PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP1560718 10.05.2007
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001560718
Titel VERFAHREN ZUR HERSTELLUNG EINES SICHERUNGSSTREIFENS MIT EINEM EINGEBETTETEN MIKROCHIP, SICHERUNGSSTREIFEN UND DOKUMENT MIT DEM STREIFEN
Anmelder Fabriano Securities S.r.l., Ospiate di Bollate, Mailand/Milano, IT
Erfinder LAZZERINI, M., I-20021 Bollate, IT
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 60219216
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LI, LU, MC, NL, PT, SE, SK, TR
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 12.11.2002
EP-Aktenzeichen 027876572
WO-Anmeldetag 12.11.2002
PCT-Aktenzeichen PCT/EP02/12643
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 2004043706
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 27.05.2004
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 10.08.2005
EP date of grant 28.03.2007
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 10.05.2007
IPC-Hauptklasse B42D 15/00(2006.01)A, F, I, 20051017, B, H, EP

Beschreibung[en]

The present invention relates to a method of manufacturing a security thread equipped with a microchip, a security thread, and a document comprising the thread.

It is already known to provide a document such as a bank note with a security thread in order to provide a possibility to verify whether the banknote is genuine or not. A method of manufacturing of such a security thread is disclosed in the Italian Patent Application MI2001A001914. For the public use, such security thread allows a simple visual examination.

However, it remains a need to provide the banknote with machine-readable information.

DE 198 33 746 A1 discloses a generic security thread comprising a substrate, a support material provided on the substrate, a microchip fixedly attached to or at least partly embedded in the support material.

EP-1 254 765 A1 discloses a further security thread without any microchip.

It is the object of the present invention, to provide a method of manufacturing a security thread and a generic security thread which enable variable positioning of the microchip at a variable distance.

This object is solved by the method of manufacturing a security thread having the features of claim 1 and by the security thread having the features of claim 9.

The invention is further developed as it is defined in the dependent claims.

With the continuous progress of the technology, particularly of the miniaturisation technique of microprocessors, a microchip has been developed which has a suitable dimension for the use in plastic or paper documents.

Advantageously, the invention provides a method for precisely depositing such a microchip into a security thread, and also a security thread which is capable to accommodate the microchip. Thereby, the microchip is fixedly attached to or embedded in the thread. The security thus manufactured is suitable for banknotes, passports or passenger tickets, for instance.

Advantageously, the deposition of the microchip can be carried out in a paper mill during the production of the paper. The security thread having the microchip incorporated therein can be introduced into the paper by means of a conventional system as it is used in a paper mill.

In the following, the invention is described on the basis of preferred embodiments thereof with reference to the figures.

  • Fig. 1 shows a method of manufacturing a security thread equipped with a microchip according to an embodiment of the invention;
  • Fig. 2 shows a structural view of a thread according to an embodiment of the invention; and
  • Fig. 3 shows a structural view of a thread according to another embodiment of the invention.

The embodiment shown in Fig. 1 is applied to the paper manufacture in a paper mill, wherein a security thread 1 is introduced in banknotes, for example. However, the invention is not restricted to this embodiment.

The security thread 1 is constituted by a substrate which can be a tape or film, preferably of polyester.

In a first step, the substrate, which usually is a transparent or printed polyester film, is metalized under vacuum with aluminium and/or copper etc. with a thickness from 6 to 50 µm.

Thereafter, on at least one side of the substrate, a suitable support material is applied, which can be quickly (preferably within a few milliseconds) brought from its solid state to a soft or "gum-like" state.

As the support material, a thermoplastic material containing a resin having a low melting point (approximately 70 °C) is applied by painting, transferring, spraying, for example. In more detail, as the thermoplastic material, wax, vinyl-polymer, polyurethane or any polymer or compound distributed in solvents on water basis or on solvent basis is suitable, provided that it has the capability to modify its state from solid to a soft or "gum-like" state. The amount of this material depends on the type and the capability of modifying its state. For example, wax, vinyl-polymers, polymers or parafina can be put in a solvent based varnish and applied on the film. Optionally, the thermoplastic material can be subjected to a roll embossing or stencil printing process wherein the thickness of deposition in a dried state is approximately 10 µm.

In order to enhance the adhesion of the thermoplastic material, a special treatment for enhancing the adhesion can be carried out before applying the thermoplastic material.

Once the varnish has been applied and dried, it provides a sealing to the atmosphere, and the film is cut in stripes having a width of approximately 0.5 to 6 mm, particularly if the thread 1 shall be introduced within the paper by means of a total embedding or windows technique.

Alternatively, the film is kept in larger sizes, if the film is transformed into tapes and is, therefore, applied on the surface of another final support.

If the thread 1 shall be introduced in the paper together with the microchip 2, the thread 1 preferably has a width of 2.5 mm which is necessary to accommodate a microchip 2, because a conventional microchip 2 has side lengths of 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm.

After cutting the film into threads 1, the threads 1 are winded up around bobbins (not shown) as they are usually used for the security threads 1.

The thus winded thread 1 is positioned on appropriate reels 3 which comprise a motor spindle that winds off the thread 1 in a controlled manner so as to maintain a constant output.

By winding off the thread 1, the thread 1 is heated by means of a contact with a heat cylinder 4. The method of heating and of modifying the state of the varnish can also be a mechanic operation by means of a contact of the polyester with a heat source 4, for example. Alternatively, the thread 1 is radiated by a beam that emits heat such as a laser beam, an infrared beam or an ultraviolet beam (not shown).

Considering the heat-sensitive characteristic of waxes, several 10 µm of the previously deposited compound are softened (it is obvious that the softening can be performed by any heating system).

After the softening, the microchip 2 falls from an appropriate distributor 5 onto the thread 1, wherein the microchip 2 falling on the thread 1 is embedded therein.

When the microchip is appropriately deposited, a curing process of the support material is performed, preferably by cooling the support material. Directly after the cooling process by an air cooling means 6, the compound returns to its solid state and holds and supports the microchip 2. Also in this case, the cooling process can be performed in various ways.

At this point, the thread 1 is supplied together with the microchip 2 in the interior of a paper compound 7 when the paper is produced.

In this embodiment of the paper manufacture, the start of the impulses for the fall of the microchip 2 from the distributor 5 and the cooling process are controlled by the detection of a corresponding notch 8 in a watermark cylinder 9, for example. Thereby, the microchip 2 is introduced in register with the watermark of the banknote. As for the control means, any conventional means known in the field of the paper manufacture can be used.

Depending from the speed with which the paper is manufactured, and from the relative thickness of the varnish, when the varnish is still in the gum-like state and has already the microchip 2 deposited thereon, it may be used a pressing means (not shown) that provides two rubber layers or two rubber cylinders spaced to each other by a fixed gap there between and which compress the microchip 2 into the varnish until the microchip 2 is embedded therein.

As a numeric example, the polyester substrate may have a thickness of 10 µm, on which aluminium is deposited under vacuum with a thickness of 0.2 µm. On the aluminium, a vinyl protecting varnish is applied which has a thickness of approximately 2 µm. On the protecting layer, a heat-sensitive varnish is applied so as to obtain a layer of 10 µm of the heat-sensitive varnish in the dried state. As a result, the total thickness of the thread 1 is approximately 22 to 23 µm.

when the heat-sensitive varnish is activated and when the microchip 2 falls on it which has a thickness of 60 µm, for example, the microchip 2 can be embedded a few µm.

Then, thread 1 is optionally passed between two cylinders (not shown) of the pressing means which are spaced to each other with a gap of 75 µm so that that the microchip 2 is embedded for at least 8 to 9 µm into the heat-sensitive varnish.

It is obvious that the preferred numeral values can be varied according to the materials which are used, in particular the target material that thereafter will receive the thread 1 with the embedded microchip 2.

The advantage of the invention is the possibility to position the microchip 2 at a variable distance. Thereby, it is not necessary to use a pre-constructed thread magazine, for instance, which would involve excessive costs. Moreover, the thread 1 suitable for accommodating the microchip 2 and the microchip 2 itself are the same for all banknotes independently from the kind of the banknotes. On the other hand, during the manufacturing process in the paper mill, data or signals are programmable and machine-readable from the security thread 1.

In the following, embodiments of the structure of the thread will be described with reference to Figs. 2 and 3. As an alternative to the thread 1 used in the embodiment of Fig. 1, the thread can be embodied in the following manner.

Fig. 2 shows a thread 11 comprising a substrate 12 of polyester or polypropylene.

On the substrate 12, a medium layer 13 is applied which carries specific characters, signs, data or any other information which are helpful for an individualisation of a document in which the thread 11 is to be inserted. The medium layer 13 preferably has a thickness of 6 to 50 µm.

This medium layer 13 may comprise a varnish or coloured inks (red, green, blue, yellow, for instance). The varnishes or inks may be applied sequentially and/or completely or partially overlapping. Alternatively, the varnish or ink may be mixed with the substrate of polymer. The medium layer 13 may absorb.light having long or short wavelengths (about 360 nm or 254 nm). The medium layer 13 may comprises a fluorescent dye.

Alternatively, the medium layer 13 may comprise a varnish or an ink which exhibits a chromatic variation according to the diffraction angle. Also in this case, the varnish or the ink can be applied sequentially and/or completely or partially overlapping.

Alternatively, the medium layer 13 may comprise a magnetic ink having different coercitivities by applying the magnetic ink continuously, discontinuously or in a manner like SISMA which is a Mantegazza Patent.

Alternatively, the medium layer 13 may comprise images or holograms of any type, i.e. exelgrams, pixelgrams, dot matrix, depicted in a two dimensional or three dimensional manner.

Alternatively, the medium layer 13 may comprise a metallic material which may be applied under vacuum such as aluminium, copper, nickel having a characteristic of reflecting light or a larger gloss. It is obvious that the metallic materials may be applied in different quantities, thickness' and types.

The medium layer 13 constituted by any one of the above-mentioned with interruptions or even a partly lack of material. The materials may be applied in a negative or positive manner.

Alternatively, the medium layer 13 may comprise substances for checking the magnetoresistance or an inductivity such as "Micro Tag".

Alternatively, the medium layer 13 may comprise a varnish or an ink being conductive, transparent (for example polyaniline) or visual (for example a silver-based varnish or ink).

On the medium layer 13, as it is described above, a heat-sensitive support material 14 is applied. Preferably, the heat-sensitive material 14 is a thermoplastic having a thickness of about 10 µm.

Fig. 3 shows a structural view of a thread 21 according to another embodiment of the invention.

The thread 21 according to this embodiment includes the substrate 22 and the medium layer 23 in a same way as the thread 11 shown in Fig. 2.

Instead of the heat-sensitive support material, an adhesive support material or a glue support material 24 is applied on the medium layer 23. The adhesive support material 24 may have a thickness of about 8 µm. The microchip 2 is adhered to the adhesive support material 24.

Preferably, an additional siliconated layer 25 is applied on the adhesive support material 24. The siliconated layer 25 may comprise paper with a density of 45 to 90 g/m2 or polyester having a thickness of 10 to 20 µm. Although it is not shown in the figures, the siliconated layer 25 can alternatively be applied on that side of the thread 21 which is opposite of the adhesive support material 24. This is advantageously in particular when the thread 21 is winded up around a bobbin (in general, the siliconated layer 25 may also be provided on the heat-sensitive material 24 of the thread according to the embodiment shown in Fig. 2).

Alternatively, a thread may comprise both the heat-sensitive support material 14 and the adhesive support material 24.

The invention has been described with reference to the preferred embodiment. However, it is obvious for the skilled person that the invention can be modified in various ways. Such modifications are also within the scope of protection which is defined by the claims.

For example, the microchip 2 may comprise an antenna (not shown) for a wireless data transmission.


Anspruch[de]
Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Sicherheitsfadens oder - streifens (1; 11) mit einem Mikrochip (2), welches die Schritte aufweist: Versehen eines Trägermaterials (14) an einem Substrat (12, 13); Aufweichen des Trägermaterials (14), vorzugsweise durch Erwärmen des Trägermaterials (14); Deponieren eines Mikrochips (2) auf oder wenigstens teilweise in dem aufgeweichten Trägermaterial (14); und Härten des Trägermaterials (14), vorzugsweise durch Kühlen des Trägermaterials (14). Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Sicherheitsfadens (1; 11) nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Trägermaterial (14) ein wärmeempfindliches Material ist, vorzugsweise ein thermoplastisches Material, welches ein Harz mit einem niedrigen Schmelzpunkt enthält, wie zum Beispiel Wachs, Vinylpolymer, Polyurethan oder irgendein Polymer oder ein Verbundstoff, welche in Lösungsmitteln auf Wasserbasis oder in irgendeinem Lösungsmittel verteilt sind, welches die Eigenschaft hat, seinen Zustand von fest zu weich zu ändern. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Sicherheitsfadens (1) nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei in dem Schritt des Aufweichens des Trägermaterials (14) das Trägermaterial (14) durch einen Kontakt mit einer Heizeinrichtung (4) oder durch Wärmestrahlung erwärmt wird, vorzugsweise durch einen Infrarotstrahl und einen Ultraviolettstrahl oder einen Laserstrahl. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Sicherheitsfadens (1; 11) nach einem der vorangegangenen Ansprüche, wobei in dem Schritt des Deponierens des Mikrochips (2) der Mikrochip (2) auf das aufgeweichte Trägermaterial (14) fällt und wenigstens teilweise durch seine eigene Schwerkraft in das Trägermaterial (14) einsinkt. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Sicherheitsfadens (1; 11) nach einem der vorangegangenen Ansprüche, wobei in dem Schritt des Deponierens des Mikrochips (2) der Mikrochip (2) auf dem Trägermaterial (14) positioniert wird und danach, wenn das Trägermaterial (14) noch weich ist, der Mikrochip (2) durch eine Presseinrichtung in das Trägermaterial (14) gepresst wird. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Sicherheitsfadens (1; 11) nach einem der vorangegangenen Ansprüche, welches einen Schritt des Aufwickelns des Sicherheitsfadens (1) um eine Spule (9) aufweist. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Sicherheitsfadens (1; 11) nach Anspruch 6, wobei ein Zeitablauf des Aufweichens des Trägermaterials (14), des Deponierens des Mikrochips (2) und / oder des Härtens des Trägermaterials (14) in Übereinstimmung mit einem Wickelbetrieb der Spule (9) festgelegt ist. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Sicherheitsfadens (1; 11) nach einem der Ansprüche 6 oder 7, wobei die Spule (9) ein Wasserzeichenzylinder (9) ist, welcher Registerkerben hat und den Sicherheitsfaden (1) in ein Papierverbund (7) transportiert, und der Zeitablauf des Aufweichens des Trägermaterials (14), des Deponierens des Mikrochips (2) und / oder des Härtens des Trägermaterials (14) in Übereinstimmung mit einer Erfassung der Registerkerben (8) festgelegt ist. Sicherheitsfaden (1; 11; 21) mit

einem Substrat (12; 22), vorzugsweise aus Polyester; einem Trägermaterial (14; 24), welches auf dem Substrat (12; 22) vorgesehen ist,

einem Mikrochip (2), welcher an dem Trägermaterial (14; 24) unbeweglich befestigt oder wenigstens teilweise in dieses eingelassen ist,

dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass

das Trägermaterial (14; 24) ein wärmeempfindliches Material oder ein Haft- oder Klebematerial (24) ist, welches vorzugsweise permanent wirksam ist, wobei eine silikonisierte Schicht (25) entfernbar auf dem Haft- oder Klebematerial (24) abgelagert ist, oder wobei eine silikonisierte Schicht (25) an der Seite des Fadens abgelagert ist, welche gegenüber des Haft- oder Klebematerials (24) ist.
Sicherheitsfaden (1; 11; 21) nach Anspruch 9, wobei der Mikrochip (2) eine Antenne für einen berührungslosen Datentransfer aufweist. Sicherheitsfaden (1; 11; 21) nach Anspruch 9, wobei der Faden (1; 11; 21) vorzugsweise zwischen dem Substrat (12; 22) und dem Trägermaterial (14; 24) eine mittlere Schicht (13; 23) aufweist, welche spezifische Buchstaben, Zeichen, Hologramme, Daten oder irgendwelche andere Informationen auf einem magnetischen Medium, metallischen Medium, fluoreszierenden Medium, bedruckten Medium oder irgendeinem anderen Medium trägt. Dokument, vorzugsweise ein Papierdokument, welches den Sicherheitsfaden (1; 11; 21) gemäß irgendeinem der Ansprüche 9 bis 11 aufweist.
Anspruch[en]
A method of manufacturing a security thread or strip (1; 11) having a microchip (2), comprising the steps of: providing a support material (14) on a substrate (12,13); softening said support material (14), preferably by heating said support material (14); depositing a microchip (2) on or at least partly in the softened support material (14); and curing said support material (14), preferably by cooling said support material (14). The method of manufacturing, a security thread (1; 11) according to claim 1, wherein said support material (14) is a heat-sensitive material, preferably a thermoplastic material containing a resin having a low melting point, such as wax, vinyl-polymer, polyurethane or any polymer or compound distributed in water based solvents or in any solvent that has the characteristic to modify its state from solid to soft. The method of manufacturing a security thread (1) according to claim 1 or 2, wherein, in the step of softening said support material (14), the support material (14) is heated by a contact with a heating means (4) or by heat radiation, preferably by an infrared beam, and ultraviolet beam or a laser beam. The method of manufacturing a security thread (1; 11) according to one of the preceding claims, wherein, in the step of depositing said microchip (2), the microchip (2) falls on the softened support material (14) and sinks at least partly into the support material (14) by its own gravity. The method of manufacturing a security thread (1; 11) according to one of the preceding claims, wherein, in the step of depositing said microchip (2), said microchip (2) is positioned on the support material (14), and thereafter, when the support material (14) is still soft, the microchip (2) is pressed into the support material (14) by a pressing means. The method of manufacturing a security thread (1; 11) according to one of the preceding claims, comprising a step of winding up the security thread (1) around a spool (9). The method of manufacturing a security thread (1; 11) according to claim 6, wherein a timing of softening said support material (14), depositing said microchip (2) and/or curing said support material (14) is set in accordance to a winding operation of the spool (9). The method of manufacturing a security thread (1) according to one of claims 6 or 7, wherein said spool (9) is a watermarking cylinder (9) which has register notches (8) and transports the security thread (1) into a paper compound (7), and said timing of softening said support material (14), depositing said microchip (2) and/or curing said support material (14) is set in accordance to a detection of said register notches (8). A security thread (1; 11; 21) comprising a substrate (12; 22), preferably of polyester; a support material (14; 24) provided on the substrate (12; 22), a microchip (2) fixedly attached to or at least partly embedded in the support material (14; 24), characterized in that

the support material (14; 24) is a heat-sensitive material or an adhesive or glue material (24) which is preferably permanently active, wherein a siliconated layer (25) is removably deposited on the adhesive or glue material (24), or wherein a siliconated layer (25) is deposited on the side of the thread (1; 11; 21) which is opposite to the adhesive or glue material (24).
The security thread (1; 11; 21) according to claim 9, wherein the microchip (2) comprises an antenna for contactless data transfer. The security thread (1; 11; 21) according to claim 9, wherein the thread (1; 11; 21) comprises, preferably between the substrate (12; 22) and the support material (14; 24), a medium layer (13; 23) which carries specific characters, signs, holograms, data or any other information on a magnetic medium, metallic medium, fluorescent medium, printed medium or any other medium. A document, preferable a paper document, comprising said security thread (1; 11; 21) according to any one of claims 9 to 11.
Anspruch[fr]
Procédé de fabrication d'un fil ou bande de sécurité (1 ; 11) ayant une micropuce (2), comprenant les étapes consistant à : fournir un matériau de support (14) sur un substrat (12, 13); adoucir ledit matériau de support (14), préférablement en chauffant ledit matériau de support (14); déposer une micropuce (2) sur ou au moins en partie dans le matériau de support adouci (14); et durcir ledit matériau de support (14), préférablement en refroidissant ledit matériau de support (14). Procédé de fabrication d'un fil de sécurité (1 ; 11) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel ledit matériau de support (14) est un matériau thermosensible, préférablement un matériau thermoplastique contenant une résine ayant un point de fusion bas, telle que de la cire, un polymère vinylique, du polyuréthanne ou tout polymère ou composé distribué dans des solvants à base d'eau ou dans tout solvant qui a la propriété de modifier son état de solide à mou. Procédé de fabrication d'un fil de sécurité (1) selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel, dans l'étape consistant à adoucir ledit matériau de support (14), le matériau de support (14) est chauffé par un contact avec un moyen de chauffage (4) ou par un rayonnement thermique, préférablement par un faisceau infrarouge, et un faisceau ultraviolet ou un faisceau laser. Procédé de fabrication d'un fil de sécurité (1 ; 11) selon l'une des revendications précédentes, dans lequel, dans l'étape consistant à déposer ladite micropuce (2), la micropuce (2) tombe sur le matériau de support adouci (14) et s'enfonce au moins en partie dans le matériau de support (14) par sa propre gravité. Procédé de fabrication d'un fil de sécurité (1 ; 11) selon l'une des revendications précédentes, dans lequel, dans l'étape consistant à déposer ladite micropuce (2), ladite micropuce (2) est positionnée sur le matériau de support (14), et par la suite, lorsque le matériau de support (14) est encore mou, la micropuce (2) est pressée dans le matériau de support (14) par un moyen de presse. Procédé de fabrication d'un fil de sécurité (1; 11) selon l'une des revendications précédentes, comprenant une étape consistant à enrouler le fil de sécurité (1) autour d'une bobine (9). Procédé de fabrication d'un fil de sécurité (1 ; 11) selon la revendication 6, dans lequel un minutage d'adoucissement dudit matériau de support (14), de dépôt de ladite micropuce (2) et/ou de durcissement dudit matériau de support (14) est établi en conformité avec une opération d'enroulement de la bobine (9). Procédé de fabrication d'un fil de sécurité (1) selon l'une des revendications 6 ou 7, dans lequel ladite bobine (9) est un cylindre de filigranage (9) qui a des encoches d'inscription (8) et transporte le fil de sécurité (1) dans un composé papier (7), et ledit minutage d'adoucissement dudit matériau de support (14), de dépôt de ladite micropuce (2) et/ou de durcissement dudit matériau de support (14) est établi en conformité avec une détection desdites encoches d'inscription (8). Fil de sécurité (1 ; 11 ; 21) comprenant

un substrat (12 ; 22), préférablement en polyester;

un matériau de support (14 ; 24) pourvu sur le substrat (12 ; 22),

une micropuce (2) attachée de manière fixe à ou au moins intégrée en partie dans le matériau de support (14; 24),

caractérisé en ce que

le matériau de support (14 ; 24) est un matériau thermosensible ou un matériau adhésif ou de collage (24) qui est préférablement actif en permanence, dans lequel une couche siliconée (25) est déposée de manière détachable sur le matériau adhésif ou de collage (24), ou dans lequel une couche siliconée (25) est déposée sur le côté du fil (1 ; 11 ; 21) qui est opposé au matériau adhésif ou de collage (24).
Fil de sécurité (1; 11 ; 21) selon la revendication 9, dans lequel la micropuce (2) comprend une antenne pour un transfert de données sans contact. Fil de sécurité (1 ; 11 ; 21) selon la revendication 9, dans lequel le fil (1 ; 11 ; 21) comprend, préférablement entre le substrat (12 ; 22) et le matériau de support (14 ; 24), une couche d'un support (13 ; 23) qui porte des caractères, signes, hologrammes, données spécifiques ou toutes autres informations sur un support magnétique, un support métallique, un support fluorescent, un support imprimé ou tout autre support. Document, de préférence un document papier, comprenant ledit fil de sécurité (1 ; 11 ; 21) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 9 à 11.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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