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SYSTEM UND VERFAHREN ZUM SCHUTZ EINES ELEKTROMOTORS UND DESSEN ANSTEUERSCHALTUNG, UND EIN ELEKTROMOTOR - Dokument EP1131873
 
PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP1131873 12.07.2007
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001131873
Titel SYSTEM UND VERFAHREN ZUM SCHUTZ EINES ELEKTROMOTORS UND DESSEN ANSTEUERSCHALTUNG, UND EIN ELEKTROMOTOR
Anmelder Whirlpool S.A., Sao Paulo, BR
Erfinder SCHWARZ, Marcos Guilherme, Joinville, SC, BR;
DAINEZ, Paulo Sergio, Joinville, SC, BR
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 69936222
Vertragsstaaten AT, DE, ES, FR, GB, IT
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 11.11.1999
EP-Aktenzeichen 999577828
WO-Anmeldetag 11.11.1999
PCT-Aktenzeichen PCT/BR99/00093
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 2000030243
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 25.05.2000
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 12.09.2001
EP date of grant 30.05.2007
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 12.07.2007
IPC-Hauptklasse H02H 7/08(2006.01)A, F, I, 20051017, B, H, EP
IPC-Nebenklasse H02P 7/00(2006.01)A, L, I, 20051017, B, H, EP   

Beschreibung[en]

The present invention refers to a system and method for protecting a combination of an electric motor and its control circuit, which aims at detecting possible technical failures that cause the current to rise.

An electric motor basically comprises a rotor and a stator. In order for this motor to function, that is so say, for the rotor to start moving, voltage is applied to the stator, inducing the movement of the rotor.

Usually, the control of rotation speed of the motor is carried out by means of inverters, which in turn are formed from switches, as for instance a MOSFET (transistor).

The application of electric motors having controlled speed is widespread, being used, for instance, for driving compressors, household appliances, traction, etc.

Basically, when used in permanent-magnet motors without position sensors, the inverters are constituted by a set of diodes for branching the alternate voltage, from a central control that actuates the switches and a block responsible for detecting the position of the rotor by monitoring the voltages in the phases of motor, making a comparison between the monitored values. The control of the motor is carried out by modulating the voltage on the phase of the motor, which consists in applying and interrupting the voltage on the phases at a high frequency. By means of this modulation, it is possible to control the current supplied to said phases of the motor, and one can adjust it at the desired torque and speed for its operation.

In the case of induction motors, the position detector of the rotor is not used, the control of speed and torque being effected by modulating the voltage on the phases of the motor.

In both cases, a central control is employed, which is usually constituted by a microcontroller or a signal processor, which receives the external command for operation of the motor and starting from the monitoring of internal variables of the motor/inverter (current on the motor, position of the rotor, etc.), generating commands that supply voltage and current to the motor.

During the actuation and functioning of the motor, the current may undergo rises (or surge current) as a result of an overload or else as a result of a short-circuit.

The rise of the current resulting from an overload does not immediately endanger the integrity of the motor and can be controlled. However, the current rise resulting from a short-circuit has a very rapid action, and so a protection mechanism should be actuated in order to prevent damage to the motor or the respective control circuit.

Description of the Prior Art

The systems and methods for detecting surge current in electric motors known from the prior art usually actuate by using a predetermined current value, that is to say, a maximum current value is predetermined, so that the motor will not be damaged and, once this value is exceeded, a protection mechanism is actuated, protecting the motor or the respective control circuit. However, this protection method does not enable one to differentiate whether the current rise results from an overload or from a short-circuit, causing the protection mechanism to be actuated in either situations.

One prior art approach is disclosed in GB 2 267 190 and is related to a circuit breaker to shut down the power of an electric motor in the event of a failure. According to this solution, three separate circuits detect a slight-overload, a sever-overload or a short-circuit are connected to a led panel to indicate the type of problem that accrued.

Another related prior art is disclosed in US 4 558 264. According to this document, an electric motor is controlled by measuring the electric current being applied. It is not foreseen a solution to protect the motor in case of an overload or a short-circuit.

CH 69628 discloses a protection system including a control circuit of an electric motor which is supplied by an inverter for controlling the motor speed, which detects a surge current when a motor phase current exceeds a predetermined current value. The central control system compares the rise time of the surge current with the no-fault conduction time of the inverter switches, and switches off the switch which is most near the end of its no-fault conduction time, in order to keep the supply efficiency.

Short Description of the Invention

The objective of the present invention is to provide a system and a method for detecting the occurrence of surge on electric motors and its control circuit, which will enable one to distinguish the occurrence of overload on the motor from a short-circuit, by using only a current detector adjusted to a preferred limit.

This objective is achieved by means of a protection system including a control circuit (2) of an electric motor (1) for protecting the control circuit (2) and the electric motor (1),

the control circuit (2) comprising a set of switches (Ch), the switches (Ch) being provided in a inverter arrangement to control the speed of the motor (1),

the motor (1) having phases (F),

the system further comprising a central control (7) connected to the control circuit (2), the central control (7) being arranged to measure an electricity conduction time (Tc) of each of the switches (Ch) and measuring a rise time (Td) passed between the beginning of the conduction of one of the switches (Ch) and the occurrence of a surge current, the surge current being measured by means of a surge detector (3) which is arranged to detect when the value of a current (IRS) that flows through the phases (F) and the control circuit (2) exceeds a predetermined current (ILIMIT) value,

characterised by:

  • the central control (7) being arranged to make a comparison between the rise time (Td) and the electricity conduction time (Tc) multiplied by a factor K to determine whether the surge current results from an overload or from a short-circuit on the electric motor (1) or any of the switches (Ch).

The present invention also refers to a method for protecting an electric motor (1) having phases (F) and its control circuit (2),

the speed control of the motor (1) being carried out by means of a set of switches (Ch), the switches (Ch) being provided in an inverter arrangement,

the method comprising the steps of:

  • measuring an electricity conduction time (Tc) of each of the switches (Ch),
  • measuring a rise time (Td) passed between the beginning of conduction of one of the switches (Ch) and the occurrence of a surge, by detecting when the value of a current (1RS) that flows through the phases (F) of the motor (1) and the control circuit (2) exceeds a predetermined current (1LIMIT) value,
characterised by:
  • comparing the rise time (Td) and the electricity conduction time (Tc) multiplied by a factor K to determine whether the surge current results from an overload or from a sort-circuit of the electric motor (1) or on any of the switches (Ch).

Brief Description Of The Drawings

The present invention will now be described in greater detail with reference to an embodiment represented in the drawings, in which:

  • Figure 1 represents a schematic diagram of the speed control circuit of the motor and of the surge current detector according to the present invention;
  • Figure 2 shows a temporal diagram representing the behavior of the current in a overload current situation;
  • Figure 3 shows a temporal diagram representing the behavior of the current in a short-circuit situation;
  • Figure 4 represents a flow-diagram of the method according to the present invention.

Detailed Description Of The Figures

The system for protecting an electric motor and its control circuit according to the present invention basically comprises a surge current detector 3, adjusted to a determined current limit.

Figure 1 schematically illustrates the motor 1 and the respective circuits for its control 2 and feeding. According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the motor 1 described will be of the three-phase type, which does not prevent the invention from being applied to another type of electric motor.

As can be seen from figure 1, the motor 1 and its control circuit 2 are fed by a source supplying alternate voltage that will be rectified by a set of diodes D and filtered by a capacitor C1. A set of switches Ch1 - Ch6 is responsible for the modulation of the voltage on the phases F1, F2, and F3 of the motor 1. The control of the set of switches Ch1 - Ch6 is carried out by a central control 7.

The detection of surge current is carried out by means of a surge-current detecting circuit 3 that is connected to the control central 7, which measures the current IRS that flows along the circuit through the resistor RS, that is to say, the current that flows through the switches Ch1-Ch6.

As illustrated in figure 1, the resistor RS is installed in a position of the circuit that allows one to read the current LM flowing through phases F1, F2, and F3 of the motor, the current IRS basically representing the current IM.

The central control emits commands for closing and opening the switches Ch1 - Ch6, besides receiving external information, such as the signal DS, for instance. The signal DS is generated by the surge current detector 3, when a predetermined ILIMIT value (current limit) is exceeded.

The surge current detector 3 comprises an operational amplifier mounted as a voltage comparator CO, the inlets of which are fed with voltages "E-" and "E+", wherein "E+" is the voltage of the first terminal of the resistor RS, and "E-" is the voltage of the other terminal of this resistor RS, plus an essentially constant voltage, defined by the voltage divider RA and RB. The +VB voltage is a constant.

The resistor R1 causes the voltage variations on the resistor RS (represented by the current IM of the motor) to be added to the constant voltage defined by the resistors RA and RB.

For a situation in which the current IM flowing through the motor 1 is close to zero, the voltage "E-" is higher than the voltage "E+", thus causing the outlet Ds of the voltage comparator CO to be at "low" level.

When the current though the motor 1 rises above a ILIMIT limit defined by the resistors RA, RB and R1, the voltage in the inlet "E-" becomes lower than the voltage in the inlet corresponding to a current value beyond the admissible limit, that is to say, above the ILIMIT limit, thus characterizing the detection of surge current. In this situation, the outlet of the comparator CO passes from "low" level to "high" level, signaling the occurrence of surge current to the control central 7 by means of DS.

The differentiation between an overload and a short-circuit is made by measuring the rise variation time of the current IRS, i.e., in the event of overload, the current rise occurs gradually, taking a relatively long period of time, until the ILIMIT value is reached, whereas in the cases when the motor 1 enters into short-circuit, the ILIMIT value is reached much more rapidly, thus enabling one to detect this kind of failure by measuring the time.

As already known from the prior art, the speed control is carried out by means of switches Ch1 - Ch6 and, as illustrated in figures 2 and 3, the switches Ch1,Ch4 conduct electricity for a determined period of time Tc that varies depending upon the rotation speed to be imposed to the motor 1.

In order to determine by means of the central control 7 whether the kind of failure on the motor 1 results from a overload or from a short-circuit, the present invention foresees the Tc-time and Td-time measurement. The Td-time is counted from the beginning of the conduction of the switches Ch until the moment when the current has reached the ILIMIT value, that is to say, when the surge current occurred (see figures 2 and 3). The Tc-time is the time of conduction of the switches Ch and depends upon the situation of motor operation (basically speed and load).

Figures 2 and 3 represent the temporal diagrams of the situations of overload and short-circuit, respectively. By comparing the two diagrams, one can see in detail that, in the short-circuit situation, the current IRS reaches the ILIMIT value in much shorter Td time when compared with the Td time in the overload situation.

As can be seen from figure 4 schematically, the criterion used for determining whether the surge current results from an overload or from a short-circuit depends upon a relation between the Td and Tc times. Thus, when the relation Td < Tc . k is true, this means that the motor 1 is in short-circuit, and when the relation is false, this means that the motor 1 has undergone a overload. The measurement of the Td and Tc times, as well as the comparison between the respective values is carried out by means of the control central 7.

The value of the constant k is a fraction or portion of the Tc value (being a number between 0 and 1), and defines the limit for the distinction of the kind of failure that occurred on the motor 1, and may vary depending upon the type of motor 1 in use, in addition to the protection level to be given to the latter.

For instance, if the value of k is 50% (or 0.5) and if the Td time is short (shorter than 50% of Tc), this means that the motor 1 is in short-circuit, and it is necessary to add some protection mechanism in order to avoid damage to said motor 1. In the cases when Td is longer (longer than or equal to 50% of Tc), this means that the motor 1 has undergone a overload.

Besides enabling one to differentiate the kind of failure occurred on the motor 1 or on one of the switches Ch1 - Ch6, the present invention further enables one to estimate the value of the surge that occurred on the motor 1 by evaluating the proportion Td/Tc.

A preferred embodiment of the invention having been described, it should be understood that the scope of the present invention embraces other possible variations, being limited only by the contents of the accompanying claims, the possible equivalents being included therein.


Anspruch[de]
Schutzsystem, umfassend eine Steuer/Regelschaltung (2) eines Elektromotors (1) zum Schutz der Steuer/Regelschaltung (2) und des Elektromotors (1),

wobei die Steuer/Regelschaltung (2) einen Satz von Schaltern (Ch) umfasst, wobei die Schalter (Ch) in einer Stromrichteranordnung/Umrichteranordnung/Wechselrichteranordnung zur Steuerung/Regelung der Drehzahl des Motors (1) angeordnet sind,

wobei der Motor (1) Phasen (F) aufweist,

wobei das System ferner eine zentrale Steuerung/Regelung (7) umfasst, welche mit der Steuer/Regelschaltung (2) verbunden ist,

wobei die zentrale Steuerung/Regelung (7) derart angeordnet ist, dass sie eine Elektrizitätsdurchleitzeit (Tc) eines jeden der Schalter (Ch) sowie eine Anstiegszeit (Td) misst, die zwischen dem Beginn der Durchleitung eines der Schalter (Ch) und dem Auftreten eines Spitzenstroms vergeht, wobei der Spitzenstrom mittels eines Spitzenstromdetektors (3) gemessen wird, welcher derart angeordnet ist, dass er erfasst, wann der Wert eines durch die Phasen (F) und die Steuer/Regelschaltung (2) fließenden Stroms (IRS) einen vorbestimmten Stromwert (ILIMIT) überschreitet,

dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass: die zentrale Steuerung/Regelung (7) derart angeordnet ist, dass sie einen Vergleich zwischen der Anstiegszeit (Td) und der mit einem Faktor k multiplizierten Elektrizitätsdurchleitzeit (Tc) durchführt, um zu bestimmen, ob der Spitzenstrom von einer Überlast oder von einem Kurzschluss an dem Elektromotor (1) oder einem beliebigen der Schalter (Ch) herrührt.
System nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die zentrale Steuerung/Regelung (7) derart angeordnet ist, dass sie einen Zustand eines Kurzschlusses des Motors (1) oder eines der Schalter (Ch) anzeigt, wenn die Anstiegszeit (Td) kürzer ist als die mit dem zwischen 0 und 1 liegenden Faktor (k) multiplizierte Zeit (Tc), und dass die zentrale Steuerung/Regelung (7) derart angeordnet ist, dass sie einen Überlastzustand des Motors (1) anzeigt, wenn die Anstiegszeit (Td) länger ist als die mit dem Faktor (k) multiplizierte Zeit (Tc). System nach Anspruch 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Faktor (k) gleich 0,5 ist. System eines elektrischen Motors (1) mit einem Rotor, einem Stator und Phasen (F) sowie einem Schutzsystem nach einem der vorangehenden Ansprüche. Verfahren zum Schutz eines Elektromotors (1) mit Phasen (F) und seiner Steuer/Regelschaltung (2),

wobei die Steuerung/Regelung der Drehzahl des Motors (1) mittels eines Satzes von Schaltern (Ch) durchgeführt wird, wobei die Schalter (Ch) in einer Stromrichteranordnung/Umrichteranordnung/Wechselrichteranordnung angeordnet sind,

wobei das Verfahren die folgenden Schritte umfasst: Messen eine Elektrizitätsdurchleitzeit (Tc) eines jeden der Schalter (Ch), Messen einer Anstiegszeit (Td), die zwischen dem Beginn der Durchleitung eines der Schalter (Ch) und dem Auftreten eines Spitzenstroms vergeht, und zwar durch Erfassen, wann der Wert eines durch die Phasen (F) des Motors (1) und die Steuer/Regelschaltung (2) fließenden Stroms (IRS) einen vorbestimmten Stromwert (ILIMIT) überschreitet, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass: die Anstiegszeit (Td) und die mit einem Faktor k multiplizierte Elektrizitätsdurchleitzeit (Tc) verglichen werden, um zu bestimmen, ob der Spitzenstrom von einer Überlast oder von einem Kurzschluss des Elektromotors (1) oder an einem beliebigen der Schalter (Ch) herrührt.
Verfahren nach Anspruch 5, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass in dem Vergleichsschritt ein Zustand eines Kurzschlusses des Motors (1) oder an einem der Schalter (Ch) angezeigt wird, wenn die Anstiegszeit (Td) kürzer ist als die mit dem zwischen 0 und 1 liegenden Faktor (k) multiplizierte Zeit (Tc), und dass der Überlastzustand des Motors (1) angezeigt wird, wenn die Anstiegszeit (Td) länger ist als die mit dem Faktor (k) multiplizierte Zeit (Tc). System nach Anspruch 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass in dem Vergleichsschritt der Faktor (k) gleich 0,5 ist.
Anspruch[en]
A protection system including a control circuit (2) of an electric motor (1) for protecting the control circuit (2) and the electric motor (1),

the control circuit (2) comprising a set of switches (Ch), the switches (Ch) being provided in a inverter arrangement to control the speed of the motor (1),

the motor (1) having phases (F),

the system further comprising a central control (7) connected to the control circuit (2), the central control (7) being arranged to measure an electricity conduction time (Tc) of each of the switches (Ch) and measuring a rise time (Td) passed between the beginning of the conduction of one of the switches (Ch) and the occurrence of a surge current, the surge current being measured by means of a surge detector (3) which is arranged to detect when the value of a current (IRS) that flows through the phases (F) and the control circuit (2) exceeds a predetermined current (ILIMIT) value,

characterised by: the central control (7) being arranged to make a comparison between the rise time (Td) and the electricity conduction time (Tc) multiplied by a factor K to determine whether the surge current results from an overload or from a short-circuit on the electric motor (1) or any of the switches (Ch).
A system according to claim 1, characterized in that the central control (7) is arranged to indicate a condition of short-circuit of the motor (1) or on one of the switches (Ch) when the rise time (Td) is shorter than the time (Tc) multiplied by the factor (k) that ranges from 0 to 1, and the central control (7) is arranged to indicate a condition of overload of the motor (1) when the rise time (Td) is longer than the time (Tc) multiplied by the factor (k). A system according to claim 2, characterized in that the factor (k) is equal to 0.5. An electric motor system (1) having a rotor, a stator and phases (F), and a protection system as claimed in any preceding claim. A method for protecting an electric motor (1) having phases (F) and its control circuit (2),

the speed control of the motor (1) being carried out by means of a set of switches (Ch), the switches (Ch) being provided in an inverter arrangement,

the method comprising the steps of: measuring an electricity conduction time (Tc) of each of the switches (Ch), measuring a rise time (Td) passed between the beginning of conduction of one of the switches (Ch) and the occurrence of a surge, by detecting when the value of a current (1RS) that flows through the phases (F) of the motor (1) and the control circuit (2) exceeds a predetermined current (1 LIMIT) value, characterised by : comparing the rise time (Td) and the electricity conduction time (Tc) multiplied by a factor K to determine whether the surge current results from an overload or from a sort-circuit of the electric motor (1) or on any of the switches (Ch).
A method according to claim 5, characterized in that, in the comparison step, a condition of short-circuit of the motor (1) or on one of the switches (Ch) is indicated when the rise time (Td) is shorter than the time (Tc) multiplied by the factor (k) that ranges from 0 to 1, and overload condition of the motor (1) is indicated when the rise time (Td) is longer than the time (Tc) multiplied by the factor (k). A method according to claim 6, characterized in that, in the comparison step the factor (k) is equal to 0.5.
Anspruch[fr]
Système de protection comprenant un circuit de commande (2) d'un moteur électrique (1) pour protéger le circuit de commande (2) et le moteur électrique (1),

le circuit de commande (2) comprenant un ensemble d'interrupteurs (Ch), les interrupteurs (Ch) étant prévus selon un arrangement en inverseur afin de réguler la vitesse du moteur (1),

le moteur (1) ayant des phases (F),

le système comprenant en outre une unité de commande centrale (7) connectée au circuit de commande (2), l'unité de commande centrale (7) étant arrangée pour mesurer un temps de conduction d'électricité (Tc) de chacun des interrupteurs (Ch) et pour mesurer un temps de montée (Td) passé entre le début de la conduction de l'un des interrupteurs (Ch) et la survenue d'un courant de surcharge, le courant de surcharge étant mesuré au moyen d'un détecteur de surcharge (3) qui est arrangé pour détecter le moment où la valeur d'un courant (IRS) qui circule à travers les phases (F) et le circuit de commande (2) dépasse une valeur de courant (ILIMIT) prédéterminée,

caractérisé par : le fait que l'unité de commande centrale (7) est arrangée pour établir une comparaison entre le temps de montée (Td) et le temps de conduction d'électricité (Tc) multiplié par un facteur k, de façon à déterminer si le courant de surcharge résulte d'une surcharge ou d'un court-circuit sur le moteur électrique (1) ou sur l'un quelconque des interrupteurs (Ch).
Système selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que l'unité de commande centrale (7) est arrangée pour indiquer une condition de court-circuit sur le moteur (1) ou sur l'un des interrupteurs (Ch) quand le temps de montée (Td) est plus court que le temps (Tc) multiplié par le facteur (k) qui va de 0 à 1, et l'unité de commande centrale (7) est arrangée pour indiquer une condition de surcharge du moteur (1) quand le temps de montée (Td) est plus long que le temps (Tc) multiplié par le facteur (k). Système selon la revendication 2, caractérisé en ce que le facteur (k) est égal à 0,5. Système de moteur électrique (1) ayant un rotor, un stator et des phases (F), et un système de protection selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes. Procédé de protection d'un moteur électrique (1) ayant des phases (F), et de son circuit de commande (2),

la régulation de la vitesse du moteur (1) étant réalisée au moyen d'un ensemble d'interrupteurs (Ch), les interrupteurs (Ch) étant prévus selon un arrangement en inverseur,

le procédé comprenant les étapes suivantes : mesurer un temps de conduction d'électricité (Tc) de chacun des interrupteurs (Ch), mesurer un temps de montée (Td) passé entre le début de la conduction de l'un des interrupteurs (Ch) et la survenue d'une surcharge, en détectant le moment où la valeur d'un courant (IRS) qui circule à travers les phases (F) du moteur (1) et le circuit de commande (2) dépasse une valeur de courant (ILIMIT) prédéterminée, caractérisé par: comparer le temps de montée (Td) et le temps de conduction d'électricité (Tc) multiplié par un facteur k, de façon à déterminer si le courant de surcharge résulte d'une surcharge ou d'un court-circuit sur le moteur électrique (1) ou sur l'un quelconque des interrupteurs (Ch).
Procédé selon la revendication 5, caractérisé en ce que, au cours de l'étape de comparaison, une condition de court-circuit sur le moteur (1) ou sur l'un des interrupteurs (Ch) est indiquée quand le temps de montée (Td) est plus court que le temps (Tc) multiplié par le facteur (k) qui va de 0 à 1, et une condition de surcharge du moteur (1) est indiquée quand le temps de montée (Td) est plus long que le temps (Tc) multiplié par le facteur (k). Procédé selon la revendication 6, caractérisé en ce que, au cours de l'étape de comparaison, le facteur (k) est égal à 0,5.






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