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Luftreifen mit nach unten umgeschlagener Karkasse und Verfahren zur Herstellung eines derartigen Luftreifens - Dokument EP1787827
 
PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP1787827 05.07.2007
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001787827
Titel Luftreifen mit nach unten umgeschlagener Karkasse und Verfahren zur Herstellung eines derartigen Luftreifens
Anmelder The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio, US
Erfinder Downing, Daniel Ray, Uniontown, OH 44685, US;
Benzing, James Alfred II, North Canton, OH 44720, US;
Losey, Robert Allen, Kent, OH 44240, US
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IS, IT, LI, LT, LU, LV, MC, NL, PL, PT, RO, SE, SI, SK, TR
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 20.11.2006
EP-Aktenzeichen 061244067
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 23.05.2007
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 05.07.2007
IPC-Hauptklasse B60C 15/00(2006.01)A, F, I, 20070424, B, H, EP
IPC-Nebenklasse B29D 30/20(2006.01)A, L, I, 20070424, B, H, EP   

Beschreibung[en]
Field

This invention relates to pneumatic tires, and more particularly, ply constructions for tires and a method to make such tires.

Background of the Invention

Modern passenger tires are typically constructed as shown in Figures 1 and 2, wherein the turn-up ends 20 of the ply wrap around the bead cores 26 in an inside-out fashion with reference to the interior 30 and exterior 32 of the tire. When the tire is inflated, the radial ply 15 exerts an inherent upward force F1 as shown in Figure 1. The force F1 exerted by the radial ply 15 causes the bead cores 26 to rotate in a direction R1, causing the toe 36 to lift away from the rim (not shown). This configuration is standard on the vast majority of tire constructions.

It is known in the prior art to utilize an "outside-in" configuration wherein the ply is wrapped around the bead so that the turn up end is located on the inside of the tire or inside the apex. The reversing of the location of the ply turnup results in the reversing of the direction of the force on the ply (not shown), torquing the toe 36 into the rim. Further, this reversed torquing action utilizes the material in the bead more efficiently allowing the bead size to be proportionately reduced. Other associated components can then also be reduced. Even a small decrease in the amount of materials needed to produce a tire can result in significantly decreased material expenses for a manufacturer engaged in high-volume tire production. There is a need for a tire having reduced weight that provides the desired performance characteristics and can be produced with fewer materials at a lower cost.

Summary

The invention relates to a pneumatic tire according to claim 1 and to a method of building a tier carcass according to claim 6.

Dependent claims cover preferred embodiments of the invention.

In one aspect, the present invention provides a tire utilizing an outside-in ply construction which torques the tire bead into the rim of the wheel to which it is mounted. The tire's outside-in ply construction also serves to pull down the toe of the tire, improving contact between the tire and the rim and to reduce rim indentation. The outside-in ply construction allows the rim to provide greater support for the tire. The reverse pulling direction of the ply reduces toe lifting and facilitates the use of a smaller bead and reduces the tire's weight and material usage.

The invention will best be understood with reference to the following description of preferred embodiments taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

Definitions

"Axial" and "axially" means the lines or directions that are parallel to the axis of rotation of the tire.

"Bead" or "Bead Core" means generally that part of the tire comprising an annular tensile member, the radially inner beads are associated with holding the tire to the rim being wrapped by ply cords and shaped, with or without other reinforcement elements such as flippers, chippers, apexes or fillers, toe guards and chafers.

"Carcass" means a laminate of tire ply material and other tire components cut to length suitable for splicing, or already spliced, into a cylindrical or toroidal shape. Additional components may be added to the carcass prior to its being vulcanized to create the molded tire.

"Circumferential" means lines or directions extending along the perimeter of the surface of the annular tread perpendicular to the axial direction; it can also refer to the direction of the sets of adjacent circular curves whose radii define the axial curvature of the tread as viewed in cross section.

"Cord" means one of the reinforcement strands, including fibers, which are used to reinforce the plies.

"Inner Liner" means the layer or layers of elastomer or other material that form the inside surface of a tubeless tire and that contain the inflating fluid within the tire.

"Inserts" means the reinforcement typically used to reinforce the sidewalls of runflat-type tires; it also refers to the elastomeric insert that underlies the tread.

"Ply" means a cord-reinforced layer of elastomer-coated, radially deployed or otherwise parallel cords.

"Radial" and "radially" mean directions radially toward or away from the axis of rotation of the tire.

"Laminate structure" means an unvulcanized structure made of one or more layers of tire or elastomer components such as the innerliner, sidewalls, and optional ply layer.

Brief Description of Drawings

In the accompanying drawings:

  • Fig. 1 is a cross-sectional view of the general construction of a prior art tire;
  • Fig. 2 illustrates an expanded cross-sectional view of the prior art bead region of the tire of Fig. 1;
  • Fig. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the general construction of a tire according to a first embodiment of the present invention;
  • Figs. 4A-4C are cross-sectional views showing the layout of the tire components on a tire building drum illustrating the components before turn-up of the ply, the right side turn up and the left side turn up respectively.
  • Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional view of the general construction of a tire according to a second embodiment of the present invention;
  • Figs. 6A-6B are cross-sectional views showing the layout of the tire components on a tire building drum of the tire of Figure 5. Figure 6A illustrates the components before turn-up of the ply, and Figure 6B illustrates the tire components after turn-up of the ply.
  • Fig. 7 is a cross-sectional view of another embodiment of a tire in accordance with the invention.
  • Figs. 8A-8B are cross-sectional views showing the layout of the tire components on a tire building drum of the tire of Figure 7. Figure 8A illustrates the components before turn-up of the ply, and Figure 8B illustrates the tire components after turn-up of the ply, respectively.
  • Figs. 9A and 9B are a partial cross-sectional view of a first embodiment of a ply layer, and a first and second ply layer, respectively;
  • Figs. 10A and 10B are a partial cross-sectional view of a second embodiment of a ply layer, and a first and second ply layer, respectively.
  • Figs. 11A, 11B and 11C are partial cross-sectional views of a third embodiment of a ply layer;
  • Fig. 12 is a side view of a calender system for forming ply;
  • Fig. 13 is a side view of a cross feed extruder system having a die as shown in Fig. 13A for forming ply as shown in Fig. 13B.

Description of the Preferred Embodiment(s)

With particular reference to Fig. 3, there is illustrated a cross-sectional view of a first embodiment of a tire 100 of the present invention. The tire 100 has a tread portion 102 and a pair of sidewalls 104a, 104b wherein the sidewalls are connected to the tread portion by shoulder regions 106. The tire may have one or more reinforcing belts 108 which laterally extend under the tread 102. A carcass 110 of the tire includes an innerliner 112 which extends from bead 114a to bead 114b. The carcass further comprises a first ply layer 120 and a second ply layer 130. The carcass may comprise additional ply layers if needed. The first ply 120 has a reverse turned up end with the end 122 of the ply located on the interior portion 124 of the tire. The first ply 120 extends down from the turned up end 122, wraps along the outer portion of bead 114a, up the sidewall 104a, under the tread 102, down the sidewall 104b with a second end 128 extending down to bead 114b. The second end 128 does not wrap around bead 114b. The second end 128 is tucked in between bead 114b and second ply layer 130.

A second layer of ply 130 is located radially outward of the first layer of ply 120. The second layer has a first end 132 located adjacent bead 114a and outside of first ply layer 120. The second ply layer 130 does not wrap around bead 114a. The second layer of ply 130 extends upwardly from the bead 114a, under the sidewall 104a, under the tread belts 108, under the opposite shoulder 104b, down and around the outside of bead 114b, and ending in a turned up end 134 located on the interior portion 124 of the tire. Thus each ply layer 120, 130 has only one turned up end 122, 134 that wraps around a bead in a reversed direction as compared to conventional tires.

The ply layers 120, 130 may be of standard construction, i.e., comprising a layer of elastomer-coated cords, with the cords typically angled in the range of 72 to 90 degrees, or any desired orientation. A typical standard layer of ply has a depth or gauge in the range of 0.04 to 0.06 inches, typically 0.045 inches, with a cord spacing in the range of 9 to 36 epi, alternatively 18 to 36 epi, typically 28 epi. The cord diameters of a standard ply layer are typically in the range of 0.022 to 0.031 inches. The ply layers 120, 130 may also be of reduced thickness and have a reduced cord spacing as described in more detail, below.

Figures 4A-4C illustrate the assembly of the tire components on a tire building drum of the tire of Figure 3. As shown in Fig. 4A, first an inner liner 112 is laid up on the midsection of a tire building drum 200. Next, an optional first and second toeguard 140a, 140b is placed on the outer edges of the inner liner 112 at the location where the beads 114a, 114b will be placed. A first layer of ply 120 is applied on the right hand side of the drum so that one end 122 of the first ply layer 120 is located inside of where bead 114a will be placed, while the second end 128 extends laterally outwards therefrom. A first bead 114a and optional apex 116a is set over the toeguard 140a, liner 112 and ply end 122. Then a second layer of ply 130 is applied so that one end 134 of the second ply layer is located inside second bead 114b while the second end 132 extends laterally outwards therefrom. A second bead 114b and optional apex 116b is set over the second toeguard 140b, liner 112 and second layer of ply 130. The beads are preferably locked in place on the tire building drum.

After the tire components have been laid up on the tire building drum, the right hand side tire components may be turned up on the tire building drum using conventional means such as inflatable turn up bladders (not shown). As shown in Figure 4b, first the right hand side of the tire components are folded over bead 114a and apex 116a so that the first layer of ply is in contact with the innerliner 112, and the outer end 128 of the first layer of ply 120 extends over to the opposite bead 114b. Next the left hand side of the tire components are folded over the bead 114b and apex 116b so that the outer end 132 of the second layer of ply 130 is located over the opposite bead 114a, as shown in Fig. 4c. Alternatively, the turn up order could also be reversed, if desired. Next the components can be stitched so that the inner liner and ply layers can be secured together.

Once all of the tire components are assembled, the carcass assembly 100 can be toroidally shaped by moving the beads and carcass components axially inward as the assembly is expanded radially to a toroidal shape as shown in Figure 3.

A cross-sectional view of a second embodiment of a tire assembly 200 is shown in Figure 5. The tire assembly 200 includes all of the tire components as shown in figure 3 and described above, except that a different ply construction is utilized. Instead of ply layers 120, 130 as described above, ply layers 210, 220 are utilized. Ply layer 210 is located radially outward of the inner liner 112, and has a first end 212 located adjacent bead 114b. The ply layer 210 extends up from the first end 212, up the sidewall 104b, under the tread 102, down the other sidewall 104a and extends down to the other bead 114a. The ends 212, 214 of ply layer 210 do not wrap around either bead.

A second layer of sidewall ply 220a, b is located radially outward of the first layer of ply 210 in the sidewall and shoulder area. A first sidewall ply 220a has a first end 222 located under the inner tread belt 108 and extends down the sidewall 104a, wraps around the bead 114a and optional apex 116a, and has a turned up end 224 located on the interior of the tire assembly. A second sidewall ply 220b has a first end 226 located under the inner tread belt 108 and extends down the sidewall 104b, wraps around the bead 114b and optional apex 116b, and has a turned up end 228 located on the interior of the tire assembly. Thus the second layer of ply 220 does not extend under the crown portion of the tire.

The first layer and second layer of ply 210, 220 may comprise conventional ply, having a typical gauge thickness and cord spacing. The ply layers 210, 220 may also be of reduced thickness and of reduced cord spacing as described in more detail, below.

Figures 6A and 6B illustrate the layout of the tire components on a tire building drum. As shown in Fig. 6A, first an inner liner 112 is laid up on the midsection of a tire building drum 200. Next, an optional first and second toeguard 140a, 140b is placed on the outer edges of the inner liner 112 at the location where the beads 114a, 114b will be placed. A first layer of ply 220a is applied on the right hand side of the drum so that one end 224 of the first ply layer 120 is located over the first toeguard 140a and liner 112 while the second end 222 extends laterally outwards therefrom. A first bead 114a and optional apex 116a is set over the toeguard 140a, liner 112 and ply end 224. Then a second layer of ply 220b is applied so that one end 228 of the second ply layer is located over a second toeguard 140b, and liner 112 while the second end 226 extends laterally outwards therefrom. A second bead 114b and optional apex 116b is set over the second toeguard 140b, liner 112 and second layer of ply 220b. The beads are preferably locked in place on the tire building drum. Next, ply layer 210 is laid up on the drum and is positioned over the inner liner 112 and has ends extending from bead 114a to bead 114b.

After the tire components have been laid up on the tire building drum, the right hand side and left hand side tire components may be turned up on the tire building drum using conventional means such as turn up bladders (not shown). As shown in Figure 6b, the shoulder plies 220a, 220b are folded over bead 114a and apex 116a with the ends 222a, b folded over into contact with the ply 210. Next the components can be stitched so that the inner liner and ply layers can be secured together. Once all of the tire components are assembled, the carcass assembly 100 can be toroidally shaped by moving the beads and carcass components axially inward as the assembly is expanded radially to a toroidal shape as shown in Figure 5. In summary, tire assembly thus comprises a bead-to-bead ply layer 210 which extends to, but does not wrap around beads 114a, b. The tire assembly further comprises first and second shoulder plies 220a, b which are not joined together and are not located in the crown region. Each shoulder ply 220a wraps around a respective bead so that the turn up end is located on the interior face of the tire. The first and second shoulder plies 220a, 220b and the bead-to-bead ply 210 are each preferably comprised of reduced-gauge ply with reduced epi, as described in more detail, below. Thus in the shoulder and apex regions where the ply layers overlap, the layers combine to have the full epi, full gauge of a normal ply layer.

A cross-sectional view of a third embodiment of a tire assembly 300 is shown in Figure 7. The tire assembly 300 includes all of the tire components as shown in figure 5 and described for tire assembly 200 above, except that shoulder inserts are additionally utilized for a run flat or extended mobility tire construction. A first shoulder insert 310a, b is located between the liner 112 and the bead to bead ply 210 in the shoulder of the tire assembly 300. The shoulder insert extends from near the top of apex 116 to near the edge of the belts 108 in the shoulder area. An optional second set of shoulder inserts 320a, b are located between the bead to bead ply 210 and the shoulder plies 220a, b. The second set of shoulder inserts 320a, b extend from near the edge of belts 108 to near the apex 116a,b.

The layout of the tire components is shown in Figures 8A and 8B. As shown in Fig. 8A, first an inner liner 112 is laid up on the midsection of a tire building drum 200. Next, a first and second toeguard 140a,140b and liner 112 is placed on the outer edges of the inner liner 112 at the location where the beads 114a,114b will be placed. A first layer of ply 220a is applied on the right hand side of the drum so that one end 224 of the first ply layer 120 is located over the first toeguard 140a, and liner 112 while the second end 222 extends laterally outwards therefrom. A second layer of ply 220b is applied so that one end 228 of the second ply layer is located over a second toeguard 140b while the second end 226 extends laterally outwards therefrom. Next, shoulder inserts 310a,b are placed over the ends of the inner liner. A first bead 114a and apex 116a is set over the toeguard 140a and ply end 224. A second bead 114b and apex 116b is set over the second toeguard 140b and second layer of ply 220b. The beads are preferably locked in place on the tire building drum. Next, ply layer 210 is laid up on the drum and is positioned over the inner liner 112 and has ends extending from bead 114a to bead 114b. An optional second set of inserts 320a,b is laid over the ply layer 210, axially inward of the beads.

After the tire components have been laid up on the tire building drum, the right hand side and left hand side tire components may be turned up on the tire building drum using conventional means such as turn up bladders (not shown). As shown in Figure 8b, the shoulder plies 220a, 220b are folded over bead 114a and apex 116a with the ends 222, 226 folded over into contact with the innerliner 112. Next the components can be stitched so that the inner liner and ply layers can be secured together. Once all of the tire components are assembled, the carcass assembly 300 can be toroidally shaped by moving the beads and carcass components axially inward as the assembly is expanded radially to a toroidal shape as shown in Figure 7. In summary, tire assembly 300 thus comprises a bead-to-bead ply layer 210 which extends to, but does not wrap around beads 114a, b. The tire assembly further comprises first and second shoulder plies 220a, b which are not joined together and are not located in the crown region. Each shoulder ply 220a wraps around a respective bead so that the turn up end is located on the interior face of the tire. The first and second shoulder plies 220a, 220b and the bead-to-bead ply 210 are each preferably comprised of half-gauge ply with half the desired epi. Thus in the shoulder and apex regions where the ply layers overlap, the layers combine to have the full epi, full gauge of a normal ply layer. The tire assembly further comprises one or more sets of shoulder inserts for use as an extended mobility tire or run flat tire construction.

Ply Configurations

Any or all of the ply layers 120, 130, 210, 220 in a tire may also comprise a reduced gauge ply having a reduced thickness on the order of 30% to 100 % of the gauge thickness of a standard layer of ply. A standard layer of ply is defined herein as having a depth or gauge in the range of 0.04 to 0.06 inches, typically 0.045 inches, with a cord spacing in the range of 9 to 36 epi, alternatively 18 to 36 epi, typically 28 epi, and with cord diameters in the range of 0.022 to 0.031 inches. The ply layers in a tire may have different thicknesses. Alternatively, one or more of the ply layers may have a reduced cord spacing on the order of 30% to 100% of the epi spacing of a standard layer of ply. Alternatively, any or all of the ply layers in a tire 120, 130, 210, 220 may comprise a reduced gauge ply having a reduced thickness on the order of 30% to 100 % of the normal gauge thickness and a reduced cord spacing on the order of 30% to 100% of the epi spacing.

One example of a ply layer construction is shown in Figures 9a and 9b. The first layer and second layer of ply A, B may each have a gauge thickness in the range of 30% to 100% of standard ply gauge, and a cord spacing in the range of 30% to 100% the standard cord spacing. In one example, ply layers A,B may each comprise a gauge thickness of 50% standard thickness and a reduced cord spacing of 50% of the standard cord spacing. When layers A, B are combined together, the total thickness of both layers is 100% of the standard thickness and a combined epi cord spacing of 100% of the standard epi. However, ply layers A, B may each have different gauge thickness and cord spacing and when layered together, the combined total thickness may result in a nonstandard thickness and cord spacing.

As shown in Figure 9B, the cords of ply layers A and B may be oriented at the top edge of the ply. The cords of the first layer of ply A may be offset from the cords of the second layer of ply B as shown in Figure 9B. For example, when the two layers of ply are assembled together, they may have the thickness and cord spacing of a typical layer of ply.

Alternatively as shown in figures 10A and 10B, ply layers A', B' may have the cords projecting from the gum surface of the ply. The layers A', B' may be stacked on top of each other so that the gum or back edge of the first ply layer mates with the upper surface of the second ply layer as shown in Figure 10B.

Alternatively as shown in Figures 11A-11C, ply layers may have a non-flush cord configuration coated with a skim coat of rubber. Ply layers C,D may be assembled such that the cords are abutted face to face wherein the cords of the C layer are located between the cords of the D layer, as shown in Figure 11C.

The ply layers C, D may be formed from a calender system 400 as shown in Figure 12. Rubber is fed to the nip of first calender roll 402 and a second calender roll 404 to form the base gum layer 406 of the ply. Trim knife 408 is used to trim off excess rubber to form the desired width of the base gum layer 406. Pull off roller 410 guides the base gum layer 406 and maintains the appropriate tension. The base gum layer 406 is fed to assembly roller 412 having an adjustable epi die 414 located in mating contact with the base gum layer 406. A plurality of cords is fed through the die inlet into engagement with the base gum layer mounted over the assembly roller 412. The die maintains the desired cord spacing. The cords are pressed into the top layer of the base ply by the pressure of the die against the assembly roller 412. An optional skim coat of rubber 422 may be applied as a top layer over the cords. Rubber is fed between two rollers 418, 420 having a desired clearance gap to form the desired gauge of the rubber skim coat. The skim coat 422 is applied over the cord/gum layer wherein stitcher roller 414 stitches the skim layer onto the cord/gum layer. Trim knife 424 trims the formed ply to the desired width.

The ply layers shown in Figures 9-11 may also be formed from a cross-feed extruder system 500 shown in Figure 13. As shown in Figure 13b, a cross-feed extruder die 510 may be used having grooves 514 in the upper plate 512 of the die for receiving the cords therein. The grooves are spaced to match the desired cord epi spacing. The cords are pulled through the cross feed extruder by pull-up roller 520. As the cords are pulled through the cross feed extruder, they are coated with rubber.


Anspruch[en]
A pneumatic tire comprising: first and second axially-spaced bead cores, a carcass having at least one belt extending under a tread, and a first ply layer having first and second ends, wherein the first end is located axially outside and adjacent the first bead core, and wherein the second end extends from a position axially outside the second bead core to a position axially inside and around the second bead core; the carcass further comprising: (1) a second ply layer having first and second ends, wherein the first end is located axially outside and adjacent the second bead core, and wherein the second end extends from a position axially outside the first bead core to a position axially inside and around the first bead core; or (2) first and second shoulder ply layers each shoulder ply layer having first and second ends, wherein the first end is located under the tread belt, and wherein the shoulder ply extends down the side wall region with the second end folding from a position axially outside a respective bead core to a position axially inside and around the bead core. The tire of claim 1 wherein the first ply layer and/or the second ply layer has a gauge thickness in the range of 508 µm to 1524 µm and/or a cord spacing in the range of 9 to 36 epi, particularly 18 to 29 epi. The tire of claim 1, wherein the shoulder ply layer has a gauge thickness in the range of 508 µm to 1524 µm and/or a cord spacing in the range of 9 to 36 epi, particularly 18 to 29 epi. The tire of at least one of the previous claims, wherein a pair of shoulder inserts is positioned between the first and second ply layer in the shoulder region or wherein a pair of shoulder inserts is positioned between one of said ply layers and an innerliner. The tire of at least one of the previous claims, wherein a first pair of shoulder inserts are positioned between the first and second ply layer in the shoulder region, and a second pair of shoulder inserts are positioned between one of said ply layers and an innerliner. A method of building a tire carcass comprising the steps: providing a tire building drum; laying an inner liner on said drum; applying a first layer of ply on the right hand side of the drum so that a first end of the first ply layer is located over a first bead area while the second end of the first ply layer extends laterally outwards therefrom; applying a first bead over the first bead area and ply end; applying a second layer of ply on the left hand side of the drum so that one end of the second ply layer is located over a second bead area, while the second end extends laterally outwards therefrom; applying a second bead over the second bead area and end of second ply layer; and (1) folding the second end of the first layer of ply over the first bead until the second end of the first layer of ply contacts the second bead;

folding the second layer of ply over the second bead so that the outer end of the second layer of ply is located over the first bead;

and shaping the carcass into a toroid; or
(2) applying a third layer of ply having lateral ends extending from said first bead to said second bead;

folding the second end of the first layer of ply over the first bead and into contact with the third layer of ply;

folding the second layer of ply over the second bead so that the second outer end of the second layer of ply is in contact with the third layer of ply;

and shaping the carcass into a toroid.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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