PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP1501692 23.08.2007
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001501692
Titel KÜHLSYSTEME FÜR EIN AMPHIBIENFAHRZEUG
Anmelder Gibbs Technologies Ltd., Nuneaton, Warwickshire, GB
Erfinder GIBBS, Alan Timothy, London SW11 4DL, GB
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
DE-Aktenzeichen 60314863
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IT, LI, LU, MC, NL, PT, RO, SE, SI, SK, TR
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 28.04.2003
EP-Aktenzeichen 037189610
WO-Anmeldetag 28.04.2003
PCT-Aktenzeichen PCT/GB03/01837
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 2003093037
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 13.11.2003
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 02.02.2005
EP date of grant 11.07.2007
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 23.08.2007
IPC-Hauptklasse B60F 3/00(2006.01)A, F, I, 20051017, B, H, EP
IPC-Nebenklasse B60K 11/04(2006.01)A, L, I, 20051017, B, H, EP   F01P 9/04(2006.01)A, L, I, 20051017, B, H, EP   F01P 3/18(2006.01)A, L, I, 20051017, B, H, EP   

Beschreibung[en]

The present invention relates to the cooling of internal combustion engines in amphibious vehicles, hereafter called amphibians; particularly for planing amphibians. The term external water is used to define water drawn in from outside the amphibian for cooling purposes; whereas the term internal water is used to denote water circulating entirely and solely within the amphibian for cooling purposes.

An amphibian engine cooling system is known from document US-A-3,763,953 , which is considered to represent the closest prior art. It discloses a cooling system with a first air-liquid heat exchanger and a second liquid-liquid heat exchanger. However, the external water inlet for said second liquid-liquid heat exchanger is arranged at the bow end of the amphibian's hull.

Inboard mounted internal combustion engines used to drive small marine craft are almost invariably directly cooled by water. This is pumped from the water around the craft directly via a filter through the engine block and thence overboard. This may necessitate measures to prevent internal corrosion of the engine.

Land vehicles, apart from a few which are air cooled, employ indirect means whereby liquid coolant is circulated through the engine block from and back to a heat exchanger, that is a radiator, which is cooled by air directed through the exchanger.

The problem with amphibians is that the sole provision of direct water cooling is not feasible because the vehicle may be on land; and air intakes for indirect cooling radiators cannot always be located in convenient positions. Furthermore, the difficulty of mounting a radiator in a convenient position may result in precious space being taken up by air ducts or fans or both.

External water-water heat exchangers have been tried on amphibians, but have two notable drawbacks. One is that they are susceptible to damage, particularly from foreign objects; the other is that they inhibit marine performance and reduce hydrodynamic efficiency by breaking up the otherwise smooth contour of the underside of the hull.

A planing amphibian engine cooling system according to the invention comprises liquid coolant ducting for circulating the coolant around the engine an air inlet, a first heat exchanger connected to the ducting and arranged so that air may be passed from the air inlet through the first exchanger to cool the coolant circulated around the engine, a water inlet on the underside of the hull and a second heat exchanger connected to the ducting and arranged so that external water may be passed through the water inlet from outside the hull to inside the hull, then through the second exchanger to cool the coolant, the water inlet being within the rear two thirds of the length of the hull. The invention also comprises an amphibian having the above system.

The arrangement of the invention is such that when the vehicle is in the water, ait cooling arrangements may be closed down whereby air intakes may be shut to protect air cooled heat exchangers. This will not only protect the heat exchanger matrix from foreign object damage, but also prevent external water flooding the radiator compartment and affecting vehicle handling and stability. Furthermore, unlike the arrangements in US 4,730,664 (Forsthuber et al ), the heat exchanging can be compact with an air cooled exchanger located near upper intakes and a water cooled exchanger located as low down in the vehicle as possible to ensure good stability in the water. The location of the water inlet within the rear two thirds of the length of the hull ensures that as the vehicle moves from displacement mode to planing mode, there is a continuous flow of cooling water ensured by the presence of a small pressure greater than atmospheric pressure.

Whilst it would theoretically be attractive to change from indirect to direct cooling when entering the water, there would be a difficult and critical time at the time of entry where air ducts were prone to damage and yet water cooling was not available due to incomplete entry. For simplicity and safety, it is therefore preferred to employ indirect cooling for both land and water modes. This also allows retention of antifreeze with its associated corrosion inhibitors in the engine coolant ducting, to protect the engine during winter storage and/or driving of the amphibian.

Preferably a cooling water pump is provided to circulate water from outside the amphibian of the invention through the second heat exchanger to avoid reliance on air cooling through the first exchanger whilst the amphibian is stopped. Alternatively, external water may be arranged to be taken from the pressurized side of a marine jet drive to the second heat exchanger. This saves the weight and cost of a discrete cooling water pump used specifically to feed the second exchanger.

A second alternative arrangement comprises a second heat exchanger combined with the marine jet drive. This could be in the form of a jacket for internal water surrounding the jet drive. In addition, cavities in the jet drive hub and/or stator blades may be used, as described in our co-pending application, published as GB2,363,453A . This arrangement has the advantage of not requiring any external water plumbing within the vehicle, other than the jet drive itself. Furthermore, the entire thrust of the jet unit is available for vehicle propulsion, without any pressure being used for circulating water within the vehicle.

In one embodiment of the invention, the first exchanger is mounted in the front of the vehicle behind an air intake located above the vehicle static water line. This is particularly suitable for a planing amphibian, where the bow will ride higher in the water than that of a displacement vehicle. Alternatively, the first exchanger may be located behind closure means comprising one or more closable flap(s). The flap or flaps not only protect the exchanger from the surrounding water when the vehicle is travelling fast, but also from flotsam. The flap(s) can be provided with a simple hinged opening and closing arrangement.

Fast amphibians require a water inlet to be nearer the stem. For example, a planing amphibian will require the water inlet to be in the back half of the hull. For best results when the vehicle is tramping, it has been found that the water inlet should preferably be located between 60% and 95% of the distance from front to back of the waterline on the plane, and more preferably between 70% and 90% of the distance from front to back. A water inlet in such a location beneath the hull is placed near the centre of pressure for a planing vehicle, thus ensuring a plentiful supply of water.

Embodiments of the invention will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:-

  • Figure 1 is a diagrammatic side elevation of an amphibian with a radiator in the front;
  • Figure 2 is a diagrammatic side elevation of an amphibian with a radiator at the rear;
  • Figure 3 is a diagrammatic side elevation of an alternative layout of an amphibian with a radiator at the rear;
  • Figure 4 is a diagrammatic side elevation of a further alternative layout of an amphibian with a radiator at the rear; and
  • Figure 5 is a diagrammatic side elevation of a yet further alternative layout of an amphibian with a radiator at the rear.

In all of these figures, the road wheel and marine transmissions have been omitted for clarity, as have various brackets and supports; exhaust piping and electrical wiring; the radiator header tank and any oil coolers fitted. These parts will clearly be necessary for the functioning of the amphibian, but do not form part of the invention, and therefore will not be described in detail. In all cases, a filter (not shown) may be fitted to the water inlet for the second exchanger, to protect said exchanger from blockage and/or damage by foreign objects. Furthermore, components have been shown in such orientations as to make the figures clear, and therefore may in practice be in alternative alignments for functional or packaging reasons.

Although the general principles of the invention could be applied to amphibians with front-, mid-, or rear-mounted engines, and with either displacement or platting hulls, they will be described with particular reference to a mid-engined planing amphibian.

In Figure 1, where the amphibian generally shown at 1 is mid-engined, a first heat exchanger (i.e. radiator) 2 is located behind an air inlet 3, which may be closed by means of a hinged flap 4. The engine 5 has internal coolant ducting represented schematically by broken lines 6. Ducting 6 is connected to the first heat exchanger 2 via a second heat exchanger 8 and piping 10, 11. The second heat exchanger 8 is cooled by water pumped by pump 12 through piping 14 venting into pump jet duct 16. First exchanger 2 is ideally located to take advantage of forward movement when on land, but requires the closure flap 4 and lengthy piping 10, 11.

Figure 2 shows a cooling system in which engine 25 for vehicle 21 is cooled in the same way as the previous embodiment, except that first exchanger 22 is located at the rear of the vehicle enabling piping 30 connecting exchanger 22 to engine ducting 26 to be shortened. Pipe 31 connecting first exchanger 22 to second exchanger 28 is likewise shorter than pipe 11 in the first embodiment. The water for second exchanger 28 can be fed by piping 34, venting as before into pump jet duct 36. Numeral 23 denotes a radiator grille. A fan 27 is shown in schematic form. A typical water line for planing is shown at 37."

Figure 3 shows a cooling system in which engine 45 for vehicle 41 is cooled in the same way as the previous embodiment, by a first exchanger located at the rear of the vehicle. In this case, pipe 51 connects first exchanger 42 to second exchanger 48, which is arranged as a jacket around marine jet drive 56. As shown in the figure, this jacket is arranged to drive water around the outside of jet drive 56 from port 55 to port 57, without taking a short cut straight across from one port to the other. It will be seen that there is no pump in this arrangement other than the engine water pump, which may require to be upgraded to cope with the longer water pipes.

Figure 4 shows a further amphibian where the first exchanger is located in a second compartment separate to the engine compartment, as described in the applicant's co-pending application, published as WO 02/070289 . Amphibian 61 has a mid-mounted engine 65 with cooling ducting 66. First exchanger 62 and second exchanger 68 are located in a compartment 79, which is separated from the engine by a bulkhead 80. Air passes into compartment 79 through grille 63, through exchanger 62, past one or more exhaust silencers 81, and out through further grille 64. Air flow may be assisted by one or more fans 67. Although it is not essential that exchanger 68 is located in compartment 79, this may be convenient for assembly and routing of water pipes. Exhaust silencer 81 is also located in compartment 79, and has a tailpipe 82 passing through grille 64. The back part of the amphibian hull 69 is cut away at 84 to allow fitment and operation of trim tabs, also the steering nozzle (not shown) and reversing bucket (where fitted) for the jet drive. In the embodiment shown, water is first drawn into the hull through the jet drive intake below the hull, then tapped off from the pressurized side of the jet through inlet pipe 74 in jet pump duct 76. As can be seen from the figure, inlet pipe 74 is initially outside the hull, but passes through it. The external water outlet 83 from the second exchanger can be seen at the transom 85.

Figure 5 shows a yet further amphibian where the first exchanger is located in a second compartment separate to the engine compartment. Amphibian 101 has a mid-mounted engine 105 with cooling ducting 106, located in engine compartment 117, limited by a forward bulkhead 113. First exchanger 102 is located at the top of compartment 119, which is separated from the engine by a bulkhead. As this bulkhead does not fully seal compartment 119 from engine compartment 117, it is shown as an upper bulkhead 120 and a lower bulkhead 118. Outside air passes into compartment 119 through grille 103, as shown by arrows; and is drawn through exchanger 102 by one or more fans 107, then exhausted past silencer 121 and out of the vehicle through grille 104. In this embodiment, exchanger 108 is located in compartment 117. Hoses or pipes 110, 111 connect the engine to the first exchanger, and the first exchanger to the second, in a similar fashion to previous embodiments. However, in this case, engine 105 has a separate cooling system comprising further air intakes and fans (not shown). These blow air through compartment 117, and out through compartment 119. It is important that first exchanger 102 should have an intake of ambient temperature air, rather than pre-warmed air from engine compartment 117; so upper bulkhead 120 is arranged to seal off the intake to exchanger 102 from the exhaust air from compartment 117. External water for the second exchanger is first drawn into the hull through the jet drive intake 114 below the hull, then tapped off from the pressurized side of the jet through inlet pipe 115 in jet pump duct 116. An alternative representation of the piping through the second exchanger is shown as compared to the figure 4 embodiment, to clarify the external water flow through the second exchanger.

It will be appreciated that further modifications to the layout of components may also be made as required. In particular, it may be found convenient to fit radiator 102 at a different angle, or in a yet further position, to that shown. Exhaust silencer 121 may also be located ahead of radiator 102.


Anspruch[de]
Kühlsystem für den Motor eines Amphibiengleitfahrzeugs, umfassend ein Leitungsnetz für Flüssigkeitskühlmittel (6, 10, 11) zum Zirkulierenlassen des Kühlmittels rund um den Motor (5), eine Lufteintrittsöffnung (3), einen ersten Wärmetauscher (2), der mit dem Leitungsnetz (6, 10, 11) verbunden und so angeordnet ist, dass die Luft von der Lufteintrittsöffnung (3) durch den ersten Austauscher (2) geleitet werden kann, um das Kühlmittel, das rund um den Motor (5) zirkuliert, abzukühlen, einen Wassereinlauf an der Unterseite der Hülle und einen zweiten Wärmetauscher (8), der mit dem Leitungsnetz (6, 10, 11) verbunden und so angeordnet ist, dass externes Wasser durch den Wassereinlauf an der Unterseite der Hülle von außerhalb der Hülle ins Innere der Hülle und danach durch den zweiten Austauscher (8) geleitet werden kann, um das Kühlmittel abzukühlen, wobei der Wassereinlauf innerhalb der hinteren zwei Drittel der Länge der Hülle angeordnet ist. Kühlsystem nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Lufteintrittsöffnung (3) an der Vorderseite des Fahrzeugs oberhalb der Wasserlinie im Ruhezustand angeordnet ist. Kühlsystem nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Lufteintrittsöffnung (3) mit Verschließmitteln (4) versehen ist, so dass sie geschlossen werden kann, wenn sich das Amphibienfahrzeug (1) auf dem Wasser befindet. Kühlsystem nach Anspruch 3, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Verschließmittel eine oder mehrere drehbar gelagerte Klappen (4) umfassen. Kühlsystem nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Amphibienfahrzeug (1) einen Mittelmotor (5) aufweist. Kühlsystem nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass es so gestaltet ist, dass externes Wasser für den zweiten Austauscher (68, 108) von der druckbeaufschlagten Seite eines Schiffsstrahltriebwerks entnommen wird. Kühlsystem nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass es so gestaltet ist, dass externes Wasser für den zweiten Austauscher (8) durch eine Kühlwasserpumpe (12) in das Fahrzeug gesaugt wird. Kühlsystem nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Einlass für externes Wasser an einer Stelle zwischen 60 % und 95 % des Abstands von der Vorderseite zur Hinterseite der Wasser linie (37) des Gleiters angeordnet ist. Kühlsystem nach Anspruch 8, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Einlass für externes Wasser an einer Stelle zwischen 70 % und 90 % des Abstands von der Vorderseite zur Hinterseite der Wasserlinie (37) des Gleiters angeordnet ist. Kühlsystem nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, dadurch gekennzeichnet dass der zweite Austauscher (48) mit dem Schiffsstrahltriebwerk verbunden ist. Kühlsystem nach Anspruch 10, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der zweite Austauscher (48) einen Kühlwassermantel rund um das Schiffsstrahltriebwerk (56) umfasst. Kühlsystem nach Anspruch 10 oder Anspruch 11, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der zweite Austauscher Kühlwasserkanäle durch die Leitschaufeln des Schiffsstrahltriebwerkes umfasst. Kühlsystem nach Anspruch 12, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der zweite Austauscher Kühlwasserkanäle durch die Nabe des Schiffsstrahltriebwerkes umfasst. Kühlsystem nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der erste Austauscher (62, 102) in einer zweiten Kammer (79) getrennt vom Motorraum angeordnet ist. Kühlsystem nach Anspruch 14, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der zweite Austauscher (68) ebenfalls in der zweiten Kammer (79) getrennt vom Motorraum angeordnet ist. Kühlsystem nach Anspruch 14 oder Anspruch 15, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass ein oder mehrere Auspuffschalldämpfer (81, 121) ebenfalls in der zweiten Kammer (79) getrennt vom Motorraum angeordnet sind. Amphibiengleitfahrzeug (1, 21, 41, 61, 101), welches das System eines der vorhergehenden Ansprüche aufweist.
Anspruch[en]
A planing amphibian engine cooling system comprising liquid coolant ducting (6, 10, 11) for circulating the coolant around the engine (5), an air inlet (3), a first heat exchanger (2) connected to the ducting (6, 10, 11) and arranged so that air may be passed from the air inlet (3) through the first exchanger (2) to cool the coolant circulated around the engine (5), a water inlet on the underside of the hull and a second heat exchanger (8) connected to the ducting (6, 10, 11) and arranged so that external water may be passed through the water inlet from outside the hull to inside the hull, then through the second exchanger (8) to cool the coolant, the water inlet being within the rear two thirds of the length of the hull. A cooling system according to claim 1, characterized in that the air inlet (3) is provided at the front of the vehicle, above the static water line. A cooling system according to claim 1 or claim 2, characterized in that the air inlet (3) is provided with closure means (4) so that it may be closed when the amphibian (1) is on water. A cooling system according to claim 3, characterized in that the closure means comprises one or more hinged flaps (4). A cooling system according to any of the above claims, characterized in that the amphibian (1) has a mid-mounted engine (5). A cooling system according to any of the above claims, characterized in that external water for said second exchanger (68, 108) is arranged to be taken from the pressurized side of a marine jet drive. A cooling system according to any of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that external water for said second exchanger (8) is arranged to be drawn into the vehicle by a cooling water pump (12). A cooling system according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the inlet for external water is located at a position between 60% and 95% of the distance from the front to the back of the waterline (37) the plane. A cooling system according to claim 8, characterized in that the inlet for external water is located at a position between 70% and 90% of the distance from the front to the back of the waterline (37) on the plane. A cooling system according to any of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the second exchange (48) is combined with the marine jet drive. A cooling system according to claim 10, characterized in that the second exchanger (48) comprises a cooling water jacket around the marine jet drive (56). A cooling system according to claim 10 or claim 11, characterized in that the second exchanger comprises cooling water passages through the marine jet drive stator blades. A cooling system according to claim 12, characterized in that the second exchanger comprises cooling water passages through the marine jet drive hub. A cooling system according to any of the above claims, characterized in that the first exchanger (62, 102) is located in a second compartment (79) separate to the engine compartment. A cooling system according to claim 14, characterized in that the second exchanger (68) is also located in said second compartment (79) separate to the engine compartment. A cooling system according to claim 14 or claim 15, characterized in that one or more exhaust silencers (81, 121) is also located in said second compartment (79) separate to the engine compartment. A planing amphibian (1, 21, 41, 61, 101) having the system of any one of the preceding claims.
Anspruch[fr]
Système de refroidissement pour moteur de véhicule amphibie à déjaugeage comprenant un conduit destiné au produit de refroidissement liquide (6, 10, 11) pour faire circuler le produit de refroidissement autour du moteur (5), un orifice d'admission d'air (3), un premier échangeur de chaleur (2) raccordé au conduit (6, 10, 11) et disposé de façon que l'air puisse passer de l'orifice d'admission d'air (3) à travers le premier échangeur (2) en vue de refroidir le produit de refroidissement circulant autour du moteur (5), un orifice d'admission d'eau sur le dessous de la coque et un second échangeur de chaleur (8) raccordé au conduit (6, 10, 11) et disposé de telle sorte que l'eau extérieure puisse passer à travers l'orifice d'admission d'eau de l'extérieur de la coque vers l'intérieur de la coque, puis à travers le second échangeur (8) pour refroidir le produit de refroidissement, l'orifice d'admission d'eau se situant dans les deux tiers arrière de la longueur de la coque. Système de refroidissement selon la revendication 1, caractérisé en ce que l'orifice d'admission d'air (3) est prévu à l'avant du véhicule, au-dessus de la ligne de flottaison statique. Système de refroidissement selon la revendication 1 ou la revendication 2, caractérisé en ce que l'orifice d'admission d'air (3) est pourvu de moyens de fermeture (4) de façon qu'il puisse être fermé lorsque le véhicule amphibie (1) est sur l'eau. Système de refroidissement selon la revendication 3, caractérisé en ce que les moyens de fermeture comportent un ou plusieurs volet(s) articulé(s) (4). Système de refroidissement selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que le véhicule amphibie (1) possède un moteur monté de façon centrale (5). Système de refroidissement selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que l'eau extérieure destinée audit second échangeur (68, 108) est agencée pour être prélevée à partir du côté pressurisé d'un moteur à réaction de marine. Système de refroidissement selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, caractérisé en ce que l'eau extérieure destinée audit second échangeur (8) est agencée pour être entraînée dans le véhicule par une pompe pour eau de refroidissement (12). Système de refroidissement selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que l'orifice d'admission destiné à l'eau extérieure est placé au niveau d'une position comprise entre 60% et 95% de la distance allant de l'avant à l'arrière de la ligne de flottaison (37) sur le plan. Système de refroidissement selon la revendication 8, caractérisé en ce que l'orifice d'admission destiné à l'eau extérieure est placé au niveau d'une position comprise entre 70% et 90% de la distance allant de l'avant à l'arrière de la ligne de flottaison (37) sur le plan. Système de refroidissement selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, caractérisé en ce que le second échangeur (48) est combiné avec le moteur à réaction de marine. Système de refroidissement selon la revendication 10, caractérisé en ce que le second échangeur (48) comprend une chemise d'eau de refroidissement autour du moteur à réaction de marine. Système de refroidissement selon la revendication 10 ou la revendication 11, caractérisé en ce que le second échangeur comporte des passages d'eau de refroidissement à travers les aubes de stator du moteur à réaction de marine. Système de refroidissement selon la revendication 12, caractérisé en ce que le second échangeur comporte des passages d'eau de refroidissement à travers le centre du moteur à réaction de marine. Système de refroidissement selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, caractérisé en ce que le premier échangeur (62, 102) est placé dans un second compartiment (79) séparé du compartiment moteur. Système de refroidissement selon la revendication 14, caractérisé en ce que le second échangeur (68) est également placé dans ledit second compartiment (79) séparé du compartiment moteur. Système de refroidissement selon la revendication 14 ou la revendication 15, caractérisé en ce que un ou plusieurs silencieux d'échappement (81, 121) est (sont) également placé(s) dans ledit second compartiment (79) séparé du compartiment moteur. Véhicule amphibie à déjaugeage (1, 21, 41, 61, 101) comportant le système selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes.






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