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Dokumentenidentifikation EP1640601 15.02.2007
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001640601
Titel Einlasskrümmer mit Luftbehälter für eine Brennkraftmaschine
Anmelder Magneti Marelli Powertrain S.p.A., Corbetta, IT
Erfinder Arpert, Klaus Peter, 38531 Rötgesbüttel, DE
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 602004004133
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IT, LI, LU, MC, NL, PL, PT, RO, SE, SI, SK, TR
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 28.09.2004
EP-Aktenzeichen 044257228
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 29.03.2006
EP date of grant 03.01.2007
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 15.02.2007
IPC-Hauptklasse F02M 35/10(2006.01)A, F, I, 20060309, B, H, EP
IPC-Nebenklasse F02B 27/02(2006.01)A, L, I, 20060309, B, H, EP   F02B 29/08(2006.01)A, L, I, 20060309, B, H, EP   

Beschreibung[en]

The present invention relates to an intake manifold for an internal combustion engine.

As is known, an internal combustion engine comprises a number of cylinders, each connected to an intake manifold by means of a respective intake valve, and to an exhaust manifold by means of a respective exhaust valve. The intake manifold is connected to each cylinder by a respective intake pipe, and receives fresh air (i.e. outside air containing approximately 20% oxygen) by means of a throttle valve adjustable between a closed position and a fully-open position; and an exhaust pipe extends from the exhaust manifold, and terminates in a silencer to discharge the combustion gases into the atmosphere.

Cyclic opening and closing of the intake valves prevents continuous mass flow of the intake air, and pulsation or even return flow inside the intake pipes occurs. This discontinuous flow impairs charging of the cylinders (and therefore engine torque) and subjects the intake manifold to mechanical stress which prevents the manufacture of lighter-construction intake manifolds.

DE3210239A1 describes an air vessel for compensating flow rate fluctuations in pressure lines of pumps and the like (especially oscillating positive displacement pumps); the air vessel has a tubular membrane through which the flow medium flows; a reservoir fluid surrounding the tubular membrane in a housing containing the tubular membrane; a feeler valve located on the outer face of the tubular membrane, in the reservoir fluid; and a pressure vessel containing the reservoir fluid. In this air vessel design, the flow medium flows through the vessel in a straight line; and the tubular membrane is preferably a double tube to prevent the flow medium coming into contact with the reservoir fluid of the pressure vessel.

US5826554A1 describes pressure relief means for a thin-wall air intake pipe for an internal combustion engine; a valve is installed in an opening in a thin wall of an air intake pipe, which supplies combustion air from a flow control device to an internal combustion engine cylinder, to relieve excess pressure in the pipe. The valve includes a socket connected to a segment of the air intake pipe, and an elastomer, umbrella valve member is supported in the socket to normally cover the opening in the pipe, and to undergo deformation, when the pressure in the pipe reaches a predetermined value, so as to uncover the opening and connect the interior of the pipe to the ambient atmosphere.

US6302076B1 discloses a four stroke combustion engine including a combustion chamber, an intake manifold coupled to the combustion chamber, a one-way valve located within the intake manifold, an intake valve for modulating the flow of a fuel-air mixture into and out of the combustion chamber, and a plenum chamber located in the intake manifold downstream of the one-way valve and upstream of the intake valve. During the compression stroke of the engine, a pressurized charge of fuel-air mixture is stored within the manifold and plenum; the amount of the fuel-air mixture stored within the plenum is controlled by adjusting the volume of the plenum, or, alternatively, a plenum valve is used to regulate the amount of fuel-air mixture entering/exiting a fixed volume plenum.

It is an object of the present invention is to provide an internal combustion engine intake manifold designed to eliminate the aforementioned drawbacks, and which in particular is cheap and easy to produce.

According to the present invention there is provided an intake manifold for an internal combustion engine, as recited in the accompanying Claims.

A non-limiting embodiment of the present invention will be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

  • ■ figure 1 shows a schematic view of an internal combustion engine having an intake manifold in accordance with the present invention; and
  • ■ figures 2 and 3 show schematic lateral sections of an air vessel of the Figure 1 intake manifold in two different configurations.

Number 1 in figure 1 indicates as a whole an internal combustion engine having four cylinders 2 (only one shown in figure 1), each connected to an intake manifold 3 by a respective intake pipe 4 regulated by an intake valve 5, and to an exhaust manifold 6 by a respective exhaust pipe 7 regulated by an exhaust valve 8. The intake manifold 3 receives fresh air (i.e. outside air containing approximately 20% oxygen), by means of a throttle valve 9 adjustable between a closed position and a fully-open position. An exhaust pipe 10 extends from exhaust manifold 6, and terminates in a known silencer (not shown) to discharge the combustion gases into the atmosphere.

In a first embodiment shown in figure 1, the fuel (e.g. petrol, diesel, methane, LPG, etc.) is injected directly into each cylinder 2 by a respective injector 11; in an alternative embodiment not shown, injectors 11 are located inside intake pipes 4 (indirect injection) .

Each cylinder 2 has a piston 12, which moves cyclically up and down inside cylinder 2 and is connected mechanically to a crankshaft 13 by a relative crank 14.

Engine 1 also comprises a control unit 15 which, in particular, controls throttle valve 9 and injectors 11 at each cycle to fill cylinders 2 with a quantity of fuel-combustion supporter (fresh air) mixture depending on the operating conditions of engine 1 and control by the driver. Intake valves 5 and exhaust valves 8, on the other hand, are connected mechanically to crankshaft 13 by a cam system (not shown) and so activated by rotation of crankshaft 13.

Intake manifold 3 comprises an air vessel 16 which, for each intake pipe 4, comprises a hollow body 17 located between intake manifold 3 and cylinder 2, and defining an empty chamber 18, which communicates with intake pipe 4 by means of a high-speed compensation valve 19 located in front of the cylinder intake defined by intake valve 5. In a variation not shown, a single hollow body 17 is provided between intake manifold 3 and cylinders 2, and contains four mutually isolated empty chambers 18 (i.e. for each cylinder 2 there is a relevant isolated empty chamber 18).

In an alternative embodiment (not shown), air vessel 16 comprises only one hollow body 17, which communicates with the four intake pipes 4 by means of four respective compensation valves 19. In a further embodiment not shown, air vessel 16 comprises only one hollow body 17, which communicates with intake manifold 3 by means of a single compensation valve 19. This configuration is cheaper and more compact, but reduces performance.

In the embodiment shown, each compensation valve 19 is powered by a known cam (not shown) connected to crankshaft 13, and which may either be the same cam powering relative intake valve 5, or a different cam. In an alternative embodiment shown by the dash line, each compensation valve 19 is powered by a respective electric actuator 20 controlled by control unit 15; in which case, control unit 15 may also be connected to a number of pressure sensors 21, each housed, and for determining the pressure, inside a respective intake pipe 4. Without pressure sensors 21, opening/closing of compensation valves 19 is performed solely on the basis of the angular position of crankshaft 13; with pressure sensors 21, opening/closing of compensation valves 19 is performed on the basis of the angular position of crankshaft 13 and the value of the pressure inside intake pipes 4. The pressure sensors 21 could be substituted by an estimating unit, which is able to estimate the value of the pressure inside the intake pipes 4 without performing a direct measure.

In actual use, cyclic opening and closing of intake valves 5 prevents continuous mass flow of the intake air, and causes pulsation inside intake pipes 4; which pulsation of the intake air causes underpressure and overpressure inside each intake pipe 4, and the variation in pressure is time-dependent (i.e. depends on the angular position of crankshaft 13).

During the intake stroke of a cylinder 2 (i.e. when relative intake valve 5 is open to feed fresh air from intake manifold 3 into cylinder 2), respective compensation valve 19 is closed (figure 2); as soon as intake valve 5 closes and the pressure inside relative intake pipe 4 starts to rise, respective compensation valve 19 is opened (figure 3) until the pressure reaches maximum, and is then closed immediately to establish an overpressure in chamber 18. When intake valve 5 is re-opened at the start of the next intake stroke of cylinder 2, compensation valve 19 is opened to support charging of cylinder 2. More specifically, compensation valve 19 may be opened shortly before opening intake valve 5, so as to generate a small overpressure inside intake pipe 4 when intake valve 5 is opened. When an underpressure is produced in intake pipe 4 by suction of cylinder 2, compensation valve 19 is closed to produce an underpressure in chamber 18; at which point, the above cycle is repeated.

The above disclosed air vessel 16 may be used in any kind of internal combustion engine including two-strokes engines or rotating engines, which do not have intake and exhaust valves, and also racing engines, which have an intake manifold for each cylinder.

Air vessel 16 provides for greatly reducing the negative effects produced by pulsation of the intake air, and in particular for improving charge of the cylinders (and therefore engine torque) and for reducing mechanical stress on intake manifold 3.


Anspruch[de]
Einlasskrümmer (3) für eine Brennkraftmaschine (1) mit wenigstens einem Zylinder (2); wobei der Einlasskrümmer (3) wenigstens ein Einlassrohr (4), das den Einlasskrümmer (3) mit dem Zylinder (2) verbindet, und einen Luftbehälter (16) aufweist, der wenigstens einen hohlen Körper (17) umfasst, der eine leere Kammer (18) definiert, die mit dem Einlasskrümmer (3) mit Hilfe eines Ausgleichsventils (19) in Kommunikation steht, wobei der Einlasskrümmer (3) dadurch gekennzeichnet ist, dass die leere Kammer (18) direkt mit dem Einlassrohr (4) mit Hilfe eines Hochgeschwindigkeits-Ausgleichsventils (19) in Kommunikation steht. Einlasskrümmer (3) wie in Anspruch 1 beansprucht, worin der hohle Körper (17) zwischen dem Einlasskrümmer (3) und dem Zylinder (2) angeordnet ist. Einlasskrümmer (3) wie in Anspruch 1 oder 2 beansprucht, worin das Einlassrohr (4) durch wenigstens ein Einlassvenfil (5) geregelt wird, und worin das Ausgleichsventil (19) vor dem Zylindereinlass angeordnet ist, der durch das Einlassventil (5) gebildet wird. Einlasskrümmer (3) wie in einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3 beansprucht, worin das Ausgleichsventil (19) durch ein Nockensystem betätigt wird, das durch eine Kurbelwelle (13) der Maschine (1) betrieben wird. Einlasskrümmer (3) wie in Anspruch 4 beansprucht, worin das Einlassrohr (4) durch wenigstens ein Einlassventil (5) geregelt wird, und worin das Ausgleichsventil (19) durch einen Nocken betätigt wird, der das Einlassventil (5) betreibt. Einlasskrümmer (3) wie in einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3 beansprucht, worin das Ausgleichsventil (19) durch ein elastisches Betätigungselement (20) betätigt wird, das durch eine Steuereinheit (15) gesteuert wird. Einlasskrümmer (3) wie in Anspruch 6 beansprucht, worin Abschätzmittel vorgesehen sind, die mit der Steuereinheit (5) verbunden sind und den Druck in dem Einlassrohr (4) abschätzen; und worin die Steuereinheit (15) das Öffnen/Schließen des Ausgleichsventils (19) auf der Basis der Winkelposition einer Kurbelwelle (13) der Maschine und des Betrages des Druckes innerhalb des Einlassrohres (4) steuert. Einlasskrümmer (3) wie in Anspruch 7 beansprucht, worin die Abschätzmittel einen Drucksensor (21) umfassen, der in dem Einlassrohr (4) angeordnet ist. Einlasskrümmer (3) wie in einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8 beansprucht, worin die Maschine (1) eine Anzahl Zylinder (2) aufweist, die jeweils mit dem Einlasskrümmer (3) durch ein zugeordnetes Einlassrohr (4) verbunden sind, und worin der Luftbehälter (16) nur einen hohlen Körper (17) aufweist, der mit dem Einlasskrümmer (3) mit Hilfe eines einzigen Ausgleichsventils (19) in Kommunikation steht. Einlasskrümmer (3) wie in einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8 beansprucht, worin die Maschine (1) eine Anzahl von Zylindern (2) aufweist, die jeweils mit dem Einlasskrümmer (3) durch ein zugeordnetes Einlassrohr (4) verbunden sind, und worin der Luftbehälter (16) nur einen hohlen Körper (17) aufweist, der mit jedem Einlassrohr (4) mit Hilfe eines zugeordneten Ausgleichsventils (19) in Kommunikation steht. Einlasskrümmer (3) wie in einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8 beansprucht, worin die Maschine (1) eine Anzahl Zylinder (2) aufweist, die jeweils mit dem Einlasskrümmer (3) durch ein zugeordnetes Einlassrohr (4) verbunden sind, und worin der Luftbehälter (16) für jedes Einlassrohr (4) eine zugeordnete, leere Kammer (18) aufweist, die mit dem Einlassrohr (4) durch ein zugeordnetes Ausgleichsventil (19) verbunden sind. Einlasskrümmer (3) wie in Anspruch 11 beansprucht, worin der Luftbehälter (16) einen einzigen hohlen Körper (17) aufweist, der eine Anzahl wechselseitig isolierter, leerer Kammern (18) enthält. Verfahren zum Betreiben eines Ausgleichsventils (19) eines Einlasskrümmers (3) wie in einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 12 beansprucht, wobei das Verfahren die Schritte aufweist: Schließen des Ausgleichsventils (19) während des Einlasshubes des Zylinders (2); Öffnen des Ausgleichsventils (19) sobald das Einlassventil (5) des Zylinders (2) schließt und der Druck in dem Einlassrohr (4) anzusteigen beginnt; Offenhalten des Ausgleichsventils (19) bis der Druck in dem Einlassrohr (4) ein Maximum erreicht; Schließen des Ausgleichsventils (19) unmittelbar nachdem der Druck in dem Einlassrohr (4) das Maximum erreicht, um einen Überdruck in der Kammer (18) aufzubauen; Öffnen des Ausgleichsventils (19), wenn das Einlassventil (5) bei Beginn des nächsten Ansaughubes des Zylinders sich erneut öffnet, um die Aufladung des Zylinders (2) zu unterstützen. Verfahren wie in Anspruch 13 beansprucht, worin das Ausgleichsventil (19) geschlossen wird, wenn ein Unterdruck in dem Einlassrohr (4) durch die Saugwirkung des Zylinders (2) erzeugt wird, um einen Unterdruck in der Kammer (18) zu erzeugen. Verfahren wie in Anspruch 13 oder 14 beansprucht, worin das Ausgleichsventil (19) kurz vor dem Öffnen des Einlassventils (5) geöffnet wird, um einen kleinen Überdruck in dem Einlassrohr (4) zu erzeugen, wenn das Einlassventil (5) geöffnet wird.
Anspruch[en]
An intake manifold (3) for an internal combustion engine (1) having at least one cylinder (2); the intake manifold (3) comprises at least one intake pipe (4) connecting the intake manifold (3) to the cylinder (2) and an air vessel (16) comprising at least one hollow body (17) defining an empty chamber (18), which communicates with the intake manifold (3) by means of a compensation valve (19); the intake manifold (3) is characterized in that the empty chamber (18) communicates directly with the intake pipe (4) by means of a high-speed compensation valve (19). An intake manifold (3) as claimed in Claim 1, wherein the hollow body (17) is located between the intake manifold (3) and the cylinder (2). An intake manifold (3) as claimed in Claim 1 or 2, wherein the intake pipe (4) is regulated by at least one intake valve (5) and the compensation valve (19) is located in front of the cylinder intake defined by the intake valve (5). An intake manifold (3) as claimed in any one of Claims 1 to 3, wherein the compensation valve (19) is actuated by a cam system powered by a crankshaft (13) of the engine (1). An intake manifold (3) as claimed in Claim 4, wherein the intake pipe (4) is regulated by at least one intake valve (5) and the compensation valve (19) is actuated by the cam powering the intake valve (5). An intake manifold (3) as claimed in any one of Claims 1 to 3, wherein the compensation valve (19) is actuated by an electric actuator (20) controlled by a control unit (15). An intake manifold (3) as claimed in Claim 6, wherein estimating means are provided, are connected to the control unit (15), and estimate the pressure inside the intake pipe (4); and the control unit (15) controls opening/closing of the compensation valve (19) on the basis of the angular position of a crankshaft (13) of the engine (1), and of the value of the pressure inside the intake pipe (4). An intake manifold (3) as claimed in Claim 7, wherein the estimating means comprise a pressure sensor (21) located inside the intake pipe (4). An intake manifold (3) as claimed in any one of Claims 1 to 8, wherein the engine (1) comprises a number of cylinders (2), each connected to the intake manifold (3) by a relative intake pipe (4); and the air vessel (16) comprises only one hollow body (17), which communicates with the intake manifold (3) by means of a single compensation valve (19). An intake manifold (3) as claimed in any one of Claims 1 to 8, wherein the engine (1) comprises a number of cylinders (2), each connected to the intake manifold (3) by a relative intake pipe (4); and the air vessel (16) comprises only one hollow body (17), which communicates with each intake pipe (4) by means of a relative compensation valve (19). An intake manifold (3) as claimed in any one of Claims 1 to 8, wherein the engine (1) comprises a number of cylinders (2), each connected to the intake manifold (3) by a relative intake pipe (4); and the air vessel (16) comprises, for each intake pipe (4), a relative empty chamber (18) connected to the intake pipe (4) by a respective compensation valve (19). An intake manifold (3) as claimed in Claim 11, wherein the air vessel (16) comprises a single hollow body (17), which contains a number of mutually isolated empty chambers (18). A method of operating the compensation valve (19) of the intake manifold (3) as claimed in any one of Claims 1 to 12; the method comprises the steps of: closing the compensation valve (19) during the intake stroke of the cylinder (2); opening the compensation valve (19) as soon as an intake valve (5) of the cylinder (2) closes and the pressure inside the intake pipe (4) starts to rise; keeping the compensation valve (19) opened until the pressure inside the intake pipe (4) reaches maximum; closing the compensation valve (19) immediately after the pressure inside the intake pipe (4) reaches maximum to establish an overpressure in the chamber (18); opening the compensation valve (19) when the intake valve (5) is re-opened at the start of the next intake stroke of the cylinder (2) to support charging of the cylinder (2); and A method as claimed in Claim 13, wherein the compensation valve (19) is closed when an underpressure is produced in the intake pipe (4) by suction of the cylinder (2) to produce an underpressure in the chamber (18). A method as claimed in Claim 13 or 14, wherein the compensation valve (19) is opened shortly before opening the intake valve (5), so as to generate a small overpressure inside the intake pipe (4) when the intake valve (5) is opened.
Anspruch[fr]
Collecteur d'admission (3) pour un moteur à combustion interne (1) comportant au moins un cylindre (2), ce collecteur d'admission (3) comprenant au moins un tuyau d'admission (4) qui relie le collecteur d'admission (3) au cylindre (2) et un récipient à air (16) qui comprend au moins un corps creux (17) formant une chambre vide (18) qui communique avec le collecteur d'admission (3) au moyen d'un distributeur de compensation (19), ce collecteur d'admission (3) étant caractérisé par le fait que la chambre vide (18) communique directement avec le tuyau d'admission (4) au moyen d'un distributeur de compensation rapide (19). Collecteur d'admission (3) selon la revendication 1, le corps creux (17) étant situé entre le collecteur d'admission (3) et le cylindre (2). Collecteur d'admission (3) selon l'une des revendications 1 et 2, le tuyau d'admission (4) étant commandé par au moins une soupape d'admission (5) et le distributeur de compensation (19) était située devant l'entrée du cylindre formée par la soupape d'admission (5). Collecteur d'admission (3) selon l'une des revendications 1 à 3, le distributeur de compensation (19) étant actionnée par un système de cames actionné par le vilebrequin (13) du moteur (1). Collecteur d'admission (3) selon la revendication 4, le tuyau d'admission (4) étant commandé par au moins une soupape d'admission (5) et le distributeur de compensation 19) étant actionné par la came qui actionne la soupape d'admission (5). Collecteur d'admission (3) selon l'une des revendications 1 à 3, le distributeur de compensation (19) étant actionné par un actionneur électrique (20) commandé par un organe de commande (15). Collecteur d'admission (3) selon la revendication 6, avec lequel sont prévus des moyens d'estimation qui sont reliés à l'organe de commande (15) et estiment la pression dans le tuyau d'admission (4), et l'organe de commande (15) commande l'ouverture et la fermeture du distributeur de compensation (19) d'après la position angulaire du vilebrequin (13) du moteur (1) et de la valeur de la pression dans le tuyau d'admission (4). Collecteur d'admission (3) selon la revendication 7, les moyens d'estimation comprenant un capteur de pression (21) situé dans le tuyau d'admission (4). Collecteur d'admission (3) selon l'une des revendications 1 à 8, le moteur (1) comprenant un certain nombre de cylindres (2) qui sont reliés chacun au collecteur d'admission (3) par un tuyau d'admission respectif (4), et le récipient à air (16) comprenant un seul corps creux (17), lequel communique avec le collecteur d'admission (2) au moyen d'un seul distributeur de compensation (19). Collecteur d'admission (3) selon l'une des revendications 1 à 8, le moteur (1) comprenant un certain nombre de cylindres (2) qui sont reliés chacun au collecteur d'admission (3) par un tuyau d'admission respectif (4), et le récipient à air (16) comprenant un seul corps creux (17), lequel communique avec chaque tuyau d'admission (4) au moyen d'un distributeur de compensation respectif (19). Collecteur d'admission (3) selon l'une des revendications 1 à 8, le moteur (1) comprenant un certain nombre de cylindres (2) qui sont reliés chacun au collecteur d'admission (3) par un tuyau d'admission respectif (4), et le récipient à air (16) comprenant pour chaque tuyau d'admission (4) une chambre vide respective (18) reliée au tuyau d'admission (4) par un distributeur de compensation respectif (19). Collecteur d'admission (3) selon la revendication 11, le récipient à air (16) comprenant un seul corps creux (17), lequel contient un certain nombre de chambres vides isolées les unes des autres (18). Procédé de fonctionnement du distributeur de compensation (19) du collecteur d'admission (3) selon l'une des revendications 1 à 12, ce procédé comprenant les étapes de : fermeture du distributeur de compensation (19) pendant la course d'admission du cylindre (2), ouverture du distributeur de compensation (19) dès qu'une soupape d'admission (5) du cylindre (2) se ferme et que la pression dans le tuyau d'admission (4) commende à monter, maintien du distributeur de compensation (19) ouvert jusqu'à ce que la pression dans le tuyau d'admission (4) atteigne un maximum, fermeture du distributeur de compensation (19) immédiatement après que la pression dans le tuyau d'admission (4) a atteint un maximum afin d'établir une surpression dans la chambre (18), ouverture du distributeur de compensation (19) lorsque la soupape d'admission (4) se rouvre au début de la course d'admission suivante du cylindre (2) afin d'assister le chargement du cylindre (2). Procédé selon la revendication 13, dans lequel le distributeur de compensation (19) se ferme lorsqu'une dépression est produite dans le tuyau d'admission (4) par aspiration du cylindre (2) afin de produire une dépression dans la chambre (18). Procédé selon l'une des revendications 13 et 14, dans lequel le distributeur de compensation (19) s'ouvre peu avant l'ouverture de la soupape d'admission (5) afin de produire une petite surpression dans le tuyau d'admission (4) lorsque la soupape d'admission (5) s'ouvre.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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