C tap water 50°C tap water 60°C tap water 70°C tap water tab water, gr 780 780 780 780 780 780 NaCl, gr 16 16 16 16 16 16 Genuvisco J, gr 4 4 4 4 4 4
Table: 10B 20°C tap water 30°C tap water 40°C tap water 50°C tap water 60°C tap water 70°C tap water tab water, gr 780 780 780 780 780 780 NaCl, gr 16 16 16 16 16 16 Genugel C-59, gr 4 4 4 4 4 4
Table: 10C 20°C tap water 30°C tap water 40°C tap water 50°C tap water 60°C tap water 70°C tap water tab water, gr 780 780 780 780 780 780 NaCl, gr 16 16 16 16 16 16 Genugel C-160, gr 4 4 4 4 4 4
Table: 10D 20°C tap water 30°C tap water 40°C tap water 50°C tap water 60°C tap water 70°C tap water tab water, gr 780 780 780 780 780 780 NaCl, gr 16 16 16 16 16 16 Genugel C-151, gr 4 4 4 4 4 4
Table: 10E 20°C tap water 30°C tap water 40°C tap water 50°C tap water 60°C tap water 70°C tap water tab water, gr 780 780 780 780 780 780 NaCl, gr 16 16 16 16 16 16 Genugel C-209, gr 4 4 4 4 4 4

In Tables 10A-1 to 10E-1, it can be seen that each carrageenan type is quite specific regarding at which temperature it starts to hydrate or dissolve and give an increase in viscosity of the solution and at which temperature the viscosity stops increasing.

The temperature at which a carrageenan starts to show viscosity increase, measured in the cooled down solution at 20°C, is the minimum temperature at which that type of carrageenan needs to be added in order to achieve viscosity that can be utilized in a thixotropic food treating composition, this applies only to the same type of conditions under which the test was carried out, particularly regarding the water hardness and temperature.

And the temperature at which the carrageenan stops to give viscosity increase, measured in the cooled down solution at 20°C, is normally the temperature at which that particular carrageenan is fully in solution, for the type of conditions under which the test was carried out, particularly regarding the water hardness and temperature.

In all the tests 10A-1 to 10E-1, there was observable increase in viscosity and thixotropic gelling to one extent or another, when salt was added to the preparation, however test 10A-1 showed the lowest viscosity increase when salt was added. As the viscosity of the preparations were only measured after salt addition and cooling down to 20°C and rest for 24 hours, there are no measured values to demonstrate the viscosity increase observed.

In Table 10A-1, GENUVISCO® carrageenan type J, only starts to show increase in viscosity after having been added to 40°C or warmer tap water, which signals that this particular type of carrageenan starts to hydrate at 40°C. However this carrageenan continues to show a trend of increases in viscosity till the last measurement at 70°C, signaling that this type is still not fully in solution at 70°C, in tap water. Under the circumstances of this test the carrageenan tested is preferably added to water having a temperature of at least 40°C for the best functionality in a thixotropic food treatment composition.

In Table 10B-1, GENUGEL® Carrageenan type C-59, shows the highest viscosity in solution prepared at 20°C, and sharply lower viscosities for solutions prepared at higher temperatures, signaling that this type of carrageenan is fully hydrated at 20°C-30°C under the conditions of this test. Under the circumstances of this test the carrageenan tested is preferably added to water having a temperature of 20°C for the best functionality in a thixotropic food treatment composition.

In Table 10C-1, GENUGEL® Carrageenan type C-160, shows the highest viscosity in solution prepared at 20°C, and trend of slowly falling viscosities for solutions prepared at higher temperatures, signaling that this type of carrageenan is fully hydrated at 20°C under the conditions of this test. Under the circumstances of this test the carrageenan tested is preferably added to water having a temperature of 20°C for the best functionality in a thixotropic food treatment composition.

In Table 10D-1, GENUGEL® Carrageenan type C-151, shows the highest viscosity in solution prepared at 30°C, signaling that this type of carrageenan is fully hydrated at 30°C under the conditions of this test. Where this carrageenan was added to water at a temperature of 40°C and higher, all the resulting solutions gelled firmly making a sliceable gel, which could therefore not be measured for viscosity. Under the circumstances of this test the carrageenan tested is preferably added to water having a temperature of 30°C for the best functionality in a thixotropic food treatment composition.

In Table 10E-1,6E, GENUGEL® Carrageenan type C-209, shows high viscosity already at 20°C and the viscosity continues to increase and that trend continues until the last measured solution at 70°C, which signals that this carrageenan is still not fully in solution at 70°C. Under the circumstances of this test the carrageenan tested is preferably added to water having as high temperature as possible for the best functionality in a thixotropic food treatment composition. This carrageenans optimum dissolution temperature is clearly above 70°C, under the conditions of this test. Table: 10A-1 Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. Br.field Br.field Br.field 0.5% Genuvisco J LVT 0.5% Genuvisco J LVT 0.5% Genuvisco J LVT in 20C tap water in 30C tap water in 40C tap water measurement in CPS +2% salt spindle rpm +2% tap water spindle rpm +2% salt spindle rpm after 24h at 22C 4 1 60 7.5 1 60 280 3 30 after 24h at 7C 5.5 1 60 11 1 60 640 3 30 Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. Br.field Br.field Br.field 0.5% Genuvisco J LVT 0.5% Genuvisco J LVT 0.5% Genuvisco J LVT in 50C tap water in 60C tap water in 70C tap water measurement in CPS +2% salt spindle rpm +2% salt spindle rpm +2% salt spindle rpm after 24h at 22C 1480 3 30 1900 3 30 2200 3 30 after 24h at 7C 220 3 30 2860 3 30 3800 4 30
Table: 10B-1 Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. Br.field Br.field Br.field 0.5% Genugel C-59 LVT 0.5% Genugel C-59 LVT 0.5% Genugel C-59 LVT in 20C tap water in 30C tap water in 40C tap water measurement in CPS +2% salt spindle rpm +2% tap water spindle rpm +2% salt spindle rpm after 24h at 22C 260 3 30 160 3 30 120 3 30 after 24h at 7C 520 3 30 133 1 30 56 1 60 Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. Br.field Br.field Br.field 0.5% Genugel C-59 LVT 0.5% Genugel C-59 LVT 0.5% Genugel C-59 LVT in 50C tap water in 60C tap water in 70C tap water measurement in CPS +2% salt spindle rpm +2% salt spindle rpm +2% salt spindle rpm after 24h at 22C 50 3 60 54 1 60 60 1 60 after 24h at 7C 81.5 1 60 118 1 30 73 1 60
Table: 10C-1 Visc. Vise. Visc. meas. meas. meas. Br.field Br.field Br.field 0.5% Genugel C-160 LVT 0.5% Genugel C-160 LVT 0.5% Genugel C-160 LVT in 20C tap water in 30C tap water in 40°C tap water measurement in CPS +2% salt spindle rpm +2% salt spindle rpm +2% salt spindle rpm after 24h at 22C 360 3 30 200 3 30 120 3 30 after 24h at 7C 560 3 30 380 1 30 300 3 30 Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. Br.field Br.field Br.field 0.5% Genugel C-160 LVT 0.5% Genugel C-160 LVT 0.5% Genugel C-160 LVT in 50°C tap water in 60°C tap water in 70°C tap water measurement in CPS +2% salt spindle rpm +2% salt spindle rpm +2% salt spindle rpm after 24h at 22C 240 3 30 220 3 30 200 3 30 after 24h at 7C 480 3 30 380 3 30 360 3 30
Table: 10D-1 Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. Br.field Br.field Br.field 0.5% Genugel C-151 LVT 0.5% Genugel C-151 LVT 0.5% Genugel C-151 LVT in 20C tap water in 30C tap water in 40C tap water measurement in CPS +2% salt spindle rpm +2% tap water spindle rpm +2% salt spindle rpm after 24h at 22C 13 1 60 420 3 30 after 24h at 7C 15 1 60 500 3 30 Visc. Visc. Visc, meas. meas. meas. Br.field Br.field Br.field 0.5% Genugel C-151 LVT 0.5% Genugel C-151 LVT 0.5% Genugel C-151 LVT in 50C tap water in 60C tap water in 70C tap water measurement in CPS +2% salt spindle rpm +2% salt spindle rpm +2% salt spindle rpm after 24h at 22C after 24h at 7C * With water at 40°C or higher all the tests gelled, therefore no viscosity measurement possible.
Table: 10E-1 Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. Br.field Br.field Br.field 0.5% Genugel C-209 LVT 0.5% Genugel C-209 LVT 0.5% Genugel C-209 LVT in 20C tap water in 30C tap water in 40C tap water measurement in CPS +2% salt spindle rpm +2% salt spindle rpm +2% salt spindle rpm after 24h at 22C 1850 3 30 2040 3 30 5150 3 12 after 24h at 7C 2020 3 30 1380 3 30 4450 3 12 Visc. Visc. Visc. meas. meas. meas. Br.field Br.field Br.field 0.5% Genugel C-209 LVT 0.5% Genugel C-209 LVT 0.5% Genugelisco C- LVT in 50C tap water in 60C tap water in 70C tap water measurement in CPS +2% salt spindle rpm +2% salt spindle rpm +2% salt spindle rpm after 24h at 22C 12300 3 6 6700 4 30 11100 4 30 after 24h at 7C 4450 3 12 1200 4 30 10500 4 30

Example 9

This example makes an attempt to illustrate, as well as the measurement methods allow, the shear thinning characteristic of the thixotropic food preparation, and the following re-gelation of the thixotropic food preparation. In this regard, this example tries to demonstrate better and in a more illustrative fashion, than Examples 3-8, the real degree of thixotropy seen when using using a preferred compostion in the thixotropic food treatment composition in industrial multi-needle injection equipment.

Objective

Measure the viscosity development and changes during preparation, shear thinning and re-gelation of a preferred compostion of the thixotropic food treatment composition, as described in Example 4.

Test Parameters

Tap water, temp. 20°C and ion-exchanged water at 20°C

Carrageenan concentration 0.5%.

Salt addition 2%, after dissolution of carrageenan

Measurement of viscosity before salt addition and immediately after shear thinning and after 5 min, 10 min, 30 min 60 min and 24h at 22°C.

It is noted that for being able to get a more clear picture of the viscosity as it is immediately after shear-thinning and while the food treatment composition is still under agitation and therefore hindered in re-gelling, the measurement of viscosity for this point only, in this test, is measured differently than in other examples.

This change is simply that instead of letting the Brookfield Viscometer run for 60 seconds before measurement is taken, it will only be allowed to run 10 seconds before measurement, of the shear-thinned composition immetiately after shear-thinning, and measurement is started within 10 seconds after stopping shear stress. The reason for this is that while the Viscometer is running for 60 seconds, it is for the food treatment composition as it was resting as the Viscometer is a very low shear instrument, and therefore during the 60 seconds wait the composition is re-gelling and will therefore when read after 60 seconds not fully demonstrate the true viscosity as it is during agitiation and high shear.

In Table 11 below is the exact weight of each component used in the tests illustrated in Table 11-A. Table: 11 ion-exch. water tap water ion-exch. water, gr 780 tap water, gr 780 NaCl, gr 16 16 Genugel X-7524, gr 4 4

Table 11A and Figure 3 clearly illustrate the thixotropic behaviour of the food treatment composition, prepared according to the preferred embodiment of the thixotropic food treatment composition aspect of this invention.

Although for creating this illustration its attempted to acheive a reading for the food treating composition in its most liquid form, it must be mentioned that even with the reduced waiting time until reading is taken on the Brookfield Viscometer it cannot completly measure the viscosity as it is during high shear, as that viscosity is probably still lower than the measurements achieved with this change in the viscosity measurement method. Table: 11A Visc. Visc. meas. meas. Br.field Br.field 0,5% Genugel X-7524 LVT 0,5% Genugel X-7524 LVT in 20C ion-exch. water in 20C tap water measurement in CPS + 2% NaCl spindle rpm + 2% NaCl spindle rpm before adding NaCl 22 1 60 360 3 30 after adding NaCl- before shearing 1420 3 30 540 3 30 immetiately after shearing 280 3 30 120 3 30 after 5 min rest at 22C 1020 3 30 500 3 30 after 10 min rest at 22C 1060 3 30 540 3 30 after 30 min rest at 22C 1080 3 30 580 3 30 after 60 min rest at 22C 980 3 30 540 3 30 after 24h rest at 22C 980 3 30 480 3 30


Anspruch[de]
Verfahren zur Behandlung eines ungekochten Nahrungsmittelprodukts, umfassend: (i) Vorsehen eines ungekochten Nahrungsmittelprodukts, das wenigstens eines von Fleisch, Fisch, Meeresfrüchten und Geflügel umfasst, (ii) Vorsehen einer wässrigen tixotropen Gelzusammensetzung, die ein gelierfähiges Polysaccharid umfasst, und (iii) Zugeben der wässrigen tixotropen Gelzusammensetzung zu dem ungekochten Nahrungsmittelprodukt in einem strukturviskosen Zustand. Verfahren gemäss Anspruch 1, worin die wässrige tixotrope Gelzusammensetzung vor dem Zugeben zu dem ungekochten Nahrungsmittelprodukt strukturviskos ist. Verfahren gemäss Anspruch 1 oder 2, worin in Schritt (ii) die wässrige tixotrope Gelzusammensetzung vorgesehen wird, indem man Wasser und ein gelierfähiges Polysaccharid unter Bedingungen mischt, um das Polysaccharid zu lösen und/oder zu hydratisieren, und man die resultierende Zusammensetzung mit wenigstens einem Gelierkation in einer Menge, die zur Erzeugung eines tixotropen Gels effektiv ist, mischt. Verfahren gemäss Anspruch 3, worin das Wasser wenigstens eines ist, das unter Leitungswasser, destilliertem Wasser, demineralisiertem Wasser und deionisiertem Wasser ausgewählt wird. Verfahren gemäss Anspruch 3 oder 4, worin das wenigstens eine Gelierkation in Form eines Salzes vorgesehen wird, das unter wenigstens einem von Natriumfluorid, Kaliumfluorid, Calciumchlorid, Natriumphosphat, Kaliumphosphat, Salzen der Zitronensäure, Salzen von Carbonsäuren und Salzen von Weinsäure ausgewählt wird. Verfahren gemäss irgendeinem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, worin das gelierfähige Polysaccharid wenigstens eines von (i) Carrageenanen, gegebenenfalls in Kombination mit wenigstens einem von Johannisbrotkernmehl, Cassiamehl und Konjakmehl, (ii) Xanthan, gegebenenfalls in Kombination mit Getreidekernmehl (seed gum), (iii) behandeltem oder unbehandeltem Mehl oder Mehlstoff von gelierenden Polysaccharid enthaltenden Meeresalgen, (iv) gelierendem Polysaccharid enthaltendem Frucht- oder Gemüsepulver, (v) gelierendem Pectin, (vi) Gellangummi, (vii) Alginaten, (viii) Gelierstärke umfasst. Verfahren gemäss Anspruch 6, worin das gelierendes Polysaccharid enthaltende Frucht- oder Gemüsepulver (iv) wenigstens eines von Zitronenschalenpulver, Apfelschalenpulver und dem Rückstand von Zuckerrüben nach der Extraktion des Zuckers umfasst. Verfahren gemäss Anspruch 6, worin das Mehl oder der Mehlstoff der gelierendes Polysaccharid enthaltenden Meeresalgen (iii) mit Alkali behandelt ist und/oder Mehl oder Mehlstoff von Meeresalgen umfasst, die unter Eucheuma Spinosum, Eucheuma Cottonii, Chondrus Crispus, Gigartina species und Hypnea species ausgewählt wird. Verfahren gemäss Anspruch 6, worin das gelierfähige Polysaccharid irgendeines von (i) Niedrigesterpectinen, gegebenenfalls in Kombination mit Carrageenan, (ii) wenigstens eines von Iotacarrageenan, Kappacarrageenan, Lambdacarrageenan und Xanthan, und (iii) Mischungen von wenigstens einem von Iotacarrageenan, Kappacarrageenan, Lambdacarrageenan, Xanthan und Niedrigesterpectinen mit Getreidekornmehlen umfasst. Verfahren gemäss irgendeinem der Ansprüche 6 bis 9, worin das mit dem gelierfähigen Polysaccharid gemischte Wasser eine Salzkonzentration von weniger als 2 Gew.% aufweist. Verfahren gemäss irgendeinem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, worin das tixotrope Gel, wenn es strukturviskos ist, eine Viskosität von bis zu 100.000 cps aufweist. Verfahren gemäss irgendeinem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, worin das tixotrope Gel, wenn es strukturviskos ist, eine Viskosität von weniger als 2.000 cps aufweist. Verfahren gemäss irgendeinem der Ansprüche 3 bis 11, worin nach der Bildung des tixotropen Gels zusätzliches Polysaccharid zugegeben wird. Verfahren gemäss irgendeinem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, worin die tixotrope Gelzusammensetzung wenigstens ein Carrageenan in einer Konzentration von 0,1 bis 10 Gew.% umfasst. Verfahren gemäss irgendeinem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, worin weiterhin wenigstens ein Nahrungsmittelzusatz zugegeben wird. Verfahren gemäss irgendeinem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche 6 bis 15, worin das gelierende Polysaccharid gekörnt oder agglomeriert ist. Verfahren gemäss irgendeinem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, worin das tixotrope Gel zu dem Nahrungsmittelprodukt durch Injektion in das Nahrungsmittel zugegeben wird. Verfahren gemäss irgendeinem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, worin das Nahrungsmittelprodukt nach der Behandlung mit der tixotropen Gelzusammensetzung entwässert wird. Behandeltes Nahrungsmittelprodukt, erhältlich durch ein Verfahren gemäss irgendeinem der Ansprüche 1 bis 18.
Anspruch[en]
Process of treating an uncooked food product comprising: i) providing an uncooked food product comprising at least one of meat, seafood and poultry, ii) providing an aqueous thixotropic gel composition comprising a gellable polysaccharide, and iii) adding the aqueous thixotropic gel composition to the uncooked food product in a shear thinned condition. Process of claim 1, wherein the aqueous thixotropic gel composition is shear thinned prior to adding it to the uncooked food product. Process of claim 1 or 2, wherein in step ii) the aqueous thixotropic gel composition is provided by mixing water and a gellable polysaccharide under conditions to dissolve and/or hydrate the polysaccharide, and mixing the resulting composition with at least one gelling cation in an amount effective to form a thixotropic gel. Process of claim 3, wherein the water is at least one selected from tap water, distilled water, demineralized water and de-ionized water. Process of claim 3 or 4, wherein the at least one gelling cation is provided in form of a salt selected from at least one of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium phosphate, potassium phosphate, salts of citric acid, salts of carbonic acid, and salts of tartaric acid. Process of any of claims 1-5, wherein the gellable polysaccharide comprises at least one of (i) carrageenans, optionally in combination with at least one of locust bean gum, cassia gum and konjac gum, (ii) xanthan gum, optionally in combination with seed gums, (iii) treated or untreated meal or flour of gelling polysaccharide-containing seaweeds, (iv) gelling polysaccharide-containing fruit or vegetable powder, (v) gelling pectin, (vi) gellan gum, (vii) alginates, and (viii) gelling starch. Process of claim 6, wherein the gelling polysaccharide-containing fruit or vegetable powder (iv) comprises at least one of citrus peel powder, apple peel powder and the remainder of sugar beet after extraction of sugar. Process of claim 6, wherein the meal or flour of gelling polysaccharide-containing seaweeds (iii) is treated with alkali and/or comprises meal or flour of seaweed selected from Eucheuma Spinosum, Eucheuma Cottonii, Chondrus Crispus, Gigartina species and Hypnea species. Process of claim 6, wherein the gellable polysaccharide comprises any of (i) low ester pectins, optionally in combination with carrageenan, (ii) at least one of iota carrageenan, kappa carrageenan, lambda carrageenan, and xanthan gum, and (iii) mixtures of at least one of iota carrageenan, kappa carrageenan, lambda carrageenan, xanthan gum and low ester pectins with seed gums Process of any of claims 6-9, wherein the water mixed with the gellable polysaccharide has a salt concentration of less than 2 wt.-%. Process of any of the preceding claims, wherein the thixotropic gel, when shear thinned, has a viscosity of up to 100.000 cps. Process of any of the preceding claims, wherein the thixotropic gel, when shear thinned, has a viscosity of less than 2.000 cps. Process of any of claims 3-11, wherein after the formation of the thixotropic gel additional polysaccharide is added. Process of any of the preceding claims, wherein the thixotropic gel composition comprises at least one carrageenan in a concentration of 0.1-10 wt.-%. Process of any of the preceding claims, wherein further at least one food additive is added. Process of any of claims 6-15, wherein the gelling polysaccharide is granuled or agglomerated. Process of any of the preceding claims, wherein the thixotropic gel is added to the food product by injecting it into the food product. Process of any of the preceding claims, wherein the food product is permitted to drain after the treatment with the thixotropic gel composition. Treated food product obtainable by a process according to any of claims 1-18.
Anspruch[fr]
Procédé de traitement d'un produit alimentaire non cuit comprenant : i) la fourniture d'un produit alimentaire non cuit comprenant l'un au moins parmi la viande, les poissons et fruits de mer et la volaille, ii) la fourniture d'une composition de gel thixotrope aqueux comprenant un polysaccharide gélifiable, et iii) l'addition de la composition de gel thixotrope aqueux au produit alimentaire non cuit dans un état fluidifié par cisaillement. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la composition de gel thixotrope aqueux est fluidifiée par cisaillement avant de l'ajouter au produit alimentaire non cuit. Procédé selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel à l'étape ii) la composition de gel thixotrope aqueux est fournie en mélangeant de l'eau et un polysaccharide gélifiable dans des conditions pour dissoudre et/ou hydrater le polysaccharide, et en mélangeant la composition résultante avec au moins un cation gélifiant dans une quantité efficace pour former un gel thixotrope. Procédé selon la revendication 3, dans lequel l'eau est l'une au moins choisie parmi l'eau du robinet, l'eau distillée, l'eau déminéralisée et l'eau désionisée. Procédé selon la revendication 3 ou 4, dans lequel le au moins un cation gélifiant est fourni sous la forme d'un sel choisi à partir de l'un au moins parmi le chlorure de sodium, le chlorure de potassium, le chlorure de calcium, le phosphate de sodium, le phosphate de potassium, les sels d'acide citrique, les sels d'acide carbonique et les sels d'acide tartrique. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, dans lequel le polysaccharide gélifiable comprend l'un au moins parmi (i) les carraghénanes, éventuellement en combinaison avec l'une au moins parmi la gomme de caroube, la gomme de casse et la gomme de konjac, (ii) la gomme xanthane, éventuellement en combinaison avec des gommes de graines, (iii) la farine ou farine brute traitée ou non traitée d'algues contenant un polysaccharide gélifiant, (iv) la poudre de fruit ou de légume contenant un polysaccharide gélifiant, (v) la pectine gélifiante, (vi) la gomme gellane, (vii) les alginates, et (viii) l'amidon gélifiant. Procédé selon la revendication 6, dans lequel la poudre de fruit ou de légume contenant un polysaccharide gélifiant (iv) comprend l'un au moins parmi la poudre de zeste d'agrumes, la poudre de pelure de pomme et le reste de betterave sucrière après extraction du sucre. Procédé selon la revendication 6, dans lequel la farine ou farine brute d'algues contenant un polysaccharide gélifiant (iii) est traitée avec un alcali et/ou comprend une farine ou farine brute d'une algue choisie parmi Eucheuma spinosum, Eucheuma cottonii, Chondrus crispus, Gigartina sp. et Hypnea sp.. Procédé selon la revendication 6, dans lequel le polysaccharide gélifiable comprend l'un quelconque parmi (i) les pectines à faible teneur en ester, éventuellement en combinaison avec un carraghénane, (ii) l'un au moins parmi le carraghénane iota, le carraghénane kappa, le carraghénane lambda et la gomme xanthane, et (iii) les mélanges de l'un au moins parmi le carraghénane iota, le carraghénane kappa, le carraghénane lambda, la gomme xanthane et les pectines à faible teneur en ester avec des gommes de graines. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 6 à 9, dans lequel l'eau mélangée au polysaccharide gélifiable possède une concentration en sel inférieure à 2 % en poids. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le gel thixotrope, une fois fluidifié par cisaillement, possède une viscosité allant jusqu'à 100 000 cps. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le gel thixotrope, une fois fluidifié par cisaillement, possède une viscosité inférieure à 2000 cps. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 3 à 11, dans lequel après la formation du gel thixotrope un polysaccharide supplémentaire est ajouté. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel la composition de gel thixotrope comprend au moins un carraghénane à une concentration de 0,1-10 % en poids. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel au moins un additif alimentaire est en outre ajouté. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 6 à 15, dans lequel le polysaccharide gélifiant est granulé ou aggloméré. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le gel thixotrope est ajouté au produit alimentaire en l'injectant dans le produit alimentaire. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le produit alimentaire est autorisé à s'égoutter après le traitement avec la composition de gel thixotrope. Produit alimentaire traité susceptible d'être obtenu par un procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 18.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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