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Dokumentenidentifikation EP1808492 30.08.2007
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001808492
Titel Synthese von Zwischenprodukten für die Herstellung von Pramipexol
Anmelder Dipharma Francis S.r.l., Baranzate di Bollate, IT
Erfinder Riva, Sergio, 20030 Seveso (MI), IT;
Fassi, Paola, 20010 Vittuone (MI), IT;
Scarpellini, Michele, 24100 Bergamo, IT;
Allegrini, Pietro, 20097 San Donato Milanese (MI), IT;
Razzetti, Gabriele, 20099 Sesto S. Giovanni (MI), IT
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
Vertragsstaaten AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, HU, IE, IS, IT, LI, LT, LU, LV, MC, NL, PL, PT, RO, SE, SI, SK, TR
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 08.01.2007
EP-Aktenzeichen 070002779
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 18.07.2007
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 30.08.2007
IPC-Hauptklasse C12P 17/14(2006.01)A, F, I, 20070620, B, H, EP
IPC-Nebenklasse C12P 41/00(2006.01)A, L, I, 20070620, B, H, EP   
IPC additional class C07D 277/82  (2006.01)  A,  L,  N,  20070620,  B,  H,  EP

Beschreibung[en]
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a novel method for the preparation of intermediates useful in the preparation of pramipexole and the use thereof in its preparation.

TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

Pramipexole, (S)-2-amino-6-n-propylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzothiazole, having formula (A), is a dopaminergic agonist, known from US 4,843,086 , used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease in the form of the dihydrochloride monohydrate.

WO 2005/092871 discloses the synthesis of pramipexole and the salts thereof, starting from a compound of formula (I), as a individual (S) enantiomer, or a salt thereof, wherein R is a protected amino group; and the asterisk * denotes the stereogenic carbon atom. A compound of formula (I), as the individual (S) enantiomer, can be obtained by hydrolysis of a mixture of (R,S) enantiomers of an ester of formula (II), or a salt thereof, wherein R1 is straight or branched C1-C6 alkyl, optionally substituted with phenyl; and the asterisk * and R are as defined above, followed by resolution of the mixture of (R,S) enantiomers of the acid of formula (I), resulting in the individual (S) enantiomer. Alternatively, an acid of formula (I), as the individual (S) enantiomer, can be obtained enzymatically from a mixture of (R,S) enantiomers of an ester of formula (II), or a salt thereof.

The higher the enantiomeric purity of the starting compound of formula (I), the higher will be the enantiomeric purity of the final product pramipexole, obtained in WO 2005/092871 . Therefore, an acid of formula (I), or a salt thereof, as the individual (S) enantiomer in said process typically has an enantiomeric purity of at least approx. 96%, preferably of at least approx. 99%. The preparation of a compound of formula (I), or a salt thereof, with such a high purity degree requires a number of steps, such as hydrolysis, recovery of the racemic intermediate (I), salification with an optically active base, recovery of the salt optically active, recrystallization and deprotection of the optically active acid. From the industrial point of view, these operations involve longer production times and higher costs. To date, the enzymatic preparation is also problematic and cannot be applied industrially, as the most suited enzyme as well as the optimum reactions conditions for said substrate are difficult to ascertain.

There is therefore the need for an improved process for the conversion of an ester of formula (II), as a mixture of (R,S) enatiomers, to the individual (S) enantiomer of formula (I).

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It has now been found an enzymatic process for the preparation of the intermediate of formula (I), as the individual (S) enantiomer, using the lipase from Candida antarctica, which fulfils the requirement for its production in industrial amounts.

According to the invention, an enzyme unit is the amount of enzyme which catalyzes the release of 1.0 µmol of fatty acid per minute from the corresponding triglyceride at 30°C and pH = 7.

DETAILED DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION

The object of the invention is a process for the preparation of an acid of formula (I), as the individual (R) or (S) enantiomer, or a salt thereof, wherein R is a protected amino group, and the asterisk * denotes the stereogenic carbon atom, comprising contacting an ester of formula (II), as mixture of (R,S) enantiomers, or a salt thereof, wherein R1 is straight or branched C1-C6 alkyl, optionally substituted with phenyl; and the asterisk * and R have the meanings defined above, with a lipase from Candida antarctica, under conditions effective to obtain a mixture comprising an acid of formula (I), as the individual (R) enantiomer, and an ester of formula (II), as the individual (S) enantiomer; the subsequent hydrolysis of the latter to obtain an acid of formula (I), as the individual (S) enantiomer; and, if desired, the conversion of an acid of formula (I), either as the (R) or (S) enantiomer, to a salt thereof.

R1 is preferably a C1-C4 alkyl group, e.g. methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl or tert-butyl, more preferably ethyl or propyl; or benzyl or phenylethyl, in particular ethyl.

A group R can be, e.g., a protected amino group such as an acylamino, carbamoyl, arylmethylamino, phthalimido or silylamino group, as exemplified in WO 2005/092871 . The acetylamino, propionylamino or pivaloylamino groups are preferred.

Examples of salts, preferably pharmaceutically acceptable, of a compound of formula (I) or (II) are reported in WO 2005/092871 .

A lipase from Candida antarctica is preferably the lipase from Candida antarctica B, more preferably CAL B, expressed and produced in Aspergillus oryzae, marketed by Novozymes under the trade name Novozym®.

The enzyme can be either free or immobilized, typically marketed as Novozym® CALB-L or Novozym® 435.

The lipase from Candida antarctica surprisingly proved to be more advantageous than other enzymes which usually have catalytic effect in these reactions, under industrial conditions.

The following Table 1 compares the results obtained under the same conditions according to the invention, with different enzymes. Table 1 Enzyme cosolvent v/v (20%) ee acid (%) c (%) Time Lipase from porcine Pancreas DMF N.A 8 12 h DMF N.A 27 4 gg Chymotrypsin DMF N.A 3 12h DMF N.A 11 4 gg Lipase PS DMF N.A 0,3 16 h DMF N.A 2,1 3 gg Lipase CV DMF N.A 0,3 16 h DMF N.A 2,5 3 gg Lipase from Candida cylyndracea DMF 0 100 12 h DMF 15 82 2 h DMF 25 34 2 h Lipasi CE-5 DMF 25 33 12 h DMF N.A 7 2 h Esterase from porcine Liver DMF 0 99 12 h Protease (Subtilisin Carlsberg) DMF 7,5 83 12 h DMF 13 45 2 h CALB-L DMF 78 56 30 min.

It should be noted that, when operating at longer times, most other enzymes do not promote the reaction, whereas in 2 cases (lipase from Candida cylyndracea and esterase from porcine liver) the reaction is non-specific, as it catalyzes the hydrolysis of both esters R and S of formula (II).

The reaction can be carried out in aqueous buffered solution at pH approx. ranging from 5.5 to 10.0; preferably ranging from approximately 6.0 to approximately 7.5. Examples of buffer solutions are TRIS [tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane]/HCl, buffer phosphate, ammonium bicarbonate, ethanolamine/HCl, sodium tetraborate(Na2B4O7)/HCl. The reaction is preferably carried out in the presence of a buffer phosphate or ammonium bicarbonate.

If desired, the reaction can be carried out in the presence of a cosolvent, e.g. a dipolar aprotic solvent, such as dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, acetonitrile, dimethylsulfoxide; a ketone, such as acetone or methyl-isobutyl ketone; an ether, such as tetrahydrofuran or dioxane; or a chlorinated solvent, for example dichloromethane; an apolar solvent, such as toluene or hexane; preferably the solvent is selected from dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile, acetone, dimethylsulfoxide and dioxane, more preferably the cosolvent is tetrahydrofuran.

The volume ratio of buffered solution to cosolvent can approx. range from 1 to 10. and preferably approx. ranges from 1 to 3. It will be appreciated that the reaction does not require very diluted operative conditions, as is the case with usual enzymatic reactions, as the CAL B enzyme is surprisingly active even when the water to cosolvent ratio is not high. This results, on an industrial scale, in high volume productivity which allows to carry out the reaction in reactors of the size conventionally used in organic synthesis.

The reaction can be carried out at a temperature approximately ranging from 15 to 80°C, preferably approximately from 20 to 70°C, typically at 25°C.

The volume ratio of cosolvent - buffer mixture to substrate approximately ranges from 6 to 20 volumes, and preferably approximately from 8 to 15 volumes, in particular about 10 volumes.

The enzyme to substrate ratio approximately ranges from 1.0 to 10.0 U per mg of substrate, and preferably approximately from 1.0 U to 3.0 U per mg of substrate.

Reaction times can approximately range from 20 minutes to 48 hours, depending on the amount of enzyme used. As a rule, the reaction is continued until obtaining an about 50% conversion. Then the obtained precipitate of the (R) enantiomer of the acid of formula (I) is filtered, whereas the liquid phase contains the (S) enantiomer of the ester of formula (II).

Hydrolysis of the (S) enantiomer of the ester of formula (II) to give the individual (S) enantiomer of acid of formula (I) can be carried out by reaction with an alkali hydroxide, such sodium or potassium hydroxide, in amounts approximately from 1 to 4 equivalents, preferably approximately from 1.5 to 2.5 equivalents, in a polar protic solvent, for example water or a C1-C4 alkanol, in particular methanol, ethanol, i-propanol, or mixtures thereof; or mixtures thereof with a cosolvent as defined above; at a temperature approx. ranging from 0°C to the solvent reflux temperature, preferably approximately from 10 to 50°C, in particular at 20°C.

An acid of formula (I), either as the (R) or (S) enantiomer, can be converted to a salt thereof with known methods.

According to the invention, the mixture of (R,S) enantiomers of an ester of formula (II) can contain the two individual enantiomers in any ratio to each other. The ratio of the individual (R) enantiomer of formula (I) and the individual (S) enantiomer of formula (II), present in the mixture obtainable according to the invention, is substantially related to the enantiomeric ratio in the starting ester of formula (II). A compound of formula (II), or a salt thereof, can be obtained by example according to US 4,988,699 and WO 05/092871 .

The enantiomeric purity is usually expressed as "enantiomeric excess" and defined as (S-R)/(R+S)x100. wherein S and R are respectively the amount of the (S) and (R) enantiomers. According to the invention, he term individual (S) or (R) enantiomer means that the enantiomeric purity is usually at least about 96%, preferably at least about 99%.

As stated above, a compound of formula (I), as the individual (S) enantiomer, is particularly useful in the preparation of pramipexol.

Therefore, the invention also provides a process for the preparation of pramipexole, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, comprising:

  • the rearrangement of a compound of formula (I), as the individual (S) enantiomer, or a salt thereof, thus obtained
wherein R is a protected amino group and the asterisk * denotes the stereogenic carbon atom, to obtain of a compound of formula (III) as the individual (S) enantiomer wherein Ra is an free or protected amino group, R2 is hydrogen or a group R3-OR-CO-, wherein R3 is straight or branched C1-C4 alkyl and the asterisk * has the meaning defined above,
  • the alkylation of a compound of formula (III), to obtain a compound of formula (IV)
wherein Ra, R2 and the asterisk * are as defined above, and, if necessary, the removal of the protective group from the primary amino group and/or of the R3-OR-CO- group from the secondary amino group, and, if desired, its conversion to a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. Rearrangement of a compound of formula (I), as the individual (S) enantiomer, or a salt thereof, the alkylation of a compound of formula (III), and the conversion of pramipexol to a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, can be carried out according to WO05/092871 .

The following examples illustrate the invention.

Example 1 - Enzymatic resolution of an ester of formula (II), R1 = ethyl and R = acetylamino, in various cosolvents.

The enzyme CAL B (0.3 mg) is dissolved in 800 µL of buffer phosphate (pH = 7.5; 0.05 M) then a solution of compound (II), wherein R1 is ethyl and R is acetylamino (10 mg) in a cosolvent (200 µL) is added. The reaction is left under stirring at room temperature for a variable time, then is analyzed by HPLC.

The obtained results are reported in Table 2, in particular: the general conversion of an ester of formula (II) to an acid of formula (I), the enantiomeric excess of the resulting (R) acid of formula (I), and the enantiomeric excess of the (S) ester of formula (II). Table 2 Cosolvent Time ee% acid (I) (R) ee% ester (II) (S) Conversion DMF 30 min 83 98 0.52 THF 3 h 94 95 0.49 CH3CN 3 h 89 100 0.53 ACETONE 3 h 80 100 0.55 DIOXANE 3 h 88 100 0.53

Example 2 - Enzymatic resolution of an ester of formula (II), R1 = ethyl, R = acetylamino; in acetonitrile cosolvent with an immobilized lipase.

The immobilized enzyme CAL B (Novozym® 435) (0.5 mg) is suspended in 800 µL of buffer phosphate (pH = 7.5; 0.05 M), then a solution of the compound of formula (II), R1 = ethyl and R = acetylamino (10 mg) in acetonitrile (200 µL) is added. The reaction is left under stirring at room temperature for 20 hours, then analyzed by HPLC.

The obtained results are reported in Table 3, in particular: the general conversion of an ester of formula (II) to an acid of formula (I), the enantiomeric excess of the resulting (R) acid of formula (I), and the enantiomeric excess of the (S) ester of formula (II). Table 3 Enzyme amount time ee% acid (I) (R) ee% ester (II)(s) Conversion 0.5 mg 20 h 81 97 0.55

Example 3 - Preparation of (S)-2-acetylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzothiazole-6-carboxylic acid. (S) Enantiomer of the acid of formula (I).

The enzyme CAL B (Novozym® CALB-L) (11 g) is added to 25 ml of ammonium bicarbonate buffer (pH = 8.0; 0.37 M), then a solution of the compound of formula (II), R1 = ethyl and R = acetylamino (5 g) in THF (25 ml) is added. The reaction is left under stirring at room temperature for 24 hours, then THF is evaporated off. The heterogeneous mixture is added with 25 ml of toluene, then heated to about 40°C, and the formed acid (R) of formula (I) is filtered off. The filtrate is placed in a separatory funnel, the phases are separated and the toluene phase is recovered and added with a solution of NaOH (1 g) in water (12 ml). The mixture is left under stirring for 5-10 hours, after that the aqueous phase is separated, washed with toluene and acidified with acetic acid to approx. pH 5. The formed precipitate is recovered by filtration and dried, to obtain about 2 g of acid (S) of formula (I).


Anspruch[en]
A process for the preparation of an acid of formula (I), as the individual (R) enantiomer or (S), or a salt thereof wherein R is a protected amino group; and the asterisk * denotes the stereogenic carbon atom, comprising contacting an ester of formula (II), as mixture of (R,S) enantiomers, or a salt thereof, wherein R1 is straight or branched C1-C6 alkyl, optionally substituted with phenyl; and the asterisk * and R have the meanings defined above, with a lipase from Candida antarctica, under conditions effective to obtain a mixture comprising an acid of formula (I), as the individual (R) enantiomer, and an ester of formula (II), as the individual (S) enantiomer; the subsequent hydrolysis of the latter to obtain an acid of formula (I), as the individual (S) enantiomer; and, if desired, the conversion of an acid of formula (I), either as the (R) or (S) enantiomer, to a salt thereof. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the enzyme lipase from Candida antarctica is the lipase from Candida antarctica B. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the reaction is carried out in aqueous buffered solution ad a pH approx. ranging from 5.5 to 10.0. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the reaction is carried out in buffer solution selected from TRIS [tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane]/HCl, phosphate, ammonium bicarbonate, ethanolamine/HCl and sodium tetraborate(Na2B407)/HCl buffers. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the reaction is carried out in the presence of a cosolvent. The process as claimed in claim 5, wherein the cosolvent is selected from a dipolar aprotic solvent, a ketone, an ether, a chlorinated solvent, or an apolar solvent. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the volume ratio of buffered solution and to cosolvent approx. ranges from 1 to 10. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the volume ratio of cosolvent - buffer mixture to substrate approx. ranges from 6 to 20. The process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the ratio of enzyme to substrate approx. ranges from 1.0 to 10.0 U per mg of substrate. A process, as claimed in claim 1, further comprising: - the rearrangement a compound of formula (I), as the individual (S) enantiomer, or a salt thereof, wherein R is a protected amino group and the asterisk * denotes the stereogenic carbon atom, to obtain of a compound of formula (III) as the individual (S) enantiomer wherein Ra is an free or protected amino group, R2 is hydrogen or a group R3-OR-CO-, wherein R3 is straight or branched C1-C4 alkyl and the asterisk * has the meaning defined above; - the alkylation of a compound of formula (III), to obtain a compound of formula (IV) wherein Ra, R2 and the asterisk * are as defined above, and, if necessary, the removal of the protective group from the primary amino group and/or of the R3-OR-CO- group from the secondary amino group, and, if desired, its conversion to a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, to obtain pramipexole, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.






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