The present invention relates to the technical sector of
smoking articles and in particular of tobacco smoke filter and relative compositions
to insert in cigarettes, cigars and pipes.
Accumulated evidence by competent medical authorities indicates
that the death rate from disease of the coronary arteries and the death from cancer
are much higher among persons with a history of regular cigarette smoking than among
persons who did not smoke. Smoke free radicals and contaminants are believed to
be the primary agents in cigarette smoke hastening death to coronary artery disease.
Attempts have been made to reduce the amount of smoke contaminants and other ingredients
in tobacco smoke absorbed by the smoker by causing the smoke to pass through filters,
which are either embodied in a filter type cigarette or in a holder for the cigarette,
cigars or pipe tobacco. Such filters remove a certain proportion of smoke contaminants
and tars from the smoke, but the amount remaining and passing into the smoker's
system is still far greater than a safe value and is capable of causing objective
damage to the lung and heart lining and other parts of the body.
Cigarette smoking is one of the greatest public health
problems in the world. Its adverse effect range from mild physical complaints (bad
breath, stained fingers and teeth) to a documented decrease in life span. Smoking
is known to be a contributing and perhaps the major factor in various forms of health
and blood vessel disease, lung cancer, stroke, emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
Nearly 4000 constituents of tobacco smoke have been identified:
many are irritants, toxic gases or carcinogens. These particles are inhaled into
the lungs, where they irritate the respiratory passages and increase the production
of bronchial mucus, possibly initiating cancer.
It is estimated that in the world 1/3 of all cancer deaths
in men are related to smoking. Smoking and smokeless tobacco combine to kill more
adults worldwide than any other preventable cause of death, including war, famine
and terrorist attacks according to the World Watch Institute. Lung cancer cause
more deaths each year than any other type of cancer. The first reports linking lung
cancer to cigarette smoking were published over 40 years ago, so there is no way
to claim ignorance.
Lung cancer is one of the most difficult cancers to be
treated. It is difficult to detect in its early stage, so that it often has a death
grip treatment is begun. Only 13 percent of lung-cancer patients live five years
or more after diagnosis. Some 85 percent of lung cancer in men is due to smoking;
75 percent of lung cancer in women is due to smoking.
Smoking increases the risk not only of lung cancer but
also of cancers of the lip, mouth, throat, larynx, esophagus, bladder, pancreas
and kidney. It may be associated with cancer of the stomach and cervix, although
not indirect contact with tobacco smoke are affected by the substance that the body
adsorbs or metabolizes from tobacco components. The pollutants flow through the
blood stream to pancreas, bladder and kidney. Unfortunately most smokers do not
usually stop smoking until the onset of ill health.
Free radicals are mentioned often in their role causing
cancer, heart disease and aging. Let have a detailed look at free radicals to better
understand how they cause such extensive and seemingly unrelated damage.
As we know a free radical is an incomplete molecule. It
is a fragment of a molecule that is highly reactive, because its electron arrangement
is out of balance. Atoms, molecules and ions are more stable entities because they
have more balanced electron arrangements.
The highly reactive free radicals do more damage than that
of one molecule to one molecule reaction. Each free radical is capable of destroying
an enzyme or protein molecule or destroying an entire cell. However, the damage
is much more extensive than that because each free radical usually generates a chain
of free radical reactions resulting in thousands of free radicals being released
to destroy body components.
This biological magnification occurs for two reasons. The
first and most important is the enormous sensitivity of the cell to modification
in its heredity apparatus such as its DNA. The chromosomes, which control the reproduction
of the cell, are extremely radiation sensitive; the cytoplasm is much less so. Largely,
because of the sensitivity of DNA, radiations that destroy only one molecule in
one million or ten million in the cell can be lethal.
The second cause of biological magnification is that any
polymeric system is sensitive to small chemical changes and many important biomolecules
Free radical reactions leading to cell membrane damage
can cause cancer, heart disease or accelerated aging. There are five basic types
of damage caused by free radicals that accelerate aging.
- 1. Lipid peroxidation, in which free radicals initiate damage to fat compounds
in the body, causing them to turn rancid and release more free radicals.
- 2. Cross-linking, in which free-radical reactions cause protein and/or DNA to
- 3. Membrane damage, in which free radical reactions destroy the integrity of
the cell membrane, which in turn interferes with the cell's ability to bring in
nutrients and expel wastes.
- 4. Lyposome damage, in which free-radical reactions rupture lyosome membranes,
these then still into the cell and digest critical cell compounds.
- 5. Accumulation of the age pigment (lipofuscin), which may interfere with cell
The most damaging agents of free radical reactions including
the peroxide radical (O2), hydroxyl radical (OH), lipid peroxide radical
(L00) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
The body defends itself against these agents with superoxide
dismutase (an enzyme that destroys the superoxide radical), catalase (an enzyme
that produces vitamin E (a general antiradical and glutathione peroxidase an enzyme
that stops lipid peroxidation and converts hydrogen peroxide to water). Each molecule
of glutathione peroxidase contains four atoms of selenium.
Thus selenium is a key component of the body's defense
against accelerated aging.
Many studies have confirmed that glutathione peroxidase
protects cells from mutagenic peroxides formed from DNA and nucleotides. It also
breaks down lipid (fat) peroxides that can contribute to arteriosclerosis. It is
also involved in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and in the maintenance
of the integrity of red blood cells. It protects the membranes of liver-cell mitochondria
(the cell's energy factors) from damage by peroxides. Glutathione peroxidase is
also involved in the prostaglandin metabolism and in the killing of bacteria by
There is evidence that free radical production increases
with age. Superoxide radicals are produced by the mitochondria (energy factories)
of cells. The path of superoxide radicals produced by heart mitochondria was studied
and the quantity of radicals produced was measured at different ages. Eighty percent
of the radicals diffused into the matrix space where they were trapped by superoxide
The remaining 20 percent of the superoxide radicals migrate
across the mitochondria membrane into the cytosol (cell interior) where they react
with various components of the mitochondrial membrane, such as polyunsaturated fatty
Researchers have found that the age-related increase in
the formation of superoxide radicals is accompanied by an increase in the peroxide
content of the mitochondria. Therefore, it is concluded that the free radical chain
reactions appear to exceed the homeostatic protection of the mitochondria in aging
The free radicals, vapor and particles phase of smoke components
of medical importance may be separated as follows:
The presence of a dangerous number of free radicals can alter the way in which the
cells code genetic material. Changes in protein structure can occur as a result
of errors in protein synthesis. The body" immune system may then sere this altered
protein as a foreign substance and try to destroy it. The formation of mutated proteins
can eventually damage the immune system and lead to leukemia and other types of
cancer, as well as a host of other diseases.
- 1. Carcinogens and co-carcinogens are present in the tar. Carcinogens (principally
polycyclic aromatic alcohols) initiate cancer formation. Co-carcinogens (including
phenols, fatty acids and free fatty acids accelerate the production of cancer by
other initiators. Many co-carcinogens are also irritants.
- 2. Irritants cause immediate coughing and broncho-constriction after smoke inhalation,
inhibit cilial action in the bronchial epithelium, stimulate mucous secretion suppress
protease inhibition and impair alveolar macrophage function.
- 3. Nicotine principally affects the nervous system and is probably responsible
for a smoker's pharmacological dependence on cigarettes. Nicotine indirectly affects
circulation by provoking catecholamine release which causes tachycardia, increased
cardiac output, vasoconstriction and increased TB. Nicotine also increased serum
free fatty acids and platelet adhesiveness and inhibits pancreatic bicarbonate secretion.
- 4. Toxic gases in cigarette smoke include CO, hydrogen sulfide, hydrocyanic
acid, and oxides of nitrogen. The average carboxy-hemoglobin level in people smoking
one pack/day is about 5% compared to <1% in nonsmokers. This reduced the amount
of Hb available of transport and shifts to the left the Hb-dissociation curve, impairing
realize to the tissues.
- 5. According to a number of literature data, the toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic
and teratogenic effects of free radicals in the human organism are considered to
have been proven. A free radical is in an atom or group of atoms that contains at
least one unpaired electron. Electrons are negatively charged particles that usually
occur in pairs, forming a chemically stable arrangement. If an electron is unpaired,
another atom or molecule can easily bond with it, causing a chemical reaction. Because
they join so readily with other compounds, free radicals can effect dramatic changes
in the body, and they can cause a lot of damage. Each free radical may exist for
a tiny fraction of a second, but the damage it leaves behind can be irreversible.
Damage Caused by Free Radicals
Lung damage Degradation of human synovial fluid
Single and double
Dna strand breaks Peroxidation of cell membranes
Irreversible respiratory damage
Initiate lipid peroxidation
RNA, DNA damage, chemical
carcinogenesis Lipid peroxidation
Inhibits fatty acid
The diseases related to smoking are the following:
- 1. Lung cancer. Squamous cell and small (oat) cell lung carcinoma are associated,
with smoking. Epidemiologic studies have shown that men who smoke more than one
pack/day are about 20 times more at risk of developing lung cancer than are nonsmokers.
Laboratory experiments show that condensed tobacco smoke can produce skin cancer
in animals and when animals cigarette smoke may develop cancer of the larynx or
- 2. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema deaths are also about 20 times more frequent
in people who smoke heavily. Both diseases can be produced in animals exposed to
cigarette smoke. Pulmonary function tests often show airflow obstruction in the
small airways even before chronic expectation develops. The adverse effect of smoking
on mucous ciliary clearance and on the normal balance between lung and protease
and their inhibitors predisposes smokers to broncho-pulmonary infections and emphysema.
- 3. Cardiovascular diseases: Cigarette smoking accelerates arteriosclerosis and
may double the risk of myocardial infarction. Smoking may precipitate in anginal
attack or ischemic ECG changes in patients with coronary artery disease. The risk
of developing disease, peripheral vascular disease, or nonsyphylitic aortic aneurysm
is also increased in smokers.
- 4. Pregnancy: The mean birth weight of infants born to mothers who smoke during
pregnancy is 6 oz. Less than of infants to nonsmoking mothers. The incidence of
spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and neonatal death may also be increased in pregnant
women who smoke.
- 5. Extra-pulmonary cancers associated with cigarette smoking include cancer
of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, bladder and pancreas.
- 6. Peptic (especially gastric) ulceration occurs more frequently and has a higher
mortality rate in cigarette smokers than in non-smokers. In addition, the effectiveness
of medical treatment for peptic ulceration is reduced and the rate of ulcer healing
- 7. Other conditions: Pulmonary TB is more in smokers, perhaps due to activation
of old tuberculosis foci. Tobacco amblyopia may be caused by optic nerve damage
due to the toxic action of cyanides in cigarette smoke in smokers with vitamins
By the U.S. Surgeon General it has estimated that in the
U.S. alone about 500,000 deaths are caused each year by diseases related to tobacco
smoking. In fact, excessive smoking is now recognized as one of the major health
problem throughout the world.
Epidemiologists are getting better at keeping records of
all this carcinogenic carnage. The body's respiratory system, for example has a
well-defined local defense system. First, there are two ciliated cells with tiny
hairs that line the respiratory system, the cilia prevent accumulation, if inhaled
matter in the lungs by transporting the particles away from the lungs. If deciliated
cells are rendered ineffective by smoke or other irritants, cells called macrophages
take up their work by engulfing and digesting hazardous substances such as bacteria.
Experiments have been able to demonstrate clearly a decreased
of the cilia action due to cigarette smoking. However, it has been determined that
the smokers have more macrophages in their lungs than nonsmokers, which may indicate
the irritation of the cilia, perhaps in response to the free radicals and to the
toxic ingredients of cigarette smoke.
Studies of systemic immunological responses have been shown
that cigarette smoking may decrease the body's production of antibodies, thus increasing
its susceptibility to infection. It is true that the incidence of flu-like illness
is greater among smokers of more than half a pack a day than among nonsmokers. In
addition, pregnant women who smoke have more urinary tract infections than those
who do not smoke.
A long drag on a cigarette is followed by a deep inhaling
that pulls the smoke down into the air passage of the lung. Black, sticky tar, with
its carcinogenic chemical constituents, is deposited on the membranes of the whole
Free radicals, chemicals and gases irritate the mucous
membranes and damage the cilia that catch foreign matter in the passages. After
years of being exposed to smoke the cilia are destroyed and the entire lung is partially
or completely blackened depending on how much and how long one has smoked.
Sooner or later, the cells lining the air passages may
begin to transform because of continuous exposure to free radicals and chemical
carcinogens. These cells than become irregular, clump together and over a period
of years may form a growing tumor. In later stages, cancer breaks away from the
lung and travels through the lymphomatic system to the organs. Metastasic tumor
develop and the cancer is then usually beyond treatment.
The combustion of tobacco leaves at about 1000 C. Leads
to the formation of a high concentration of free radicals and a large variety of
inorganic or organic gases, liquids, and solids. Ignoring side-stream smoke, i.e.,
that which does not pass through the cigarette, the hot mixture passes through the
unburned tobacco undergoing filtration, dilution with residual gases and fresh air,
and enrichment with additional vaporized materials. Looking at the existing smoke
on finds that both the particle size and number concentration depends on the unburned
butt length, the longer the butt, the fewer and larger the particles. This effect
is apparently primarily due to the action of filtration and preferential removal
of smaller particles. Fresh undiluted smoke may contain several billion of free
radicals and particles per cubic centimeter of air, with droplets predominant in
the 0.1 to 1.0 um diameter range and solids predominant below that size. The gaseous
components in fresh smoke are to numerous to list individually. Much progress has
been made in the past 30 years in the ability of scientists to identify chemicals
which cause cancer.
Cigarette smoke contains well over four thousand chemicals
along with a number of unknown products and additives that are not regulated by
agencies outside the tobacco industry (nor obviously by anyone within it). They
may include pesticides (used to protect the tobacco plants from bugs), some of which
have not been tested for safety.
Many of these chemicals are produced in tiny concentrations,
and they may only exist in an active form for seconds before the body detoxifies
them. This makes them virtually impossible to study. Despite their small amounts
and transient presence, smoking is an efficient and rapid way to inject these chemicals
into the lungs and the bloodstream, representing a significant risk to health in
general and to lung cancer specifically.
In turning toward chemicals produced by burning tobacco,
one probable culprit definitely worth discussion is carbon monoxide, the same poison
found in abundance in automobile exhaust. It reacts with a molecule called hemoglobin
and hinders red cells' ability to carry oxygen to the heart, brain and other vital
organs. The heart is called upon the deliver more blood quickly to make up for this
oxygen deficit, even as its own needs are unmet . Even more serious is the fact
that insufficient oxygen soon causes cells to die. Evidence of this phenomenon is
all too common in autopsies of heart attack victims.
Cigarette smoking contains 2 percent to 6 percent carbon
monoxide. Everyone living in the industrialized world loose some hemoglobin to carbon
monoxide found in the air. However, while the average loss in nonsmokers is 1 percent,
smokers lose up 15 percent. This means that smokers run a much higher risk that
vital organs will not receive an adequate oxygen supply, which contributes to higher
rates of heart attacks and strokes.
When tobacco is smoked, tar results, which enter into lungs,
irritate the delicate cells as dangerous as a chimney soot. From a pack of cigarette
a day smokers absorb eight hundred and forty cubic centimeters of tobacco tar in
a year. We have known about the tar problem for a long time. Back in 1953, Dr. Ernst
Wynders and his colleagues at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in Manhattan
showed a direct cause and effect relationship between the tar of cigarette smoke
and malignant tumor. The backs of mice were painted with the tar extract of tobacco
smoke, and 44 percent of the animals developed malignant skin cancer.
The irritant factor is mostly "Benzo(a)pyrene", from the
tar, and when applied to ear, mouth, lungs, stomach and other organs of the animal
in labor, cancer develops rapidly. Cigarette smoke involves both " a toxic gas phase",
and a "particulate" phase. Most carcinogens come from particles in tar, though a
few come from gases. Tar containing agents that both initiate and promote cancerous
changes, and co-carcinogens that, together with other with other agents form cancer-producing
chemicals. There are nitrosamines, polycyclic, aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such
as benzo(a)pyrene, and various metals (including arsenic) which cause or promote
tumor growth, and it united with the hemoglobin in your blood cells and drastically
reduces their capacity to carry life-giving oxygen to your cells and tissues, this
As this cornucopia of carcinogens was not enough, cigarette
smoke also contains other poisonous chemicals and gases, including carbolic acid,
collidine, furfuralphil, appilocarpin, formaldehyde, aldehydes, formic acid, the
gases include hydrogen, cyanide, nitrogen oxide, and a hefty amount of carbon monoxide.
A number of these substances have been linked in animal and human experiments to
lung and other cancers, heart and circulatory diseases, bronchitis and emphysema
and powerful toxin which attack brain and nerve tissues.
When smoking, tobacco combustion develops with an inordinately
large number of free radicals, these poisons are inhaled into the lungs where are
absorbed by the millions of tiny vessels lining the lungs. They are transformed
by the bloodstream, which carries them to every cell and tissue in your body, even
if you do not inhaled. Pipes and cigars smokers may also be affected by malignant
tissue on the tongue or lips.
Sooner or later smokers develop a cough, the first symptoms
of the lung cancer. Many pay no attention. The heartbeat and pulse as well as the
blood pressure, increase smokers with normal blood pressure of one hundred and fifty,
smoking might push it up to two hundred and seven. Heading the list of results are
these: brain strokes, along with heart attacks and coronary thromboses. There is
scarcely a single bodily function which is not impaired by smoking. Other results
included: acid indigestion, flatulence, nausea, belching, ulcers, allergies, asthma
Consequently the consensus of everyone from the Surgeon
General and National Academy of Science to the American Cancer is that there is
NO SAFE cigarette.
Cigarette smoking is known to alter components of the body's
immune system. When the body is invaded by a substance that is recognized as "Foreign"
the body's immune system reacts by creating antibody to attack the following substances.
This response may occur locally (at a specific organ site) or systematically (throughout
Attempts to remove the free radicals and the carcinogenic
materials found in the smoke tobacco, have not been successful enough to bring a
safer smoking articles to the public market, since no adequate filtering means has
not yet been invented, which can effectively remove free radicals and the carcinogenic
substances without simultaneously removing most part of the desirable aroma and
taste of the smoking articles.
Antioxidants are indispensable organic compounds which
take part in various biochemical processes. Antioxidant substances have proven to
remove free radical and therefore be able to prevent chemical and spontaneous carcinogens
in the epithelial tissue of the bronchi, trachea, stomach, skin, uterus and prostate
in men and in animals, both in vitro and in vivo. Various mechanisms have been suggested
to explain these anti-carcinogen effects and epidemiologic studies are currently
testing the relationship between antioxidants and cancer in cancer patients and
Ever since it has been universally recognized that the
smoke combustion of tobacco produces carcinogens that cannot be satisfactory filtered
out without destroying the pleasure of smoking, there has been a need as cancer
prevention for a safe cigarette filter containing antioxidants and other filtering
substances, which insure the removal of free radicals and other carcinogenic substances,
at a controlled rate and continuously during the entire process, preventing smoke
related diseases into the respiratory tract of the smoke.
WO-A-0000048 describes tobacco filter containing ascorbic
acid, citric acid or green tea as antioxidant (free radical scavenger) and charcoal
or silicate as absorber. The different filtering materials are in different compartments
which are separated from each other (cellulose acetate). The filter can be a separate
filter added to cigarette holders or alike.
US-A-4753250 describes tobacco filter containing ascorbic
acid (10-100 mg) as free radical scavenger, charcoal (25 mg) as absorber (mix) and
CuSO4xH2O as catalyst.
US-A-5060672 describes a tobacco filter containing glutathione,
citric acid, ascorbic acid, selenocysteine (radical scavenger) and activated charcoal
or filter perlite with CuSO4X5H2O (catalysator) to prevent damage caused by free
radicals and other contaminants.
US-A-4258730 describes a magnetised active carbon (8-50
mesh) with ferrite used in cigarette filters to prevent damage caused by free radicals
and other contaminants.
Therefore, the object of this invention is to remove free
radicals and other carcinogenic ingredients to make safer to people to smoke not
as safe as not smoking, but considerably safer than it is now.
Let's consider why people continue to smoke. They don't
quit because smoking gives them certain benefits. Many campaigners for the elimination
of cigarette smoking have not realized that people would lose these benefits, as
well as the health risks. Tobacco has significant effects on behavior and psychological
state. Recent research has shown that cigarette smokers (and other who use tobacco)
find that tobacco use makes it easier to cope with over-stimulation like city noise
and overcrowding. That's because the nicotine in cigarette smoke is a stimulation
barrier, a substance that makes it easier for a person to function in an over-stimulating
Although tobacco smoke filters have come into widespread
use, especially for cigarettes, these currently available filters do not remove
an adequate amount of the noxious substances, such as tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide,
nitrous oxides, hydrogen cyanide and the like which typically lead to cancer, hearth
disease or emphysema, Several types of tobacco smoke filters as well as tobacco
substitutes have been developed in an attempt to reduce the health hazards of tobacco
smoke and at the same time allow the smoker to enjoy the pleasure of smoking tobacco.
However, none of the current filters, or tobacco substitutes has proven to be effective
in adequately large amounts of tar, and nicotine and noxious gases to reduce the
heath hazards of tobacco smoke.
The commonly utilized cigarette filter available on the
market removes from tobacco smoke only a fraction of the carcinogenic constituents
present within, allowing most of the droplets passing through it.
It can be stated from the literature that a high number
of processes are worldwide known which suggest methods for the filtration of the
tobacco smoke. It can also be stated from the literature that a high number of processes
are worldwide known which suggest methods for the filtration of the tobacco smoke.
It can also be stated that, in spite of the very high number of data concerning
this subject, no conscious, conceptional method exists for the contaminants released
in the burning and being present in the tobacco smoke which, as it is commonly known,
arises from a high-temperature burning.
Nowadays, innumerable processes used for filtering tobacco
smoke are known. A great number of publications have been devoted to the additives
of the smoke filters. These additives in the smoke filter are aimed to absorb and/or
absorb a certain ratio of the harmful components of cigarette smoke according to
the eventual physical and/or physico-chemical relationships coming about between
the constituents of the smoke filter and the components being present in the tobacco
A plethora of patented processes are particularly found
under the collective noun of "substances binding and filtering out carcinogenic
Through my scientific research, we now know why people
smoke, what real psychological and behavioral benefits smoking provides, what the
major molecular mechanisms are which make smoking hazardous, and finally, how to
reduce the hazards of smoking without reducing those benefits of smoking pleasure.
Disclosure of the invention
This invention is described in claim 1.
The aim of the present invention is to develop a dual stage
filter composition for tobacco smoke, mainly for cigarette smoke, which is capable
to bind completely or nearly completely not only free radicals, but also the tar
and other boiling health damaging materials arising from the burning of tobacco.
The object of the present invention is achieved by compounding
inert, stable and non toxic micro-powdered minerals and antioxidants, which set
the stage for conducting the contemplated desired reactions such as: trapping, diffusion,
interception, impaction, chelation, coupling, catalyzing the very dangerous and
poisonous gas, particles and the free radicals from tobacco smoke during the process
In accordance with the present invention the compound disclosed
herein is effective in reducing considerably the amount of free radicals, and many
other harmful smoke constituents, which are not limited to: acetaldehyde, acetone,
acrolein, acrylonitrile, ammonia, 4-amino-biphenyl, benzene, 1-3 butadiene, butyraldehyde,
cadmium, carbon monoxide, catechol, crotonaldehyde, formaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide,
hydrogen selenide, lead, m,p and o-cresol, mercury, methyl ethyl ketone, nickel,
n-nitrosamines, nitric oxide, p-hydroquinone, phenol, propionaldehyde, quinoline,
styrene, tar, toluene, etc.
One further purpose of the invention is to provide a dual
device filter applicable to cigarettes, cigars, pipes or their filters and/or holders
which permit to effect local filtering of carcinogenic substances according to the
system outlined above.
One object of this invention is to provide a novel tobacco
filter to be inserted in a pipe, cigar, cigarette or any other tobacco smoking article
loaded with antioxidants and filtering substances which aims it is to neutralize
free radicals and the carcinogenic effect of the harmful ingredients in tobacco
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to
provide filter to be used by persons smoking tobacco, which is capable of reducing
the amount of contaminants in the smoking passing to the person's mouth to a safe
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved
filter to be used in connection with smoking cigarettes, cigars, the like which
is capable of removing a larger quantity of tars and other potentially harmful substances
from the smoke, rendering the smoke entering the person's mouth relatively harmless
to the person's system.
A further object of the invention is to provide an improved
filter to be used smoking tobacco, which not is capable of effectively removing
harmful ingredients from the smoke, but also to cool the smoke considerably.
The primary object of this invention has been to improve
the filtering of tobacco smoke, particularly by synergistically combining absorption
with the magneto-chemical treatment of the noxious components of the smoke, and
control diffusion of free radicals and exerts a free radical scavenging effect.
Reduced to its essential structure and with reference to
the figures of the enclosed drawings, a tobacco smoke filter effective in removing
harmful ingredients from cigarette smoke, comprises:
- means to remove from tobacco smoke free radicals and other harmful ingredients,
and to bring the amount of such ingredients passed by the filter down well within
a tolerable limit, without significantly removing moisture from the smoke and without
impairing the enjoyment of smoking, by a filter composition comprising a mixture
of antioxidants and minerals divided in two stages.
- means to remove free radicals, by a first chamber (3) of the filter, inside
which the smoke initially pass through, which is constituted by non absorbent antioxidants;
- means to reduce the carcinogenic substances contained in the tobacco smoke,
and possible residues of antioxidants, by a second chamber (2) constituted by minerals.
This invention relates to a new tobacco filter material
useful for the removal of noxious and irritative material from tobacco smoke. More
particularly, the instant invention is concerned with an improved tobacco smoke
filter material comprising stable and non toxic antioxidants and mineral compositions
divided in two groups.
The first group includes antioxidants such as: Ascorbic
Acid, Butylparaben, Citric Acid, Glutathione, Melatonin, Resveratrol, Selenium,
Ubiquinones and Green tea.
The second group consists of minerals : Activated Carbon
and, Clinoptilolite and, Cuprous Chloride and Ferrite.
All for use in such filter for the removal of noxious contaminants
and free radicals from tobacco smoke.
The embodiments of the tobacco dual smoke filter of the
present invention concern of a cylindrical tobacco smoke filter (1) assembly consisting
of a tube with two chamber (2, 3) separated from each other by a partition (4) of
cellulose acetate made from a fibrous material selected from the group consisting
of paper, cellulose acetate, viscose base and other types of plastics and/or metal,
said tube may be embodied in a filter type cigarette (Figs. 5 and 6) or in a holder
for the cigarette (Figs. 1 and 4), cigars, or pipe tobacco (Fig. 7), which such
porosity to permit the passage of smoke through, said tube containing in the first
chamber (3) loosely packet filter material consisting essentially of Antioxidants
effective in the removal of free radical developed during the smoking combustion
and in the second chamber (2) separated from the first one, with a cellulose acetate
filtering material, consisting of non-toxic absorbent minerals designed to remove
from tobacco smoke most of the noxious particles and gases of the tobacco smoke.
During smoking the combination of the high temperature
and created suction force, the nicotine, tar and all impurities such as chemical
particles, melt having the consistency of a thick liquid. As the liquefied noxious
contaminants and gases including free radicals come into contact with the filter,
most of them are absorbed.
The scope to have antioxidants in a separate chamber is
due to the fact if for some unknown chamber is due to the fact if for some unknown
reason, the high temperature of the tobacco smoke will melt even a small fraction
of the antioxidants the same will be removed completely by the mineral compound
positioned in the second chamber.
The dual filter object of this invention can absorb up
to 90% of such free radicals and contaminants before the smoke is inhaled, thus
producing a cleaner smoke with a very limited health detriment to the smoker.
The synergist composition of the antioxidants and minerals
object of the present invention calculated for each filter (in one cigarette, one
cigar or a pipe) should be an amount approximately between 50 to 100 mg., then the
homogenized mixture of the composition as radical scavenger and minerals as adsorbed
to remove noxious particles and gases from tobacco smoke are placed between the
filter separated by each other.
Hereby is the list of the Antioxidants and Minerals object
of the present invention but such list should not be limited to the following:
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
The story of vitamin C begins centuries before the discovery
of the vitamin, with accounts of a disease call scurvy.
Scurvy an ailment characterized by muscle weakness, lethargy
and bleeding under the skin has been rampant around the world throughout the centuries.
Documents written before the birth of Christ describe the disease. Almost as old
as the reports of the disease are the reports of successful ways of treating it.
The discovery of the cure for scurvy marked the end of one chapter in the story
of vitamin C.
Vitamin C is often added to foods as a preservative because
it interferes with oxidation. It is added to some cured meats because it inhibits
the formation of nitrosamines.
Vitamin C is a very powerful antioxidant that also protects
other antioxidants, such as vitamin E. The cells of the brain and spinal cord, which
frequently incur free radical damage, can be protected by significant amount of
vitamin C. Vitamin C acts as a more potent free radical scavenger in the presence
of a bioflavonoid called hesperidin.
In addition to its role as an antioxidant, vitamin C detoxifies
many harmful substances and plays a key role in immunity. It increases the synthesis
of interferon, a natural antiviral substance produced by the body, and stimulates
the activity of certain key immune cells.
Butylparaben is prepared by esterification of p-hydroxybenzoic
acid with butanol, small, colorless crystals or white powder. Very slightly soluble
in water; freely soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform. An antiseptic and preservative,
with actions and uses similar to those of methylparaben, with which it is sometimes
used in combination. It appears to be the best antifungal agent among the parabens.
It is used in antiseptic creams and ointments, and in many pharmaceutical products
Butylparaben is an Antioxidant substance capable of inhibiting
oxidation and that may be added for this purpose to pharmaceutical products subject
to deterioration by oxidative processes as, for example, the development of rancidity
in oils and fats or the inactivation of some medicinals in the environment of their
dosage forms. As preservative is, in the common pharmaceutical sense, a substance
that prevents or inhibits microbial growth and may be added to pharmaceutical preparations
for this purpose to avoid consequent spoilage of the preparations by microorganisms.
It's found in many plants. It formerly was obtained solely
from the juice of limes and lemons and from pineapple wastes. Since about 1925 the
acid has been produced largely by fermentation of sucrose solution, including molasses,
by fungi belonging to the Apergillus niger group, theoretically according to the
(Sucrose) + 302 (Oxygen) > 2H3C6H5O7
(Citric Acid) + 3H2O (Water)
But in practice there are deviations from this stoichiometric
Colorless, translucent crystals, or a white, granular to
fine crystalline powder; odorless; strongly acid taste; the hydrous form effloresces
in moderate dry air, but is slightly deliquescent in moist air; are subject to molding
(fermentation), oxalic acid being one of the fermentation products.
In the preparation of Anticoagulant Citrate Dextrose Solution,
Anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Solution, Citric Acid Syrup and effervescent
salts. It also has been used to dissolve urinary bladder calculi, and as a mild
Citric Acid is used as acidulant in beverages, confectionery,
effervescent salts, in pharmaceutical syrup, elixirs, in effervescent powders and
tablets, to adjust the pH of foods and as synergestic antioxidant, in processing
cheese. Used in beverage, jellies, jams, preserves and candy to provide tartness.
In the manufacturing resins, in esterified form as plasticizer, foam inhibitor.
In the manufacturer of citric acid salts. As sequestering agent to remove trace
metals. As mordant to brighten colors; in determining citrate-soluble P2O5;
as reagent for albumin, mucin, glucose, bile pigments.
Glutathione is a protein that is produced in the liver
from the amino acids cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine. It is a powerful antioxidant
that inhibits the formation of, and protects against cellular damage from, free
radicals. It helps to defend the against damage from cigarette smoking exposure
to radiation, cancer chemotherapy, and toxins such as alcohol. As a detoxifier of
heavy metals and drugs, it aids in the treatment of blood and liver disorders.
Glutathione protects cells in several ways. It neutralizes
oxygen molecules before they can harm cells. Together with selenium, it forms the
enzyme glutathione peroxides, which neutralize hydrogen peroxides. It is also a
component of another antioxidant enzyme, glutathione-s-transferase, which is a broad-spectrum
Glutathione protects not only individual cells but also
the tissues of the arteries, brain, heart, immune cells, kidneys, lenses of the
eyes, liver, lungs, and skin against oxidant damage. It plays a role in preventing
cancer, especially liver cancer, and may also have an anti-aging effect. Glutathione
can be taken in supplement form. The production of glutathione by the body can be
boosted by taking supplemental N-acetylcysteine or L-cysteine plus L-methionine.
Studies suggest that this may be a better way or rising glutathione levels than
taking glutathione itself.
Glutathione is necessary for white blood cell function
and is used by the liver to help detoxify drugs. Optimal levels of gluthatione are
needed for the immune defenses of the lungs: deficiencies may increase the risk
of lung infections.
Among the newest antioxidants to be discovered, the hormone
melatonin may also be the most efficient free radical scavenger that has thus far
been identified. While most antioxidants work only in certain parts of certain cells,
melatonin can permeate any cell in any part of the body. In animal experiments,
it has been shown to protect tissues from an amazing array of assaults. Within the
cell, melatonin provides special protection for the nucleus the central structure
that contains the DNA. Thus, it protects the structure that enables a damaged cell
to repair itself. Melatonin also stimulates the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, another
The hormone melatonin is naturally produced by the pineal
gland, a cone-shaped structure in the brain. Throughout early life, melatonin is
produced in abundance. Shortly before puberty, though, the production of melatonin
begins to drop, and then continues to decline steadily as we age.
Research has demonstrated that melatonin may have several
profound long-term effects on the body. As one of the most powerful antioxidants
ever discovered with a greater range of effectiveness than vitamin C, vitamin E,
or beta-carotene, melatonin helps prevent harmful oxidation reactions from occurring.
In this way, melatonin may prevent the change that lead to hypertension and heart
attack, and may reduce the risk of certain kinds of cancer. Indeed, research has
indicated that many age-related problems are caused by declining levels of melatonin,
which leave the body less able to prevent and repair oxidative damage. Melatonin
also has been found to stimulate the immune system; have a major role in the production
of estrogen, testosterone, and possibly other hormones, helping to prevent cancers
involving the reproductive system; and slow the growth of existing malignancies.
Recent studies suggest that if melatonin is taken in the
mornings, tumor growth may be stimulated, but if it is taken in the evenings, it
has a retarding effect on tumor growth. In addition, as melatonin is secreted clinically,
in response to the fall of darkness at the end of each day, the hormone helps our
body keep in sync with the rhythms of day and night. Thus, melatonin helps regulate
Research on melatonin continues, and with it, knowledge
is increasing about the functions of melatonin in the body and the effects of melatoni
supplementation. Both human research studies and anecdotal evidence indicate that
melatonin supplements can be an effective and side-effect-free sleep aid both for
adults suffering from insomnia and for children with autism, epilepsy, Down syndrome,
cerebral palsy, and other problems that can cause sleep disorders. Animal and other
laboratory research indicates that melatonin supplementation may help prevent age-related
disorders, and perhaps extend life. Melatonin can be taken to ease PMS symptoms;
stimulate the immune system; prevent memory loss, arteriosclerosis, and stroke;
and treat cancer and Alzheimer's disease.
In Europe, Resveratrol as antioxidant was isolated from
grapewines in 1976 and extensively studies for its antifungal activity and its potential
use as a marker for selection of disease resistant grape cultivars.
Instead in China and in Japan, Resveratrol has been extensively
studied not for its role in the plant's defense against diseases, but as active
ingredient of several traditional medicines used for centuries.
In Japan, Resveratrol isolated from the root of the herb
Polygonum Cuspidatum (Polygonaceae) was found to inhibit fat deposition in the liver
and improved serum chemistry in hyperlipenic rats. In addition Resveratrol demonstrated
as variety of pharmaceutical effects in mammalian in vitro and in vivo studies.
Resveratrol is a phytoalexin, in grape is readily transferred
to red wine by fermentation alcohol extraction. Clinical studies showing results
on heart effects of wine consumption suggesting that Resveratrol play an important
role in human health.
Selenium was named for the goddess of the moon, Selene;
but for nutrition it has been a shining star of the last decade. Nor since the recognition
of the mineral cobalt as part of vitamin B-12 in the mid 1950s has a mineral been
recognized as having a precisely definable function in human or animal nutrition
has happened with selenium. In 1973, Dr. J.T. Rotruck (then at the University of
Wisconsin) and his associates identified selenium as a necessary component of an
enzyme, glutathione peroxidase.
As a component of glutathione peroxidase, and perhaps with
other functions, selenium is believed by many people to protect cell membranes,
prevent cardiovascular diseases, reduce the incidence of cancer, suppress arthritis,
reduce aging and contribute generally to better health. It is probable that the
formal recognition of selenium as a nutrient by the Food and Nutrition Board of
the National Research Council (1980), their issuance of dietary guidelines for selenium,
recognition of Keshan Disease in the Peoples Republic of China as a selenium deficiency
disease, deficiencies of selenium in the diets of the Scandinavian countries and
elsewhere may soon result in a significant portion of the world's population receiving
selenium supplements. Animals already do.
A partner and synergist with vitamin E, selenium is also
an essential component of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (each molecule
of this enzyme contains four atoms of selenium). This enzyme targets harmful hydrogen
peroxide in the body and converts it into water. It is a particularly important
guardian of the blood cells and of the heart, liver and lungs. Selenium also stimulates
increased antibody response to infection.
I will attempt to explain and confirm important facts about
- Selenium's relationship to human health is an established fact.
- The recommended daily intake of selenium is 50 to 2000 micrograms.
- Several high regarded scientists have state that millions of Americans receive
less than optimum amounts of selenium in their diets
- Many people live in areas with low soil selenium availability.
- Selenium can help prevent many forms of cancer.
- Selenium can help protect against heart disease.
- Selenium strengthens your immune system.
- Selenium may improve your energy level.
- Selenium helps prevent or relieve arthritis.
- Selenium can slow down evidence of aging and help make you look younger.
- Selenium detoxifies several heavy metal pollutants including cadmium, mercury
and probably lead.
- Selenium may prevent the onset of cataracts.
- Selenium may affect fertility, sex drive and human reproduction.
A group of lipid-soluble benzoquinones involved in electron
transport in mitochondrial preparations, i.e. in the oxidation of succinate or reduced
nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NADH) via the cytochrome system. It occurs in the
majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals. Ubiquinone
structures, analogous to the vitamin K2, are based on the 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methylbenzoquinone
nucleus with a variable terpenoid side chain counting one to twelve mono-unsaturated
trans-isoprenoid units with 10 units being the most common in animals. According
to the existing dual system of nomenclature the compounds can be described as: coenzyme
Qn in which n = 1-12, or ubiquinone(x) in which
x designates the total number of carbon atoms in the side chain and can be
any multiple of 5. Differences in properties are due to the difference in length
of the side chain. Naturally occurring members are the coenzymes Q6-Q10.
A powdered, granular or pelleted form of amorphous carbon
characterized by very large surface area per unit volume because of an enormous
number of fine pores. Activated carbon is capable of collecting gases, liquids,
or dissolved substances on the surface of its pores.
Adsorption on activated carbon is selective, favoring non-polar
over polar substances. Compared with other commercial absorbents, activated carbon
has a broad spectrum of adsorptive activity, excellent physical and chemical stability,
and ease of the production from readily available, frequently waste materials.
Almost any carbonaceous raw material can be used for the
manufacture of activated carbon. Wood, peat, and lignite are commonly for the decolorizing
materials. Nut shells (particularly coconut), coal, petroleum coke, and other residues
in either granular, briqueted, or pelleted form are used for adsorbent products.
Activation is the process of treating the carbon to open
an enormous number of pores in the 1.2 - to 20-nanometer-diameter range (gas-adsorbent
carbon) or up to 100-nm-diameter range (decolorozing carbons). After activation,
the carbon has the large surface area (500-1500 m2/g) responsible for the adsorption
phenomena. Carbons that have not been subjected previously to high temperatures
are easiest to activate. Selective oxidation of the base carbon with steam, carbon
dioxide, fuel gas, or air is one method of developing the pore structure.
Activated carbon is a fine, black, odorless and tasteless
powder, free from gritty matter with a powerful adsorption capacity to trap, chelate,
catalyze, gases and particulate matter.
Clinoptilolite, a natural occurring volcanic zeolite mineral
with unique characteristics. Its chemical structure can be classified as hydrated,
aluminosilicate, comprises of SiO2, AL2O3, CaO,
MgO, TiO2, Na2O, K2O, Fe2O3,
MnO, arranged in interconnecting lattice structure. The arrangement of these elements
in a zeolite crystal gives rise to a honeycomb framework with consistent diameter
connecting channels that vary in size from 22.5 to 5.0 angstroms.
This unique structure makes Clinoptililite different from
other Aluminum Silicates (zeolite, kaolin, bentonite, etc.) due to its extraordinary
gas adsorption properties.
The ability of Clinoptilolite to adsorb or catalytically
remove many gases on a selective basis is in part determined by the size of the
channels. Such specific channel size enables Clinoptilolite to act as molecular
gas sieves and selectively adsorb and remove gases from composite gaseous mixtures
such ass the ones contained in tobacco smoke. Is seemingly endless.
The following list depicts just few of those gases on which
Clinoptililite are currently known to have an effect on their elimination or containment:
- Co, Co2, SO2, H2S, NH3, HCHO, Ar,
O2, N2, H2O, He, H2,
- Kr, Xe, CH3OH, Freon, Formaldehyde, etc.
Culprous chloride occurs in nature as mineral mantokite
is colorless to gray, and come up as white crystal powder or cubic crystals (zinc-blend
structure); stable to air and light, but in presence of moisture turns green on
exposure to air and blue to brown on exposure to light.
Sparingly soluble in water with partial decomposition,
practically insoluble in alcohol, acetone, hydrochloric acid and other formation
As catalyst for organic reactions; catalyst decolorizer
and desulfuring agent in petrol industry; in denitration of cellulose; as condensing
agent for soaps, fats and oils; in gas analysis to absorb carbon monoxide.
Any of the class of magnetic oxides. Typically the ferrites
have a crystal structure which has more than one type of site for the cations. Usually
the magnetic moments of the metal ions on sites of one type are parallel to each
other, and antiparallel to the moments on at least one site of another type. Thus
ferrites exhibit ferromagnetism.
There are three important classes of commercial ferrites:
- One class has the spinel structure, with the general formula M2 +
3++O4 , where M2+ is a divalent metal ion. So-called
linear ferrites used in inductors and transformers are made of Mn and Zn (for frequencies
up to 1 <mhz) and Ni and Zn (for frequencies greater that 1 MHz)and Ni and Zn
(for frequencies greater that 1 MHz). MgMn ferrites are used in microwave devices
such as isolators and circulators.
- The second class of commercially important ferrites have the garnet structure
with the formula M3
3 + Fe3
5+ O12, where M3+ is a rare-earth or yttrium ion.
- The third class of ferrites has a hexagonal structure, of the M2+Fe3
12+ O19 magneto-plumbite type, where M2 is usually
Ba, Sr, or Pb. Because of their large magneto-crystalline anisotropy, the hexagonal
ferrites develop high coercivity and are an important member of the permanent magnet
Another magnetic oxide, y-Fe2O3 also
has the spinel structure, but has no divalent cations. It is the most commonly used
material in the preparation of magnetic recording tapes.
The largest usage of ferrite measured in terms of material
weight is in the nonlinear B/h range, and is found in the form if deflecting yokes
and flyback transformers for television receivers.
In details the present invention relates to the mineral
composition which include a novel magnetized active carbon, comprising activated
carbon and a magnetized ferrite powder mixed therewith, a method for reinforcing
activities of active carbon using this magnetized active carbon to prevent damage
caused by free radicals and from all other contaminants of tobacco smoke.
The present invention has been completed as a result of
research work made with a view to highly reinforcing activities of magnetized active
carbon such as adsorbing catalytic free radical scavenging capabilities and substantially
increase the effectiveness of the filter reducing the content of noxious materials
in the tobacco smoke, while leaving the drawing quality unimpaired.
According to another aspect of the present invention there
is provided a minerals composition comprising active carbon and a magnetized ferrite
mixed therewith which is effectively used for removing free radicals, carbon monoxide,
hydrogen and the like from cigarette or tobacco smoke.
Magnetized active carbon and the other minerals of the
present composition have a capacity to absorb a variety of gaseous components ranging
from those having a relatively low molecular weight to those having a high molecular
weight, and it shows high adsorbing capacity even when the concentration of these
gaseous components is very low. Further, the activities of magnetized active carbon
are scarcely influenced by humidity, and it is able to exhibit its special capacities.
Magnetized active carbon has also catalytic effect on sulfurous
acid gas, nitrogen oxides, ozone, chlorine and the like.
The activated charcoal of the present invention has a specific
surface area exceeding a million square centimeters per gram, a particle size between
8 to 50 mesh and impregnated with about 1% to 13%, preferably 4% to 6% by weight
thereof of a magnetized micro-powdered ferrite in an amount not exceeding about
14% of the weight of the charcoal granules.
Activated charcoal of gas adsorbed grade has a specific
surface area in excess of 5 million square centimeters per gram and may be manufactured
from coconut husk or bituminous coal. The particles are of such size that they will
pass through a U.S. Series No. 8 sieve because larger particles are difficult to
handle and to incorporate into a tobacco smoke filter cartridge but they should
not pass through a U.S. Series No. 50 sieve because particles smaller than that
adversely affect the draw resistance of the filter.
Magnetized substances such as Ferrite oxide and the like
are preferably incorporated in active carbon according to the present invention.
In general, there may also be employed magnetized ferromagnetic substances such
as ferrite of the inverse-spinel type structure, ferrite of the probeskite structure,
ferrite of the illmenite structure, ferrite of the rutile type structure and strontium
According to the laboratory test on the formulation of
the present invention confirm that the carcinogenic substance content of the tobacco
smoke will be diminished by the synergetic effect of the various types of ingredients
of the formulation.
This has also been proved by experiments, namely, when
the tobacco smoke condense was introduced into a solution containing the composition
of the present invention, the phenomenon of the free radical development by tobacco
burning, were considerably decreased or eliminated to a significant extent. It is
obvious that not only harmful contaminants free radicals were removed but also many
However the laboratory experiments carried out on the basis
of this invention lead to the surprising unexpected result that the formulation
considerably decrease the amount of free radicals and remove deleterious carcinogenic
substances arises from tobacco high-temperature burning.
The Antioxidants and the mineral contemplated in the present
synergist composition should be, after are through mixed, introduced into the fibrous
base filter in two stages, first the antioxidants to be effective as free radical
scavenger and than after the minerals will eliminate to a significant extent the
carcinogenic substance contained in the tobacco smoke.
The ingredients of the tobacco smoke filter of the present
composition due to the mutual strengthening effect on each other, such synergistic
achievement is capable to bind and to remove up to nearly 90% of the free radicals
and 75% of the other dangerous contaminants of tobacco smoke.
In the present filter compound, the removal of most of
the free radicals and other harmful tobacco contaminants are accomplished by a combination
of diffusion, free radicals and other impact, and direct collision of the droplets
with the filter compound. Upon collision the droplets are retained on the compound
by the surface attraction between the extremely small particles and the relatively
large particles of the powdered compound. Such compound is also particularly effective
for removing vaporized components from the smoke stream by the processes of physical
and chemical adsorption.
It is furthermore to be noted that in addition to the direct
reduction of the total amount of combustion gases drawn from tobacco, there occurs
still a further effect, namely, that of decreasing toxicity.
When tobacco smoke passes into the filter, large quantities
of tar, nicotine and other noxious substances are absorbed by the filter and will
fail to reach the smoker, with the result to significantly reducing the hazards
of smoking tobacco.
The antioxidants and the filtering substances, when employed
have the advantage to avoid free radicals and the toxic effects of smoking on the
respiratory tract and may contain many different formulation; and it is obvious
that the desired formulations may be varied in many ways and should not be limited
to any theory of the invention or why it is physiologically tolerable by the smoker.
The information given here are only by way of illustration and not by way of recommendation
of smoke or to increase the quantity of tobacco to be smoked.
Having not fully described this invention, it will be appreciated
by those skilled in the art that the same can be performed with a wide range of
concentrations without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
When the invention has been described and disclosed in
certain terms and has been illustrated by disclosure of certain embodiments or modifications,
persons skilled in the art who have acquainted themselves with the invention will
appreciate that it is not necessarily limited by such terms nor to the specific
embodiments and modifications disclosed herein. Thus, a wide variety of alternatives,
suggested by the teachings herein, can be practiced without departing from the spirit
of the invention, and rights to such alternatives are particularly reserved, especially
those which fall within the scope of appended claims.
Brief description of drawings
These and further characteristics of the present invention
can be better understood by every expert in this field by reading the following
description and referring to the enclosed drawings, given as practical examples
of the invention, but not to be considered restrictive.
Fig. 1 shows the filter at issue (1) inserted inside a cigarette holder (7)
and applied to a traditional cigarette (8).
Fig. 2 shows the filter in detail, with the two chambers (2, 3) separated
from each other by a partition of cellulose acetate (4). The first chamber (3) contains
loosely packet filter material consisting essentially of Antioxidants effective
in the removal of free radical developed during the smoking combustion; the second
chamber (2), separated from the first one, comprises cellulose acetate filtering
material, consisting of non-toxic absorbent minerals designed to remove from tobacco
smoke most of the noxious particles and gases of the tobacco smoke. The two chambers
are further isolated from the external environment at their ends by two partitions
of cellulose (5, 6), realized with the same material of the central one (4), which
constitutes also the outside layer of the entire filter.
Fig. 3 shows the exploded view of the same drawing as Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 shows a different solution where the filter (1) is included inside
a cigarette holder formed by a first part (7), containing the filter, and a second
part (7A) where it fits and inside which the cigarette (8) is inserted.
Fig. 5 shows a traditional cigarette (8), which embodies the filter (1).
Fig. 6 shows the same drawing as Fig. 5, highlighting the inside of the filter
(1) embodied into the cigarette (8).
Fig. 7 shows a pipe (9) inside which the filter (1) is inserted.