OBJECT OF THE INVENTION
The present invention is related to an automatic lock of
the those which act mechanically and which, on closing the door, remain with the
bolt or bolts introduced into the frame as well as the latch without the use of
the key being needed.
A characteristic of this lock is the presence of a push
button on the inside face which permits the opening both of the latch and of the
bolt by depression of said push button.
A further characteristic is opening of all the anchoring
means from the outside by means of a quarter turn of a key.
This lock permits the incorporation of remote opening mechanisms.
BACKGROUND TO THE INVENTION
Automatic locks are known for application in anti-panic
doors like that considered in the Patent document ES 2 006 126 in which a description
is given of a mechanism which acting on secondary bolts by means of independent
vertical escapes, the opening being contemplated by means of a knob and having likewise
This lock is specially designed as an anti-panic locking
system, in which when opening, by manipulating the handle, the bolts are automatically
Also known and habitually in use, are the locks which have
a key system which, after applying the turns necessary, unlocks the door by withdrawing
the bolts and, in the last stage, withdraws the latch.
The present invention comprises an automatic lock based
on a special arrangement of springs, rocker arms and trips which permit the locking
of the door and consequently the lodging of the bolts in the frame in an automatic
fashion without the use of the key, and, when opening, its unlocking with no more
than the depressing of a push button or in its absence by simply turning the key
DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The invention proposed herein consists of an automatic
lock which permits the locking of the door on which it is installed by means of
the displacement of one or various bolts by tripping, pushed by springs tightened
by the latch on closing the door.
In this closing and locking operation, neither the key
nor the turning of a knob or handle intervenes.
Likewise when opening, use is made of other springs previously
tightened when closing the door such that, by simply depressing a push button from
the inside, they unlock the door by releasing both the bolts and the latch.
The most outstanding features of this mechanism rest in
that there is no requirement to provide external power in the form of an electrical,
pneumatic or hydraulic source since the energy required for its operation is obtained
from the force exercised by the frame on the latch during the closing and opening
of the door: part of the energy obtained on closing the door is employed to slip
the bolt or bolts and the latch, and another part is stored in a spring assembly
to be used later in the opening operation; the energy obtained when opening the
door is employed to make the latch retract and return to its initial position.
Moreover this lock can be actuated by any type of key,
be it conventional, by electronic card, or by means of a remote signal, in which
case these additional electronic devices would be the only items requiring electric
The incorporation of a remote operating system makes sense
for example in the case of access gates to community housing where in addition to
having direct access it is possible to have remote opening by means of a doorman
located at a distance as well as from each dwelling.
Depending on each individual case, it is possible to substitute
the push button with a relay or to have both mechanisms together.
It shall be sufficient to make the present invention of
adequate size in order that it may be fitted on various types of door like for example
house doors, safes, trapdoors and others.
The essential operating principle of this lock consists
in taking advantage of the energy which is applied to the door panel on closing,
storing said energy in several springs which shall act to displace the locking bolts
in an automatic manner.
Part of this energy shall also be employed on opening the
door, withdrawing the bolts and releasing the latch.
Once the bolts and the latch have been released, the latter
proves to be capable of rotation so that the thrust applied to the door panel to
open it, implies an additional amount of energy stored in other springs which shall
permit completion of the door locking and unlocking operations.
The description of the various mechanisms that constitute
and act in this lock is divided into two sections which correspond to the two operations,
that of closing and that of opening.
Both in this description and in the preferred embodiments
of the description, one latch and a single bolt have been included, however a greater
number of the latter would not alter the nature of the invention.
Both the bolt and the latch have their housings in the
door frame in order to permit locking after closure, that is, when the panel has
turned to situate itself in the angular position coincident with the frame.
Since the latch presents an oblique face to the frame,
on closing, when the latch makes contact with the frame the latter is pushed inwards
since linear displacement is the only degree of freedom which it has.
In its linear displacement it carries with it a pusher
which rests on an intermediate point of a rotary arm.
This arm which is hinged at one end, has the opposite end
fixed to a spring in such a manner that during the turning movement imposed by the
pusher joined to the latch, the spring is tightened.
This arm also has, at a point between the pusher and the
end joined to the spring, a supporting projection which passes over a rocker arm
installed on the bolt.
This rocker arm is in an inclined position through the
effect of a spring, the axle pin of which is perpendicular to the floor of the lock
 In this manner, the projection from the arm passes
over the inclined rocker arm which swivels on its axle pin in order to permit this
by overcoming the compression in its spring.
Once the latch is positioned opposite its housing in the
frame, it no longer has support and through the effect of the force in the spring
which it has just tightened, it is moved into its housing.
In this displacement, pushed by the arm attached to the
spring, it re-encounters support on the rocker arm, but this time the inclination
is not favourable to the direction of displacement of the arm for which reason instead
of passing over it, it rests on it pulling the bolt which shall lock the door.
Since the bolt has a linear movement and the pusher joined
to the arm describes an arc of a circle, the bolt is not pushed over its entire
course; however, by inertia, the bolt continues its displacement to the end of its
In the course of its displacement the bolt tightens a second
spring of less strength.
A second rocker arm, by means of a spring, applies force
with its extremity on a side face of the bolt and, as the bolt has a boss which
surpasses the position of the rocker arm when the bolt reaches its end of travel
point, the return of the bolt is impeded whilst the second spring is maintained
After this set of movements both the bolt and the latch
lock the door, the closure and locking of the door having been completed.
The opening of the door can be carried out either from
the inside or from the outside.
On the inside the door has a push button and from the outside
it is possible to make use of a key which only requires a quarter turn.
Either of the two mechanisms act on the same rocker arm,
the rocker arm which retains the latch in its housing.
When the push button is depressed or the key is turned,
the supporting end of the rocker arm on the boss of the bolt is removed, in such
a manner that the spring which was tightened withdraws the bolt to its inside position.
Furthermore, the other end of the rocker arm acts on the
latch to permit the door to be opened.
The latch of which it has been said it is only provided
with a linear movement, may also be above to rotate with respect to an off-centre
axis in the proximity of the face opposite to the outside oblique plane.
Up to this time, the rotation has been impeded by means
of a projection situated on the face opposite to that of the axle pin and which
fits into a mortise of a plate.
This plate constitutes the arm of a rocker joined in turn
to the rocker arm which has released the bolt.
By being joined to this other rocker arm, not only is the
bolt released, but also the projection of the latch housed in the mortise of the
A spring that pulls on the latch partly turns it, the projection
ceasing to be opposite the mortise in which it was held and, in addition, the latch
comes to rest on a second spring which hampers its rotation.
When the panel of the door is pushed, the latch must overcome
the frame and it does so by rotating at the expense of compressing the spring which
hampers its rotation.
In this way sufficient energy is accumulated so that once
the frame is surpassed, the spring trips the latch recovering the tension in the
first spring which has turned it partially, the projection being lodged again in
the plate so that the latch is capable of moving only linearly and thereby permit
the next closure.
In this manner the opening operation is completed and the
initial position recovered as envisaged in the closing operation.
The invention likewise contemplates the possibility of
replacing the springs with elements which perform the same function, like pneumatic
cylinders of those which accumulate energy through the compression of a gas.
A possible variation which is included in the second preferred
embodiment consists in having a latch which does not have the capacity to turn.
In this way the closure would be produced identically but
the opening would differ with regard to the latch.
After depressing the push button, the mechanism described
would release the bolt; however, the latch which before was resting on the wall
of its housing, now rests against a plate which swivels about a vertical axis.
This plate is immobilised by means of a rocker arm which
rests on the bolt.
As in the opening the bolt has already been withdrawn,
the plate ceases to be prevented from turning and permits the latch to pass over
The plate is returned to its position by means of a spring
waiting for the door to be closed, tripping the bolt which in turn shall block the
plate of the latch.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
To complement the present descriptive specification, a
set of drawings is attached, which illustrate the preferred embodiment of the invention
in a not restrictive manner.
Figure 1. - Shows a theoretical schematic of a first embodiment
of the invention when the lock permits the opening of the door; and in addition
a detail is included showing the geometrical shape of the latch.
Figure 2 shows a theoretical schematic of the same first
embodiment of the invention in the locked position with the bolt housed in the frame.
Figure 3 shows a theoretical schematic of a second embodiment
of the invention in which the latch cannot rotate and the bolt is not locking the
Figure 4 shows a theoretical schematic of the same second
embodiment of the invention in which the lock is locking the door and, in addition,
a detail is included of the latch and the swivelling plate installed in the frame
viewed from above.
Figure 5 shows a spring of pneumatic type which can be
employed instead of the spiral type springs.
PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION
In view of the above explanation, the present invention
relates to an automatic lock which mainly, by means of rocker arms and springs,
is capable of locking and unlocking the door with the bolt with no need to turn
In this section two embodiments are included which describe
two possible variants of a same invention.
In this first embodiment, an automatic lock is considered
held in a case (1) installed in the side of a door opposite the hinges and facing
housings (2) and (3) present in the frame (4).
As has been mentioned in the description, the preferred
embodiments include only one bolt (5) which serves to lock the door when it is shut.
In parallel with this bolt (5) is located the latch (6)
in the detail of which is shown its axle pin (6.1) contiguous with the face (6.4)
parallel to the door and around which it can pivot when it is not impeded because
the projection (6.3) situated on the opposite side is housed in the mortise (7.4)
of the plate (7.1) of a rocker arm (7).
The rocker arm (7) rests, according to the detail view,
on the latch (6) by pivoting on an axle pin (7.3) the base (8) of which is common
to the support for the axle pin (6.1) of the latch (6), to one of the ends of the
spring (9) which withdraws the latch (6) and to one of the ends of the spring (10)
for recovering the latch (6).
This common base (8) shows the possibility of a linear
displacement which permits the withdrawal of the latch (6) when the frame (4) rests
on its oblique face (6.2).
In the linear displacement of the base (8), an arm (12)
is pushed by a pusher (11.1) joined to the base (8) by means of a joining structure
The arm (12) pivots about its lower extremity (12.1) and
the other extremity is connected to a spring (20) which is tightened.
At an intermediate point of the arm is a support (12.2)
which passes over a rocker arm (13) joined to the bolt (5).
This rocker arm (13) is passed over because it is inclined
favourably through the effect of a spring (13.1), for which reason the support (12.2)
of the arm (12) compresses the spring (13.1) forcing the rotation of the rocker
arm about its axle pin (13.2).
When the latch (6) is opposite its housing (3) in the frame
(4), it enters and recovers the initial position.
The arm (12) likewise recovers its initial position pulled
by the spring (20) and in turn pulling the bolt (5) since the rocker arm (13) is
not facing its extremity favourably.
In the displacement, a spring (14) connected with the bolt
(5) is tightened.
The time arrives at which the arm (12) does not rest against
the rocker arm (13) as the arc described by the point of support (12.2) descends
below the level at which the rocker arm (13) is situated.
In figure 1 an arc is drawn consisting of alternate dashes
and dots showing the locus of the support point (12.2) of the arm (12).
The bolt (5) continues by inertia on its path until the
boss (5.1) passes over the position of the end (15.1) of the other rocker arm (15).
This end (15.1) of the rocker arm presses by means of a
spring (15.2) on the bolt (5) to secure it at the end of its displacement and maintain
the tension in its spring (14).
When this point is reached, the closure of the door is
The opening occurs when either a push button (16) is depressed
from the inside face of the door, or a key (17) is operated.
Either of the two means lifts the end of the rocker arm
(15.1) that is blocking the bolt (5) in such a manner that the latter (5) is withdrawn
by the action of its spring (14).
On the other hand, it is the other end (15.3) of the rocker
arm (15) which is joined, in its movement perpendicular to the main plane of the
lock, with the end (7.2) opposite the plate (7.1) of the rocker arm (7) which blocks
the latch (6).
This linkage permits not only the release of the bolt (5)
but also of the projection (6.3) of the latch (6) in order that it be withdrawn
through the action of the spring (9) which works in traction and complete its rotation
through the force of the frame on the latch (6).
This rotation compresses the spring (10) which works in
compression and which shall restore the previous tension of the spring (9) and the
initial position of the latch (6).
In figure 3 is shown a second embodiment of the invention
in which the latch (6) does not have the possibility to turn, being able to move
only in a linear fashion.
In this manner the description and elements involved in
the closure are common with those of figure 1.
The difference lies in that, in addition to the disappearance
of the elements which permit the rotation and the securing of the latch (6), there
is a tongue (18) which shuts the housing (3) of the latch (6).
This tongue (18) swivels about its axle pin (18.1) arranged
perpendicular to the path of the latch (6) when it is released by means of a rocker
Just as is shown in the detail of figure 3, this rocker
arm (19) is held firmly by the bolt (5) so that, when the bolt (5) is withdrawn,
the tongue (18) can rotate and the latch (6) is free to leave its housing (3).
The tongue (18) recovers its position by means of a spring
which is not shown in the figures.
Figure 4 is a repetition of the same schematic showing
the bolt (5) inserted in the housing (2) of the frame (4) and resting against one
end of the rocker arm (19) of the frame (4) in order to maintain the tongue (18)
blocked and therefore the latch (6).
Figure 5 is a detail of a spring of pneumatic type which
can replace the conventional spiral type springs.
The essential nature of this invention remains unaltered
by variations in materials, shape, size and arrangement of the constituent elements,
described in a non-restrictive manner, sufficient for an expert to proceed to its