PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP1806599 23.08.2007
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001806599
Titel OPTISCHE FASER, ÜBERTRAGUNGSSYSTEM UND MEHRWELLENLÄNGEN-ÜBERTRAGUNGSSYSTEM
Anmelder Fujikura Ltd., Tokio/Tokyo, JP
Erfinder MATSUO, Shoichiro, Sakura-shi, Chiba 2858550, JP;
TANIGAWA, Shoji, Sakura-shi, Chiba 2858550, JP;
HIMENO, Kuniharu, Sakura-shi, Chiba 2858550, JP
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
Vertragsstaaten DE, DK, FR, GB, IT, NL
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 24.10.2005
EP-Aktenzeichen 057957094
WO-Anmeldetag 24.10.2005
PCT-Aktenzeichen PCT/JP2005/019493
WO-Veröffentlichungsnummer 2006043698
WO-Veröffentlichungsdatum 27.04.2006
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 11.07.2007
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 23.08.2007
IPC-Hauptklasse G02B 1/00(2006.01)A, F, I, 20070612, B, H, EP

Beschreibung[en]
TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to an optical fiber that suppresses the occurrence of Simulated Brillouin Scattering (hereinafter referred to as SBS) to allow transmission with higher-power signals. The present invention also relates to a transmission system and a wavelength division multiplexing system using this optical fiber.

Priority is claimed on Japanese Patent Application No. 2004-308359 filed on October 22, 2004 , Japanese Patent Application No. 2005-55669 filed on March 1, 2005 , and Japanese Patent Application No. 2005-208687 filed on July 19, 2005 , the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference.

BACKGROUND ART

Nowadays, a fiber to the home (hereinafter referred to as FTTH) service is available in which optical fibers are extended to individual homes to be used for exchange of various information.

As one form of FTTH that transmits various information, there is a system in which a broadcast signal and another communication signal are simultaneously transmitted in different systems by means of a single optical fiber (ITU-T Recommendation G.652). Generally in this system, the broadcast signal is often an analog signal or a baseband signal.

The characteristics of the system having an optical fiber as a transmission medium are as follows:

  • FTTH is typically a double-star type PON (Passive Optical Network), and has a large distribution loss (typically, up to 32 branches are assumed).
  • Since FTTH transmits an analog signal or a baseband signal, a CNR (Carrier Noise Ratio) in the receiver is required to be high, and the required minimum signal light power in the light receiving portion is larger compared with the case of digital transmission used for communication.

From the viewpoint described above , in this system, the signal light power in the signal input portion needs to be large.. Especially in consideration of attenuation and distribution loss during transmission of a signal light, higher power is required in a line with a longer distance or more branches. If a signal can be transmitted as far as possible and distributed to many subscribers at a time, it is more advantageous from various points of view (construction costs, maintainability, system design, etc.).

However, in an optical transmission using an optical fiber, even if light with more than a certain power is intended to be injected into an optical fiber, SBS, which is one type of non-linear phenomenon, allows the entrance of light with a certain amount of power(hereinafter, referred to as SBS threshold power) or less and the rejected light is returned to the entrance light side as backscattered light. This phenomenon sometimes puts restrictions on signal light power in the input portion, thus posing a problem (for example, see Non-Patent Document 1).

Conventionally, as methods for achieving SBS suppression, techniques for modifying optical characteristics in the longitudinal direction, the dopant concentrations, and the residual stress have been reported (see, for example, Patent Document 1 and Non-Patent Document 2).

  • Non-Patent Document 1: A. R. Charaplyvy, J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 8, pp. 1548-1557 (1990)
  • Patent Document 1: United States Patent No. 5, 267, 339
  • Non-Patent Document 2: K. Shiraki, et al., J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 14, pp. 50-57 (1996)

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED BY THE INVENTION

However, the SBS suppression methods described in Patent Document 1 and Non-Patent Document 2 inevitably modify optical characteristics in the longitudinal direction of optical fibers, which makes the methods undesirable in practice.

The present invention has been achieved in view of the above circumstances, and has an object to provide an optical fiber that can enhance the SBS threshold power compared to conventional optical fibers, and to provide a transmission system and wavelength division multiplexing system using the same.

MEANS FOR SOLVING THE PROBLEM

To achieve the above-mentioned object, the present invention provides an optical fiber comprising a center core and a cladding located at an outer periphery of the core, wherein the core comprises at least one codoped layer made from silica glass doped with germanium and fluorine, and at least one lower-concentration codoped layer made from silica glass doped with germanium, or silica glass that is doped with germanium and fluorine wherein a dope amount of the fluorine is smaller than a dope amount of the fluorine in the codoped layer.

In the optical fiber according to the present invention, preferably, the core comprises an inner core located in the vicinity of the center and an outer core provided at an outer periphery of the inner core, the inner core comprises a codoped layer made from silica glass doped with germanium and fluorine, and the outer core comprises a lower-concentration codoped layer made from silica glass doped with germanium, or silica glass that is doped with germanium and fluorine wherein a dope amount of the fluorine is smaller than a dope amount of the fluorine in the inner core.

In the optical fiber according to the present invention, preferably, the cladding is made from non-doped silica glass.

Preferably, in the optical fiber of the present invention, fluorine is doped into a part of the cladding.

Preferably, in the optical fiber of the present invention, the cladding comprises an inner cladding provided at an outer periphery of the core and an outer cladding provided at an outer periphery of the inner cladding, and the relationship: nc1 < nc2 holds, supposing that a refractive index of the inner cladding is nc1 and a refractive index of the outer cladding is nc2.

Preferably, in the optical fiber of the present invention, the cladding comprises an inner cladding provided at an outer periphery of the core, a trench layer provided at an outer periphery of the inner cladding, and an outer cladding provided at an outside of the trench layer, and the relationships: nc2 < nc1 and nc2 < nc3 hold, supposing that a refractive index of the inner cladding is nc1, a refractive index of the trench layer is nc2, and a refractive index of the outer cladding is nc3.

Preferably, in the optical fiber of the present invention, a concentration of the germanium is in a range between 4% and 15% by mass in terms of germanium oxide, and a concentration of the fluorine is in a range between 0.2% and 5% by mass, in the inner core.

Preferably, in the optical fiber of the present invention, a ratio of an inner core diameter and an outer core diameter is in a range between 0.10 and 0.85.

Preferably, in the optical fiber of the present invention, the ratio of the inner core diameter and the outer core diameter is in a range between 0.25 and 0.70.

In the optical fiber of the present invention, optical refractive indices of the inner core and the outer core may be configured to be substantially the same.

Preferably, in the optical fiber of the present invention, an average of relative refractive index differences with respect to the cladding of the inner core and the outer core is in a range between 0.30% and 0.60%, and an outer core diameter is in a range between 6.0 µm and 10.5 µm.

Preferably, in the optical fiber of the present invention, the core comprises a first core located in the vicinity of the center, a second core provided at an outer periphery of the first core, and a third core provided at an outer periphery of the second core, the first core and the third core comprise a codoped layer made from silica glass doped with germanium and fluorine, and the second core comprises a lower-concentration codoped layer made from silica glass doped with germanium, or silica glass that is doped with germanium and fluorine wherein a dope amount of the fluorine is smaller than a dope amount of the fluorine in the inner core.

Preferably, in the optical fiber of the present invention, the relationships: nf1 > nf2 and nf3 > nf2 hold, supposing that a fluorine concentration of is nf1 % by mass, a fluorine concentration of the second core is nf2 % by mass, and a fluorine concentration of the third core is nf3 % by mass.

In the above optical fiber, nf1 and nf3 may be substantially the same.

In the above optical fiber, the relationship: nf1 < nf3 may hold.

In the above optical fiber, the relationship: nf1 > nf3 may hold.

Preferably, in the optical fiber of the present invention, optical characteristics satisfy the requirements of ITU-T Recommendation G.652.

Furthermore, the present invention provides a transmission system configured to perform an analog signal transmission or a baseband transmission using the above-mentioned optical fiber according to the present invention described above.

Furthermore, the present invention provides a wavelength division multiplexing system configured to perform a data transmission and/or a voice transmission, in addition to an analog signal transmission and/or a baseband transmission using the above-mentioned optical fiber according to the present invention described above.

ADVANTAGEOUS EFFECTS OF THE INVENTION

The present invention can provide an optical fiber that suppresses the occurrence of SBS to allow transmission with higher power signals, and a transmission system and a wavelength division multiplexing system that enable multi-branched, long-distance transmission using the optical fiber.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

  • FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view showing one embodiment of the optical fiber of the present invention.
  • FIG. 2 is a graph showing the relationship among the ratios of inner core diameter/outer core diameter, the inner core Ge concentrations, and the threshold power of the optical fibers prototyped in Examples.
  • FIG. 3A is a diagram illustrating the refractive index profile of an optical fiber of the present invention.
  • FIG. 3B is a diagram illustrating the refractive index profile of an optical fiber of the present invention.
  • FIG. 3C is a diagram illustrating the refractive index profile of an optical fiber of the present invention.
  • FIG. 3D is a diagram illustrating the refractive index profile of an optical fiber of the present invention.
  • FIG. 3E is a diagram illustrating the refractive index profile of an optical fiber of the present invention.
  • FIG. 3F is a diagram illustrating the refractive index profile of an optical fiber of the present invention.
  • FIG. 4A is graph showing the Ge concentration profile of an optical fiber according to conventional techniques in a second embodiment.
  • FIG. 4B is graph showing the F concentration profile of the optical fiber according to the conventional techniques in the second embodiment.
  • FIG. 4C is graph showing the refractive index difference profile of the optical fiber according to the conventional techniques in the second embodiment.
  • FIG. 5 is a graph showing the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of the optical fiber shown in FIGS. 4A-C.
  • FIG. 6A is graph showing the Ge concentration profile of an optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in the second embodiment.
  • FIG. 6B is graph showing the refractive index profile and the F concentration profile of the optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in the second embodiment.
  • FIG. 6C is graph showing the refractive index difference profile of the optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in the second embodiment.
  • FIG. 7 is a graph showing the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of the optical fiber shown in FIGS. 6A-C.
  • FIG. 8A is graph showing the Ge concentration profile of an optical fiber according to conventional techniques in a third embodiment.
  • FIG. 8B is graph showing the F concentration profile of the optical fiber according to the conventional techniques in the third embodiment.
  • FIG. 8C is graph showing the refractive index difference profile of the optical fiber according to the conventional techniques in the third embodiment.
  • FIG. 9 is a graph showing the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of the optical fiber shown in FIGS. 8A-C.
  • FIG. 10A is graph showing the Ge concentration profile of an optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in the third embodiment.
  • FIG. 10B is graph showing the F concentration profile of an optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in the third embodiment.
  • FIG. 10C is graph showing the refractive index difference profile of the optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in the third embodiment.
  • FIG. 11 is a graph showing the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of the optical fiber shown in FIGS. 10A-C.
  • FIG. 12A is graph showing the Ge concentration profile of an optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in a forth embodiment.
  • FIG. 12B is graph showing the F concentration profile of an optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in the forth embodiment.
  • FIG. 12C is graph showing the refractive index difference profile of the optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in the forth embodiment.
  • FIG. 13 is a graph showing the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of the optical fiber shown in FIGS. 12A-C.
  • FIG. 14A is graph showing the Ge concentration profile of an optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in a fifth embodiment.
  • FIG. 14B is graph showing the F concentration profile of an optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in the fifth embodiment.
  • FIG. 14C is graph showing the refractive index difference profile of the optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in the fifth embodiment.
  • FIG. 15 is a graph showing the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of the optical fiber shown in FIGS. 14A-C.
  • FIG. 16A is graph showing the Ge concentration profile of an optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in a sixth embodiment.
  • FIG. 16B is graph showing the F concentration profile of an optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in the sixth embodiment.
  • FIG. 16C is graph showing the refractive index difference profile of the optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in the sixth embodiment.
  • FIG. 17 is a graph showing the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of the optical fiber shown in FIGS. 16A-C.
  • FIG. 18A is graph showing the Ge concentration profile of an optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in a seventh embodiment.
  • FIG. 18B is graph showing the F concentration profile of an optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in the seventh embodiment.
  • FIG. 18C is graph showing the refractive index difference profile of the optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in the seventh embodiment.
  • FIG. 19 is a graph showing the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of the optical fiber shown in FIGS. 18A-C.
  • FIG. 20A is graph showing the Ge concentration profile of an optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in an eighth embodiment.
  • FIG. 20B is graph showing the F concentration profile of an optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in the eighth embodiment.
  • FIG. 20C is graph showing the refractive index difference profile of the optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in the eighth embodiment.
  • FIG. 21 is a graph showing the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of the optical fiber shown in FIGS. 20A-C.
  • FIG. 22A is graph showing the Ge concentration profile of an optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in a ninth embodiment.
  • FIG. 22B is graph showing the F concentration profile of an optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in the ninth embodiment.
  • FIG. 22C is graph showing the refractive index difference profile of the optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in the ninth embodiment.
  • FIG. 23 is a graph showing the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of the optical fiber shown in FIGS. 22A-C.
  • FIG. 24A is graph showing the Ge concentration profile of an optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in a tenth embodiment.
  • FIG. 24B is graph showing the F concentration profile of an optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in the tenth embodiment.
  • FIG. 24C is graph showing the refractive index difference profile of the optical fiber according to the technique of the present invention in the tenth embodiment.
  • FIG. 25 is a graph showing the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of the optical fiber shown in FIGS. 24A-C.
  • FIG. 26 shows a transmission system (wavelength division multiplexing system) configured using the optical fiber of the present invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE REFERENCE SYMBOLS

1
Optical fiber
2
Inner core
3
Outer core
4
Cladding
10
Optical transmission system (wavelength division multiplexing system).

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION

Hereunder is a description of embodiments of the present invention with reference to the drawings.

FIG. 1 is a diagram showing one embodiment of the optical fiber according to the present invention. An optical fiber 1 of this embodiment comprises an inner core 2 that is made from silica glass doped with germanium and fluorine, an outer core 3 that is provided at the outer periphery of the inner core 2 and is made from silica glass doped with germanium, or silica glass that is doped with germanium and fluorine wherein the dope amount of fluorine is smaller than the dope amount of fluorine in the inner core 2, and a cladding 4 that is provided at the outer periphery of the outer core 3. This structure can suppress the occurrence of SBS that is problematic in transmission through optical fibers, increase the SBS threshold power, and allow transmission with higher-power signals.

Preferably, the concentration of germanium is in a range between 4% and 15% by mass in terms of germanium oxide, and the concentration of fluorine is in a range between 0.2% and 5% by mass, in the inner core 2. If the concentrations of germanium and fluorine in the inner core 2 are greater than the above ranges, the transmission loss in the optical fiber 1 is increased due to an increase in the Rayleigh scattering, which may become problematic in practice. In contrast, the concentrations of germanium and fluorine in the inner core 2 are smaller than the above ranges, the advantage of increasing SBS threshold power may become smaller, which may hinder achieving the objects of the present invention.

Furthermore, it is desired that the ratio of the inner core diameter and the outer core diameter be in a range between 0.10 and 0.85. By setting the ratio of the inner core diameter and the outer core diameter within the above range, an SBS threshold power of about 1.5 times higher than those of typical single-mode optical fibers (hereinafter referred to as typical SM optical fibers) can be obtained.

Furthermore, it is more preferable that the ratio of the inner core diameter and the outer core diameter be in a range between 0.25 and 0.70. By setting the ratio of the inner core diameter and the outer core diameter within the above range, it becomes possible to increase the SBS threshold power about 2 times higher than those of typical SM optical fibers.

Furthermore, it is desired that the optical refractive indices of the inner core 2 and the outer core 3 be substantially the same. If the optical refractive indices of the inner core 2 and the outer core 3 are different, the waveguide dispersion (also known as structure dispersion) in the optical fiber shifts to the longer-wavelength side, which may make controlling optical characteristics within desired ranges difficult. Here, "optical refractive indices are substantially the same" assumes that each difference of refractive indices is about 0.07% or less in terms of relative refractive index difference (&Dgr;). However, since the inner core 2 and the outer core 3 may have some degree of unevenness of the refractive indices in the radial direction caused by non-uniformity in manufacturing. It should be noted that making comparisons among average refractive indices of the inner core 2 and the outer core 3 is appropriate. It should be also noted that, here, a "desired range" means a range that satisfies the requirements of ITU-T Recommendation G.652, for example. Among the characteristics defined by G.652, at least having the comparative chromatic dispersion characteristic is very important when designing transmission lines. In other cases, it would be suffice that no considerable deviation from the optical characteristics of existing optical fibers in various types is introduced by adapting a structure according to the present invention.

Furthermore, in order to obtaining optical characteristics satisfying the requirements of ITU-T Recommendation G.652, it is required that the average value of the optical refractive index of the entire core region, including the inner core 2 and the outer core 3, be in a range between 0.30% and 0.40% as a relative refractive index difference with respect to the cladding 4, and that the outer core diameter be in a range between 7.5 µm and 11 µm.

Optical fibers that have the above-described structure of the present invention and exhibits optical characteristics satisfying the requirements of ITU-T Recommendation G.652 have an advantages in that they can be used in the same manner as conventional optical fibers since they have the same optical characteristics as those of optical fibers constituting existing transmission paths, except for having higher SBS threshold power.

FIGS. 3A-3F are diagrams illustrating refractive index profiles in the radial direction of optical fibers according to the present invention. However, the present invention is not limited to these illustrations.

An optical fiber having the refractive index profile shown in FIG. 3A comprises an inner core 2 that has a stepped refractive index profile and has the highest refractive index, an outer core 3 that is provided at the outer periphery of the inner core 2 and has a little smaller refractive index than that of the inner core 2, and a cladding 4 that is provided at the outer periphery of the outer core 3 and is made from silica glass.

An optical fiber having the refractive index profile shown in FIG. 3B comprises an inner core 2 that has a stepped refractive index profile, an outer core 3 that is provided at the outer periphery of the inner core 2 and has a little higher refractive index than that of the inner core 2, and a cladding 4 that is provided at the outer periphery of the outer core 3 and is made from silica glass.

An optical fiber having the refractive index profile shown in FIG. 3C comprises an inner core 2 that has the refractive index profile in which the refractive index is gradually increased towards the center, an outer core 3 that is provided at the outer periphery of the inner core 2, and a cladding 4 that is provided at the outer periphery of the outer core 3 and is made from silica glass.

An optical fiber having the refractive index profile shown in FIG. 3D comprises an inner core 2 that has higher refractive index in the vicinity of the outer periphery than in the center, an inner core 3 that is provided at the outer periphery of the inner core 2 and has higher refractive index in the vicinity of the outer periphery, and a cladding 4 that is provided at the outer periphery of the outer core 3 and is made from silica glass.

An optical fiber having the refractive index profile shown in FIG. 3E comprises an inner core 2 that has an approximately indented refractive index profile in which the refractive index is smaller in the center portion, an outer core 3 that is provided at the outer periphery of the inner core 2 and has the refractive index profile in which the refractive index of the outer periphery portion is gradually decreased, and a cladding 4 that is provided at the outer periphery of the outer core 3 and is made from silica glass.

An optical fiber having the refractive index profile shown in FIG. 3F comprises an inner core 2 having a wedge-shaped low-refractive index portion at the center portion, an outer core 3 that is provided at the outer periphery of the inner core 2 and has the refractive index profile in which the refractive index is higher than that of the inner core 2 and is gradually decreased towards the outer periphery, and a cladding 4 that is provided at the outer periphery of the outer core 3 and is made from silica glass.

The present invention also provides a transmission system using the optical fiber according to the present invention described above.

An advantage of using the above-described optical fiber of the present invention is that a signal light with higher power can be introduced. Therefore, performing an analog transmission or baseband transmission that requires comparatively high power by used of the optical fiber of the present invention enables a longer-distance transmission with more branches, and thus great benefits can be obtained. Especially in a system with a transmission distance of 15 km or longer and/or 32 branches or more, the greatest benefits can be obtained.

Furthermore, by use of the optical fiber according to the present invention, wavelength division multiplexing can also be performed in which another transmission can be performed simultaneously with the above-described analog transmission or baseband transmission. As for wavelength division multiplexing, one form of FTTH shown in ITU-T G.983.3, CWDM, or the like can be conceived. Especially in a system with a transmission distance of 15 km or longer and/or 32 branches or more, the greatest benefits can be obtained.

Obviously, there is no need to limit the optical fiber of the present invention to these applications in a transmission system. For example, it can be used not only in a typical public data communication, but also in a digital, long-distance relay-free transmission system, an intelligent transportation system (ITS), a sensor, a remote laser cutting system, etc.

EXAMPLES First Embodiment

Optical fibers according to a first embodiment of the present invention were prototyped. Tables 1-3 show Examples Nos. 2-25 of optical fibers prototyped, together with their structures and optical characteristics. Furthermore, a typical SM optical fiber (compliant with ITU-T Recommendation G.652) is also shown in Table 1 in No. 1 as a comparative example. It should be noted that, in Tables 1-3, "Ge concentration" indicates concentrations of germanium doped into the inner core or the outer core (in terms of germanium oxide), and "F concentration" indicates concentrations of fluorine doped into the inner core or the outer core. Furthermore, as for the optical fiber of each of Examples Nos. 2-25, "rel. Brillouin gain" shows relative values of the SBS light intensity measured in the optical fiber of each Example when the value of the SBS light intensity measured in the optical fiber of the comparative example was taken as 1. Similarly, "threshold power" shows relative values of the SBS threshold power measured in the optical fiber of each Example when the value of the SBS threshold power measured in the optical fiber of the comparative example was taken as 1. Table 1 Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Com. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Inner core Ge concentration % by mass 3.2 4.3 4.1 4.7 5.0 4.1 5.1 6.2 6.0 6.0 Inner core F concentration %by mass 0 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.9 0.8 0.8 Inner core radius µm - 1.6 2.8 1.4 2.0 2.2 2.4 1.0 1.4 2.2 Inner core rel. refractive index diff. % 0.33 0.34 0.31 0.35 0.34 0.32 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.34 Outer core Ge concentration %by mass 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1 Outer core F concentration % by mass 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Inner core radius µm 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.1 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.4 4.6 5.0 Inner core rel. refractive index diff. % 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.34 0.33 0.32 0.32 0.33 0.33 0.30 Inner core radius/outer core radius - - 0.36 0.62 0.34 0.46 0.50 0.53 0.22 0.30 0.44 Rel. Brillouin gain - 1 0.66 0.67 0.55 0.41 0.53 0.48 0.61 0.55 0.44 Rel. threshold power - 1 1.5 1.5 1.8 2.4 1.9 2.1 1.6 1.8 2.3 Optical characts. (ref./extract) Transmission loss @1310nm dB/km 0.332 0.328 0.327 0.331 0.331 0.333 0.322 0.327 0.331 0.329 MFD @1310nm µm 9.45 9.28 9.43 9.21 9.41 9.43 9.52 9.40 9.44 9.65 Zero-dispersion wavelength nm 1312 1316 1309 1315 1309 1310 1308 1307 1312 1302 Cable cut-off wavelength µm 1.24 1.22 1.26 1.25 1.23 1.23 1.24 1.21 1.23 1.26
Table 2 Unit 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Inner core Ge concentration % by mass 6.7 7.2 8.3 9.2 8.6 8.3 10.3 10.0 9.9 12.0 Inner core F concentration %by mass 1.0 1.2 1.5 1.7 1.7 1.5 2.2 2.0 2.0 2.6 Inner core radius µm 2.9 2.2 3.1 1.6 2.2 1.0 1.6 3.3 2.5 1.0 Inner core rel. refractive index diff. % 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.36 0.31 0.34 0.31 0.35 0.33 0.34 Outer core Ge concentration % by mass 3.4 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 Outer core F concentration % by mass 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Inner core radius µm 4.1 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.4 4.3 Inner core rel. refractive index diff. % 0.35 0.33 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.34 Inner core radius/outer core radius - 0.71 0.49 0.70 0.36 0.49 0.23 0.36 0.73 0.56 0.23 Rel. Brillouin gain - 0.64 0.35 0.53 0.42 0.37 0.51 0.44 0.50 0.47 0.47 Rel. threshold power - 1.6 2.9 1.9 2.4 2.7 2.0 2.3 2.0 2.1 2.1 Optical characts. (ref./extract) Transmission loss @1310nm dB/km 0.333 0.335 0.336 0.337 0.333 0.326 0.336 0.345 0.342 0.355 MFD @1310nm µm 9.09 9.41 9.43 9.35 9.42 9.33 9.42 9.28 9.43 9.41 Zero-dispersion wavelength nm 1316 1310 1307 1312 1305 1311 1306 1314 1310 1308 Cable cut-off wavelength µm 1.25 1.23 1.25 1.23 1.25 1.21 1.23 1.18 1.22 1.23
Table 3 Unit 21 22 23 24 25 Example Example Example Example Example Inner core Ge concentration % by mass 13.2 6.5 7.3 8.4 7.7 Inner core F concentration % by mass 3.2 1.0 1.1 1.5 1.4 Inner core radius µm 3.0 2.1 1.8 2.4 2.1 Inner core rel. refractive index diff. % 0.29 0.31 0.35 0.33 0.30 Outer core Ge concentration % by mass 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.8 4.4 Outer core F concentration % by mass 0 0.01 0.05 0.13 0.3 Inner core radius µm 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.3 4.4 Inner core rel. refractive index diff. % 0.33 0.34 0.32 0.33 0.33 Inner core radius/outer core radiusr - 0.67 0.48 0.40 0.56 0.48 Rel. Brillouin gain - 0.45 0.39 0.48 0.44 0.50 Rel. threshold power - 2.2 2.6 2.1 2.3 2.0 Optical characts. (ref./extract) Transmission loss @1310nm dB/km 0.359 0.325 0.329 0.335 0.340 MFD @1310nm µm 9.44 9.32 9.44 9.38 9.51 Zero-dispersion wavelength nm 1303 1311 1308 1310 1301 Cable cut-off wavelength µm 1.19 1.25 1.23 1.24 1.27

The results in Tables 1-3 indicate that the occurrence of SBS were reduced and relatively higher SBS threshold power was obtained in the optical fibers of Examples Nos. 2-25 compared to the typical SM optical fiber of the comparative example, which allowed transmission with higher-power signals than in the typical SM optical fiber of the comparative example. This is because they were configured to have an inner core containing germanium and fluorine and an outer core containing only germanium or germanium and a small amount of fluorine.

FIG. 2 shows the relationship among the ratios of inner core diameter/outer core diameter, the inner core Ge concentrations, and the threshold power obtained in the optical fibers prototyped in this embodiment.

FIG. 2 indicates that the desired threshold power was obtained when the above-described parameter range is satisfied.

second embodiment

A second embodiment is related to an SM optical fiber that has an MFD at a wavelength of 1310 nm of about 8.6 µm. Such optical fibers have been commercialized as optical fibers that reduce bending loss in the range satisfying ITU-T Recommendation G.652. The concentration profiles of dopants (Ge and F) and the relative refractive index difference of such an optical fiber that is designed using conventional techniques are shown in FIGS. 4A-C and Table 4. Table 4 radius [µm] Ge concentration [% by mass] F concentration [% by mass] Relative refractive index diff. [%] Central core 4.256 4.21 0.15 0.37 Inner cladding 10.64 0.00 0.15 -0.05 Outer cladding 62.5 0.00 0.00 0.00

Such a refractive index profile can provide optical fibers having optical characteristics described below:

  • Fiber cut-off: 1.26 µm.
  • MFD at a wavelength of 1310 nm: 8.59 µm.
  • MFD at a wavelength of 1550 nm: 9.56 µm.
  • Zero-dispersion wavelength: 1305.8 nm.
  • Chromatic dispersion at a wavelength of 1550 nm: 17.1 ps/nm/km.
  • Dispersion slope at a wavelength of 1550 nm: 0.057 ps/nm2/km.
  • Bending loss at a bending diameter of 30 mm at a wavelength of 1310 nm: < 0.01 dB/m.
  • Bending loss at a bending diameter of 30 mm at a wavelength of 1550 nm: 1.89×10-2 dB/m.

The optical fiber based on the refractive index profile shown in FIGS. 4A-C improved the bending loss by having an MFD smaller than those of the typical SM optical fiber shown as Example 1 or the comparative example. However, reduction in the MFD may be problematic since it may deteriorate the SBS threshold power.

FIG. 5 shows the relative Brillouin gain spectrum obtained in the refractive index profile shown in FIGS. 4A-C. The data was standardized by assuming the maximum value of the Brillouin gain of the optical fiber of Example 1, the comparative example, as 1. The maximum relative Brillouin gain became 1.18, and the SBS threshold power became 0.7 dB smaller.

FIGS. 6A-C and Table 5 show Example 26 of the optical fiber based on a second embodiment of the present invention. Table 5 radius [µm] Ge concentration [% by mass] F concentration [% by mass] Relative refractive index diff. [%] Inner core 2.128 10.31 2.00 0.37 Outer core 4.256 4.21 0.15 0.37 Inner cladding 10.64 0.00 0.15 -0.05 Outer cladding 62.5 0.00 0.00 0.00

Compared to the example based on the conventional techniques, the concentrations of Ge and F in the inner core region were higher. However, the relative refractive index difference &Dgr; remained the same, and optical characteristics, such as the MFD and the chromatic dispersion, were the same as those of the optical fiber with the refractive index profile shown in FIGS. 4A-C.

FIG. 7 shows the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of the optical fiber of the refractive index profile shown in FIGS. 6A-C. Similar to FIG. 5, the optical fiber of Example 1 or the comparative example was taken as a reference. The maximum relative Brillouin gain became 0.55, and the SBS threshold power was 2.6 dB improved.

In addition to exhibiting optical characteristics satisfying ITU-T Recommendation G.652, the optical fiber of this embodiment is an optical fiber with a low bending loss and a high SBS threshold power, and has excellent characteristics as an optical fiber for FTTH.

Third Embodiment

A third embodiment is related to optical fiber having a further improved bending characteristic.

FIGS. 8A-C show an example of a low-bending-loss optical fiber based on the conventional techniques. This optical fiber has the concentration profiles and refractive index profile shown in Table 6. Table 6 raidius [µm] Ge concentration [% by mass] F concentration [% by mass] Relative refractive index diff. [%] Central core 3.47 5.21 0.15 0.47 Inner cladding 6.94 0.00 0.15 -0.05 Trench 12.15 0.00 0.76 -0.25 Outer cladding 62.50 0.00 0.00 0.00

Such a refractive index profile can provide optical fibers having optical characteristics described below:

  • Fiber cut-off: 1.26 µm.
  • MFD at a wavelength of 1310 nm: 7.36 µm.
  • MFD at a wavelength of 1550 nm: 8.19 µm.
  • Zero-dispersion wavelength: 1319.2 nm.
  • Chromatic dispersion at a wavelength of 1550 nm: 17.4 ps/nm/km.
  • Dispersion slope at a wavelength of 1550 nm: 0.060 ps/nm2/km.
  • Bending loss at a bending diameter of 30 mm at a wavelength of 1310 nm: < 0.01 dB/m.
  • Bending loss at a bending diameter of 30 mm at a wavelength of 1550 nm: < 0.01 dB/m.
  • Bending loss at a bending diameter of 15 mm at a wavelength of 1310 nm: < 0.01 dB/m.
  • Bending loss at a bending diameter of 15 mm at a wavelength of 1550 nm: < 0.29 dB/m.

Although the MFD at a wavelength of 1310 nm was 7.36 µm, which was somewhat small, the bending loss was improved with almost no increase in loss even when wound in a diameter of 15 mm. However, reduction in the MFD deteriorates the SBS threshold power. FIG. 9 shows the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of optical fiber of this example. Similar to FIG. 5, Example 1 or the comparative example was taken as a reference. The maximum relative Brillouin gain became 1.7, and the SBS threshold power became 2.3 dB smaller.

FIGS. 10A-C and Table 7 show Example 27 of the optical fiber based on a third embodiment of the present invention. Table 7 radius [µm] Ge concentration [% by mass] F concentration [% by mass] Relative refractive index diff. [%] Inner core 1.74 11.32 2.00 0.47 Outer core 3.47 5.21 0.15 0.47 Inner cladding 6.94 0.00 0.15 -0.05 Trench 12.15 0.00 0.76 -0.25 Outer cladding 62.50 0.00 0.00 0.00

Although the Ge and F concentrations were higher in the inner core than the example based on the conventional techniques, the relative refractive index difference &Dgr; was the same and optical characteristic, such as the MFD and the chromatic dispersion, became the same as those of the refractive index profile shown in FIGS. 8A-C.

FIG. 11 shows the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of the optical fiber of the refractive index profile shown in FIGS. 10A-C. Similar to FIG. 5, Example 1 or the comparative example was taken as a reference. The maximum relative Brillouin gain became 0.67, and the SBS threshold power was 1.7 dB improved.

In addition to exhibiting optical characteristics comparative to ITU-T Recommendation G.652, the optical fiber of this embodiment is an optical fiber with a low bending loss and a high SBS threshold power, and has excellent characteristics as an optical fiber for FTTH.

Fourth Embodiment

A forth embodiment is related to an optical fiber having a core comprising a first codoped layer in the vicinity of the center (first layer), a non-codoped layer located at the outer periphery of the first codoped layer (second layer), and a second codoped layer located at the outer periphery of the non-codoped layer (third layer). The refractive index profile and the dopant profiles of the optical fiber of this embodiment are shown in FIGS. 12A-C. The diameters, optical relative refractive index difference, and the Ge and F concentrations in each layer are shown below:

  • First layer radius (r1): 1.66 µm.
  • Second layer radius (r2): 3.33 µm.
  • Third layer radius (r3): 4.43 µm.
  • First layer Ge concentration (nG1): 5.0 % by mass. First layer F concentration (nF1): 0.45 % by mass.
  • Second layer Ge concentration (nG2): 3.5 % by mass. Second layer F concentration (nF2): 0.00 % by mass.
  • Third layer Ge concentration (nG3): 5.0 % by mass. Third layer F concentration (nF3): 0.45 % by mass.
  • Relative refractive index difference (&Dgr;): 0.35%.

The Ge concentrations and the F concentrations of the first layer, the second layer, and the third layer were adjusted such that the respective relative refractive index differences &Dgr; all became 0.35%.

Such a refractive index profile can provide optical fibers having optical characteristics described below:

  • Fiber cut-off: 1292 nm.
  • Cable cut-off: 1240 nm.
  • MFD at a wavelength of 1310 nm: 9.21 µm.
  • MFD at a wavelength of 1550 nm: 10.30 µm.
  • Zero-dispersion wavelength: 1307.2 nm.
  • Chromatic dispersion at a wavelength of 1550 nm: 17.38 ps/nm/km.
  • Dispersion slope at a wavelength of 1550 nm: 0.060 ps/nm2/km.
  • Bending loss at a bending diameter of 30 mm at a wavelength of 1310 nm: 0.13 dB/m. Bending loss at a bending diameter of 30 mm at a wavelength of 1550 nm: 3.73 dB/m.

The optical fiber of this embodiment has a substantially comparative MFD to that of the typical optical fiber shown as Example 1, the comparative example.

FIG. 13 shows the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of the optical fiber obtained in the refractive index profile shown in FIGS. 12A-C. The data was standardized by assuming the maximum value of the Brillouin gain of the optical fiber of Example 1, the comparative example, as 1. The maximum relative Brillouin gain became 0.46, and the SBS threshold power became 4.3 dB smaller.

In this embodiment, there were peaks with relative gains of 0.46, 0.32, 0.20, 0.07, and 0.02 at the frequency shifts of 10760 MHz, 10840 MHz, 10950 MHz, 11060 MHz, and 11180 MHz, respectively, in ascending order.

Fifth Embodiment

A fifth embodiment is related to an optical fiber having a core comprising a first codoped layer in the vicinity of the center (first layer), a non-codoped layer located at the outer periphery of the first codoped layer (second layer), and a second codoped layer located at the outer periphery of the non-codoped layer (third layer). The refractive index profile and the dopant profiles of the optical fiber of this embodiment are shown in FIGS. 14A-C. The diameters, optical relative refractive index difference, and the Ge and F concentrations in each layer are shown below:

  • First layer radius (r1): 1.11 µm.
  • Second layer radius (r2): 3.33 µm.
  • Third layer radius (r3): 4.43 µm.
  • First layer Ge concentration (nG1): 5.0 % by mass. First layer F concentration (nF1): 0.45 % by mass.
  • Second layer Ge concentration (nG2): 3.5 % by mass. Second layer F concentration (nF2): 0.00 % by mass.
  • Third layer Ge concentration (nG3): 5.0 % by mass. Third layer F concentration (nF3): 0.45 % by mass.
  • Relative refractive index difference (&Dgr;): 0.35%.

The Ge concentrations and the F concentrations of the first layer, the second layer, and the third layer were adjusted such that the respective relative refractive index differences &Dgr; all became 0.35%. Thus, the optical characteristics obtained were the same those of the fourth embodiment.

FIG. 15 shows the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of the optical fiber obtained in the refractive index profile shown in FIGS. 14A-C. The data was standardized by assuming the maximum value of the Brillouin gain of the optical fiber of Example 1, the comparative example, as 1. The maximum relative Brillouin gain became 0.67, and the SBS threshold power became 2.4 dB smaller.

In this embodiment, there were peaks with relative gains of 0.45, 0.44, 0.67, and 0.02 at the frequency shifts of 10800 MHz, 10840 MHz, 11030 MHz, and 11200 MHz, respectively, in ascending order.

Sixth Embodiment

A sixth embodiment is related to an optical fiber having a core comprising a first codoped layer in the vicinity of the center (first layer), a non-codoped layer located at the outer periphery of the first codoped layer (second layer), and a second codoped layer located at the outer periphery of the non-codoped layer (third layer). The refractive index profile and the dopant profiles of the optical fiber of this embodiment are shown in FIGS. 16A-C. The diameters, optical relative refractive index difference, and the Ge and F concentrations in each layer are shown below:

  • First layer radius (r1): 2.22 µm.
  • Second layer radius (r2): 3.33 µm.
  • Third layer radius (r3): 4.43 µm.
  • First layer Ge concentration (nG1): 5.0 % by mass. First layer F concentration (nF1): 0.45 % by mass.
  • Second layer Ge concentration (nG2): 3.5 % by mass. Second layer F concentration (nF2): 0.00 % by mass.
  • Third layer Ge concentration (nG3): 5.0 % by mass. Third layer F concentration (nF3): 0.45 % by mass.
  • Relative refractive index difference (&Dgr;): 0.35%.

The Ge concentrations and the F concentrations of the first layer, the second layer, and the third layer were adjusted such that the respective relative refractive index differences &Dgr; all became 0.35%. Thus, the optical characteristics obtained were the same those of the fourth embodiment.

FIG. 17 shows the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of the optical fiber obtained in the refractive index profile shown in FIGS. 16A-C. The data was standardized by assuming the maximum value of the Brillouin gain of the optical fiber of Example 1, the comparative example, as 1. The maximum relative Brillouin gain became 0.66, and the SBS threshold power became 2.9 dB smaller.

In this embodiment, there were peaks with relative gains of 0.62, 0.66, and 0.07 at the frequency shifts of 10740 MHz, 10830 MHz, and 11050 MHz, respectively, in ascending order.

Seventh Embodiment

A seventh embodiment is related to an optical fiber having a core comprising a first codoped layer in the vicinity of the center (first layer), a non-codoped layer located at the outer periphery of the first codoped layer (second layer), and a second codoped layer located at the outer periphery of the non-codoped layer (third layer). The refractive index profile and the dopant profiles of the optical fiber of this embodiment are shown in FIGS. 18A-C. The diameters, optical relative refractive index difference, and the Ge and F concentrations in each layer are shown below:

  • First layer radius (r1): 1.66 µm.
  • Second layer radius (r2): 3.33 µm.
  • Third layer radius (r3): 4.43 µm.
  • First layer Ge concentration (nG1): 5.0 % by mass. First layer F concentration (nF1): 0.45 % by mass.
  • Second layer Ge concentration (nG2): 3.5 % by mass. Second layer F concentration (nF2): 0.00 % by mass.
  • Third layer Ge concentration (nG3): 5.0 % by mass. Third layer F concentration (nF3): 0.45 % by mass.
  • Relative refractive index difference (&Dgr;): 0.35%.

The Ge concentrations and the F concentrations of the first layer, the second layer, and the third layer were adjusted such that the respective relative refractive index differences &Dgr; all became 0.35%. Thus, the optical characteristics obtained were the same those of the fourth embodiment.

FIG. 19 shows the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of the optical fiber obtained in the refractive index profile shown in FIGS. 18A-C. The data was standardized by assuming the maximum value of the Brillouin gain of the optical fiber of Example 1, the comparative example, as 1. The maximum relative Brillouin gain became 0.44, and the SBS threshold power became 3.9 dB smaller.

In this embodiment, there were peaks with relative gains of 0.25, 0.44, 0.26, 0.03, and 0.07 at the frequency shifts of 10670 MHz, 10760 MHz, 11950 MHz, 11000 MHz, and 11140 MHz, respectively, in ascending order.

Eighth Embodiment

An eighth embodiment is related to an optical fiber having a core comprising a first codoped layer in the vicinity of the center (first layer), a non-codoped layer located at the outer periphery of the first codoped layer (second layer), and a second codoped layer located at the outer periphery of the non-codoped layer (third layer). The refractive index profile and the dopant profiles of the optical fiber of this embodiment are shown in FIGS. 20A-C. The diameters, optical relative refractive index difference, and the Ge and F concentrations in each layer are shown below:

  • First layer radius (r1): 1.66 µm.
  • Second layer radius (r2): 3.33 µm.
  • Third layer radius (r3): 4.43 µm.
  • First layer Ge concentration (nG1): 5.0 % by mass. First layer F concentration (nF1): 0.45 % by mass.
  • Second layer Ge concentration (nG2): 3.5 % by mass. Second layer F concentration (nF2): 0.00 % by mass.
  • Third layer Ge concentration (nG3): 5.5 % by mass. Third layer F concentration (nF3): 0.60 % by mass.
  • Relative refractive index difference (&Dgr;): 0.35%.

The Ge concentrations and the F concentrations of the first layer, the second layer, and the third layer were adjusted such that the respective relative refractive index differences &Dgr; all became 0.35%. Thus, the optical characteristics obtained were the same those of the fourth embodiment.

FIG. 21 shows the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of the optical fiber obtained in the refractive index profile shown in FIGS. 20A-C. The data was standardized by assuming the maximum value of the Brillouin gain of the optical fiber of Example 1, the comparative example, as 1. The maximum relative Brillouin gain became 0.69, and the SBS threshold power became 2.9 dB smaller.

In this embodiment, there were peaks with relative gains of 0.69, 0.24, 0.06, and 0.04 at the frequency shifts of 10760 MHz, 10950 MHz, 11040 MHz, and 11160 MHz, respectively, in ascending order.

Ninth Embodiment

A ninth embodiment is related to an optical fiber having a core comprising a first codoped layer in the vicinity of the center (first layer), a non-codoped layer located at the outer periphery of the first codoped layer (second layer), and a second codoped layer located at the outer periphery of the non-codoped layer (third layer). The refractive index profile and the dopant profiles of the optical fiber of this embodiment are shown in FIGS. 22A-C. The diameters, optical relative refractive index difference, and the Ge and F concentrations in each layer are shown below:

  • First layer radius (r1): 1.66 µm.
  • Second layer radius (r2): 3.33 µm.
  • Third layer radius (r3): 4.43 µm.
  • First layer Ge concentration (nG1): 5.0 % by mass. First layer F concentration (nF1): 0.45 % by mass.
  • Second layer Ge concentration (nG2): 3.5 % by mass. Second layer F concentration (nF2): 0.00 % by mass.
  • Third layer Ge concentration (nG3): 7.0 % by mass. Third layer F concentration (nF3): 1.05 % by mass.
  • Relative refractive index difference (&Dgr;): 0.35%.

The Ge concentrations and the F concentrations of the first layer, the second layer, and the third layer were adjusted such that the respective relative refractive index differences A all became 0.35%. Thus, the optical characteristics obtained were the same those of the fourth embodiment.

FIG. 23 shows the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of the optical fiber obtained in the refractive index profile shown in FIGS. 22A-C. The data was standardized by assuming the maximum value of the Brillouin gain of the optical fiber of Example 1, the comparative example, as 1. The maximum relative Brillouin gain became 0.44, and the SBS threshold power became 4.0 dB smaller.

In this embodiment, there were peaks with relative gains of 0.44, 0.24, 0.18, and 0.13 at the frequency shifts of 10760 MHz, 10900 MHz, 10960 MHz, and 11120 MHz, respectively, in ascending order.

Tenth Embodiment

A tenth embodiment is related to an optical fiber having a core comprising a first codoped layer in the vicinity of the center (first layer), a non-codoped layer located at the outer periphery of the first codoped layer (second layer), and a second codoped layer located at the outer periphery of the non-codoped layer (third layer). The refractive index profile and the dopant profiles of the optical fiber of this embodiment are shown in FIGS. 24A-C. The diameters, optical relative refractive index difference, and the Ge and F concentrations in each layer are shown below:

  • First layer radius (r1): 1.66 µm.
  • Second layer radius (r2): 3.33 µm.
  • Third layer radius (r3): 4.43 µm.
  • First layer Ge concentration (nG1): 7.0 % by mass. First layer F concentration (nF1): 1.05 % by mass.
  • Second layer Ge concentration (nG2): 3.5 % by mass. Second layer F concentration (nF2): 0.00 % by mass.
  • Third layer Ge concentration (nG3): 7.0 % by mass. Third layer F concentration (nF3): 1.05 % by mass.
  • Relative refractive index difference (&Dgr;): 0.35%.

The Ge concentrations and the F concentrations of the first layer, the second layer, and the third layer were adjusted such that the respective relative refractive index differences &Dgr; all became 0.35%. Thus, the optical characteristics obtained were the same those of the fourth embodiment.

FIG. 25 shows the relative Brillouin gain spectrum of the optical fiber obtained in the refractive index profile shown in FIGS. 24A-C. The data was standardized by assuming the maximum value of the Brillouin gain of the optical fiber of Example 1, the comparative example, as 1. The maximum relative Brillouin gain became 0.34, and the SBS threshold power became 4.7 dB smaller.

In this embodiment, there were peaks with relative gains of 0.34, 0.21, 0.09, 0.05, and 0.21 at the frequency shifts of 10420 MHz, 10520 MHz, 10660 MHz, 10900 MHz, and 11010 MHz, respectively, in ascending order.

FIG. 26 shows a transmission system (wavelength division multiplexing system) 10 with a PON configuration in which an the optical fiber 1 according to the present invention is used. The transmission system 10 transmits a data signal at frequencies of 1.31 µm and 1.49 µm, and an image signal at a frequency of 1.55 µm in compliance with the requirements of ITU-T G.983.3. FIG. 26 shows a digital image distribution over the Internet or by streaming, by way of example of a data transmission. However, a voice data transmission is available by adding an appropriate apparatus. For an image transmission at a frequency band of 1.55 µm, a system is widely used in which a typical broadcast wave is propagated in the form of an as-is analog signal. In such a system, a signal can be demodulated into the signal of the original broadcast wave in a receiver portion of the broadcast system on the subscriber side. Therefore, a conventional television set can be used as it is.

The system of FIG. 26 transmits a data signal and an analog signal (image signal) through the single the optical fiber 1. However, in the transmission system of the present invention, an optical fiber for a data signal and an optical fiber for an analog signal, separate from each other, may be used. In such a system, using the optical fiber of the present invention offers an advantage such as an extension in transmission distance.

While preferred embodiments of the present invention have been described above, these should not be considered to be limitative of the invention. Addition, omission, and replacement of the constituents, and other modifications can be made without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention. The present invention is not limited by the descriptions above, but is limited only by the appended claims.


Anspruch[en]
An optical fiber comprising a center core and a cladding located at an outer periphery of the core,

wherein the core comprises at least one codoped layer made from silica glass doped with germanium and fluorine, and at least one lower-concentration codoped layer made from silica glass doped with germanium, or silica glass that is doped with germanium and fluorine wherein a dope amount of the fluorine is smaller than a dope amount of the fluorine in the codoped layer.
The optical fiber according to claim 1, wherein

the core comprises an inner core located in the vicinity of the center and an outer core provided at an outer periphery of the inner core,

the inner core comprises a codoped layer made from silica glass doped with germanium and fluorine, and

the outer core comprises a lower-concentration codoped layer made from silica glass doped with germanium, or silica glass that is doped with germanium and fluorine wherein a dope amount of the fluorine is smaller than a dope amount of the fluorine in the inner core.
The optical fiber according to claim 1, wherein the cladding is made from non-doped silica glass. The optical fiber according to claim 1, wherein fluorine is doped into a part of the cladding. The optical fiber according to claim 4, wherein the cladding comprises an inner cladding provided at an outer periphery of the core and an outer cladding provided at an outer periphery of the inner cladding, and the relationship: nc1 < nc2 holds, supposing that a refractive index of the inner cladding is nc1 and a refractive index of the outer cladding is nc2. The optical fiber according to claim 4, wherein the cladding comprises an inner cladding provided at an outer periphery of the core, a trench layer provided at an outer periphery of the inner cladding, and an outer cladding provided at an outside of the trench layer, and the relationships: nc2 < nc1 and nc2 < nc3 hold, supposing that a refractive index of the inner cladding is nc1, a refractive index of the trench layer is nc2, and a refractive index of the outer cladding is nc3. The optical fiber according to claim 2, wherein a concentration of the germanium is in a range between 4% and 15% by mass in terms of germanium oxide, and a concentration of the fluorine is in a range between 0.2% and 5% by mass, in the inner core. The optical fiber according to claim 2, wherein a ratio of an inner core radius and an outer core radius is in a range between 0.10 and 0.85. The optical fiber according to claim 8, wherein the ratio of the inner core radius and the outer core radius is in a range between 0.25 and 0.70. The optical fiber according to claim 2, wherein optical refractive indices of the inner core and the outer core are substantially the same. The optical fiber according to claim 2, wherein an average of relative refractive index differences with respect to the cladding of the inner core and the outer core is in a range between 0.30% and 0.60%, and an outer core diameter is in a range between 6.0 µm and 10.5 µm. The optical fiber according to claim 1, wherein

the core comprises a first core located in the vicinity of the center, a second core provided at an outer periphery of the first core, and a third core provided at an outer periphery of the second core,

the first core and the third core comprise a codoped layer made from silica glass doped with germanium and fluorine, and

the second core comprises a lower-concentration codoped layer made from silica glass doped with germanium, or silica glass that is doped with germanium and fluorine wherein a dope amount of the fluorine is smaller than a dope amount of the fluorine in the inner core.
The optical fiber according to claim 12, wherein the relationships: nf1 > nf2 and nf3 > nf2 hold, supposing that a fluorine concentration of is nf1 % by mass, a fluorine concentration of the second core is nf2 % by mass, and a fluorine concentration of the third core is nf3 % by mass. The optical fiber according to claim 13, wherein nf1 and nf3 are substantially the same. The optical fiber according to claim 13, wherein the relationship: nf1 < nf3 holds. The optical fiber according to claim 13, wherein the relationship: nf1 > nf3 holds. The optical fiber according to claim 1, wherein optical characteristics satisfy the requirements of ITU-T Recommendation G.652. A transmission system configured to perform an analog signal transmission or a baseband transmission using the optical fiber according to claim 1. A wavelength division multiplexing system configured to perform a data transmission and/or a voice transmission, in addition to an analog signal transmission and/or a baseband transmission using the optical fiber according to claim 1.






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