The present invention relates to a linear knitting machine.
In particular, the present invention relates to a Raschel-type,
tricot or similar warp linear knitting machine with single or double needle-bed,
commonly also known as Raschel-type warp loom, used for manufacturing knitted items.
As is known, Raschel-type linear knitting machines with
double needle-bed are provided with two rows of needles, each one being housed in
a respective needle-bed and supported by a respective bar. Every needle-bed is further
equipped with a series of latches that can be coupled to the needles for so-called
"compound" systems, and a series of "stitch-combs" commonly used for preventing
the loop from being taken upwards when the needle gets up for discharging the stitch
and taking a new thread. Also the series of latches and stitch-combs are supported
by respective bars, which are parallel to the needle bars and develop longitudinally
along the whole machine.
Needle bars, latch bars and stitch-comb bars are moved
synchronously with a forward-backward motion by means of (more or less complex)
systems consisting of compound levers suitably arranged (in the form of quadrilaterals),
accurately calculated and apt to make the movements they are designed for.
In particular, examples of known machines belonging to
this type can be found in documents
Modern computer-assisted design technologies enables to
study accurately the laws of motion of said compound levers with a perfect synchronism
between the various fabric-forming elements, starting from the same cam set into
motion by a drive shaft.
This system is based on very delicate balances between
levers, fulcrums, speeds, accelerations, paths, trajectories and any other factor
constituting the mechanism as a whole.
Moreover, said compound levers are designed by analyzing
the shape changes of the concerned elements due to working defects, temperature
changes and clearances that cannot be avoided in order to operate the knitting machine
within the tolerance limits the knitting system can tolerate. As a matter of fact,
it should be pointed out that yarns have given limits of mechanical resistance,
within which they have to be worked so as to avoid their breaking, stress deformation,
bad fabric-formation, which all mean bad quality. Therefore, compound levers are
also designed as a function of the type of thread used and of the thread tensioning
and feeding values determining the fabric width.
That is why the machine is normally carried out for manufacturing
a given item according to the customer's needs. In other words, movements and size
of the compound levers are adjusted and calibrated (in textile jargon "sampled")
for manufacturing a specific item.
However, known machines as described above have great drawbacks.
A first drawback is the little versatility of said machines
for manufacturing different items.
As a matter of fact, it should be pointed out that in order
to change the layout of the machine so as to obtain movements differing from the
predefined ones, very delicate and complex adjustments are carried out, requiring
the intervention of personnel having specific instruments and knowledge. For instance,
if a yarn whose characteristics differ from the ones previously worked is used,
the compound levers should be modified by specialized personnel, changing the path
of the elements involved in fabric formation.
As a matter of fact, needles, latches and stitch-combs
(which are regarded as consumables) can be replaced by personnel working in the
knitwear factory; whereas for other parts, such as for instance a cam replacement,
personnel working in the manufacturing firm should intervene, since this involves
various disassembling and recalibrating operations.
That is why only a technician working for the firm manufacturing
the knitting machine can make changes, if necessary, to said knitting machine trying
to simulate and calculate possible implications of the system as a function of the
changes required by the customer.
The intervention of specialized personnel is highly expensive
because of idle times in which the machine is not used and of costs involving operators'
A further disadvantage of knitting machines as described
above consists in that the mechanisms of movement should necessarily be carried
out with highly precise physical elements that show almost inexistent deformations
under stress. This means a high accuracy in the choice of materials, shapes, size,
working tolerances, which results in high manufacturing costs.
Moreover, it should also be pointed out that the aforesaid
compound levers, beyond being quite bulky, require quite large spaces for their
movement. Also the positioning of the cams, as is known spaced from one another,
and the positioning of the motor involve a particularly large overall size of the
A further disadvantage consists in the shape of the rotating
shaft associated to the control cams and set into rotation by the motor. Said shaft,
which extends on the whole longitudinal development of the machine (needle-beds
have a length above 3.5 meters), involves serious problems as far as working, balancing,
vibration reduction, assembly are concerned, which problems result exactly from
the size of said shaft.
Under these circumstances, the technical task underlying
the present invention is to provide a linear knitting machine that is able to substantially
obviate the drawbacks referred to above.
Within said technical task, an important aim of the invention
is to conceive a linear knitting machine that is versatile and can be easily adapted
to different working types, without requiring the intervention of specialized personnel.
Another technical task is to propose a linear knitting
machine that is cheap, with small overall size and simple from a structural point
The technical task and the aims referred to above are basically
achieved by a linear knitting machine characterized in that it comprises one or
more of the technical solutions claimed below.
The following is a description of a preferred but not exclusive
embodiment of a linear knitting machine according to the invention to an indicative
and nonlimiting purpose, as is shown in the accompanying drawings, in which:
- Figure 1 shows a schematic view in lateral elevation, some parts being removed
so as to better show others, of a knitting machine according to the present invention;
- Figure 2 shows a schematic view in front elevation, some parts being removed
so as to better show others, of the knitting machine according to the present invention;
- Figure 3A is a view in lateral elevation of a constructive detail of the machine
shown in Figures 1 and 2 according to a first execution variant;
- Figure 3B is a view in lateral elevation of a constructive detail of the machine
shown in Figures 1 and 2 according to a second execution variant;
- Figure 4 is a plan view of another constructive detail of the knitting machine;
- Figure 5 is a schematic view in lateral elevation of a lower portion of the
- Figure 6 shows a schematic view in lateral elevation, some parts being removed
so as to better show others, of a knitting machine according to an alternative embodiment
with respect to the one shown in Figure 1;
- Figure 7 shows a section of Figure 6 along lines VII-VII.
With reference to the accompanying drawings, the numeral
1 globally refers to a linear knitting machine according to the present invention.
In particular, the present invention can advantageously
apply to Raschel-type linear knitting machines with single or double needle-bed.
The knitting machine 1 comprises a first 2 and a second
3 needle-bed (Figure 1), which extend longitudinally along said machine 1. Every
needle-bed 2, 3 is provided with a bar 4, developing along the whole longitudinal
development of the machine 1 and housing a respective row of needles 5.
Advantageously, every needle-bed 2, 3 can be further equipped
with a plurality of latches 6 for needles 5 commonly known as "compound" needles,
which are known and will not be therefore described in detail in the present disclosure.
The latches 6 operate synchronously with the needles 5
and are supported by a respective bar 7 placed in every needle-bed 2, 3.
Known needles 5 with oscillating latch can also be used.
In this case, accordingly, the latch bars 7 are not used in the knitting machine
Moreover, the machine 1 can further be equipped with a
plurality of stitch-combs 8, used for preventing the loop made by the machine 1
from being taken upwards when the needle 5 gets up for discharging the stitch and
taking a new thread. The stitch-combs 8, which are also known in the specific technical
field and will be therefore schematically shown and not described in detail, are
supported by a respective bar 9 arranged in every needle-bed 2, 3.
Under these circumstances, the bar 4 holding the needles
5, the bar 7 holding the latches 6 and the bar 9 holding the stitch-combs 8, which
are present in every needle-bed 2, 3, are placed side by side and parallel to one
another and extend along the whole longitudinal development of the machine 1.
Above said needles 5, a plurality of thread-guides 10 further
develops, which are also known and will not be therefore described in further detail,
which arrange a series of threads between the needles 5 of the two needle-beds 2,
3. Thus, the combined movement of the thread-guides 10 synchronized with the movement
of the needles 5, of the latches 6 and of the stitch-combs 8 results in fabric formation,
which is not shown in the accompanying figures for higher clarity.
With reference to Figures 2 and 5, it should be pointed
out that the machine 1 is further provided with a motor 11, preferably arranged
centrally in the machine 1 as will be described better in the following.
The motor 11 moves the aforesaid bars 4, 7, 9 with a forward-backward
motion getting towards/away from said thread-guides 10 for enabling the needles
5 to take or release the thread.
In particular, the motor 11 is connected to the bars 4,
7, 9 through suitable transmission means 12 comprising stiff rods 13 connected to
the bars 4, 7, 9 on respective opposite ends.
In further detail, every bar 4, 7, 9 is stiffly connected
to three rods 13, each being positioned on said opposite ends of the respective
As is better shown in Figure 1 and in Figure 2, every rod
13 is made up of one stiff body, having an elongated shape and a longitudinal development
parallel to a respective direction A of forward-backward movement.
Every rod 13 has a first end 13a stiffly engaged to a respective
bar 4, 7, 9, and a second end 13b, opposite the first one 13a, operatively connected
to a rotating element 14.
Preferably, as is shown in Figure 2, every needle-bed 2,
3 is provided with two rotating elements 14 arranged on said opposite ends of the
respective bars 4, 7, 9. Thus, every bar 4, 7, 9 is moved by means of the synchronous
movement of two rotating elements 14 transmitting motion along direction A to the
two rods 13 associated to the ends of the bar.
In detail, every rotating element 14 comprises at least
one cam disc 15 (which is referred to in the following as cam) turning around a
respective axis X. Advantageously, as is better shown in Figures 1 and 4, the rotating
element 14 has at least two cams 15 coaxial to one another and mutually engaged.
Still in further detail, the rotating element 14 has a
first cam 15a equipped with an active surface extending perpendicularly to said
axis X and having a cam guide 16 made up of a recess on said active surface. Spaced
away from the first cam 15a, a second cam 15b develops, having two active surfaces
opposite to one another and transversal to said axis X. Two respective cam guides
16, also made up of a recess on the respective active surface, develop on the active
surfaces of the second cam 15b.
Under these circumstances, it should be pointed out that
for every rotating element 14 three cam guides 16 are provided for, two of them
being placed in the second cam 15b and one in the first cam 15a, respectively (Figure
Preferably, every cam guide 16 has a basically circular
development and extends around the axis of rotation X of the respective cam 15 according
to a trajectory predefined as a function of the movement to be transmitted to said
bars 4, 7, 9.
Advantageously, the machine 1 further comprises two box-shaped
bodies 16, each of them being arranged below an end of the respective bars 4, 7,
Every box-shaped body 17 is made up of a chamber containing
two rotating elements 14 adjacent to one another, each of them belonging to a respective
needle-bed 2, 3.
As is shown in Figure 3A, the rotating elements 14 contained
in every box-shaped body 17 turn in the same directions around respective axes X
parallel to one another, and are immersed in a lubricating substance, such as oil
for instance, so as to reduce the frictions of the rotating elements 14 during the
Alternatively, by varying the number of gears, said rotating
elements 14 contained in every box-shaped body 17 can turn in the opposite direction,
as is shown in Figure 3B.
With particular reference to Figure 4, it should also be
pointed out that one of the cams 15a, 15b of a respective rotating element 14 is
housed between the two cams 15a, 15b of the adjacent rotating element 14.
In other words, inside every box-shaped body 17 the two
rotating elements 14 are adjacent and offset so that the respective cams 15 can
get into one another resulting in highly reduced overall sizes.
As is shown in Figure 1, the second end 13b of every rod
13 is provided with a roller 18 inserted slidingly into a respective cam guide 16.
Taking into consideration a single needle-bed 2, 3, it should be pointed out that
the three rods 13 associated to the three bars 4, 7, 9 on a respective end are associated
to a rotating element 14 that is equipped, as described above, with three cam guides
16 for housing said rollers 18.
Thus, during the rotation around axis X of every rotating
element 14, the rollers 18 inserted into the cam guides 16 slide along a path defined
by the shape of said guide 16. On wave-shaped portions 16a of said guide 16, the
roller is moved by determining its shift along direction A of the rod 13 with the
Moreover, every rod 13 is associated to respective longitudinal
guide means 19, 29. Said guide means 19, 29 comprise guide bushings 19 designed
to guide the rod 13 in its forward-backward longitudinal movement according to the
direction of movement A, and guide bearings 29 for preventing said rods 13 from
rotating around an axis Y, which is perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the
elements 14. In particular, every rod 13 is suitably worked so that the guide bearings
29 oppose the efforts tending to make it turn around axis Y.
The bushings 19 are made up of hollow cylindrical elements
into which the ends 13a, 13b of every rod 13 are inserted. The bushings 19 engage
the respective rods 13 for enabling the movement of the latter only in the direction
of movement A.
It should also be pointed out that the rods 13 are partially
housed inside the box-shaped body 17 so that the respective rollers 18 are completely
immersed in the lubricating liquid.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, six rods are
inserted into every box-shaped body 17, three of them being associated to a rotating
element 14 belonging to the first needle-bed 2 and three of them being associated
to a rotating element 14 belonging to the second needle-bed 3.
In other solutions of embodiment, every rotating element
14 of every needle-bed 2, 3 can be associated to two, four or more rods.
Moreover, every rod 13 is further equipped with a recess
20 inside which develops a rotating shaft 21 fitted onto a respective rotating element
14 and belonging to said transmission means 12.
In particular, as is better shown in Figure 1, every rod
13 develops diametrically beside the active surface in which the respective cam
guide 16 is obtained. In this situation, the recess 20 placed between the first
13a and the second 13b end of every rod 13 gets through the center of the respective
The recess 20 is further basically elliptical in shape
so as to enable the sliding along direction A of the rod 13 around said shaft 21.
In particular, the transmission means include four rotating
shafts 21, each of them having a first end 21a associated to the motor 11 and a
second end 21b opposite the first one 21a and fitted onto a respective rotating
The transmission means 12 are further provided with a rotating
pulley 22 associated to the motor 11 by means of a toothed belt 23 engaged to a
rotating pin 11a of said motor 11.
In particular, the pulley 22 is associated to a toothed
wheel turning around a respective axis of rotation parallel to the longitudinal
development of the machine 1 (Figures 2, 3A, 3B).
The gear associated to the pulley 22 is further engaged
to two connection elements 24 arranged on the sides of the gear associated to said
pulley and fitted onto the first end 21a of respective shafts 21.
In particular, the connection elements 24 are made up of
gears 24 associated on opposite sides of the gear associated to the pulley 22 for
rotating in respective directions.
Every gear 24a is arranged in a respective needle-bed 2,
3 and is associated to the first ends 21a of two respective shafts 21 connected
to the rotating elements 14 of said needle-bed 2, 3.
As mentioned above, the motor 11 is arranged between the
ends of the bars 4, 7, 9 in a basically median position with respect to the box-shaped
bodies 17 (Figures 2 and 5) .
Under these circumstances, the shafts 21 of every needle-bed
2, 3 are both fitted onto opposite ends of the same gear 24a and develop in an opposite
direction with respect to the motor 11 and to the corresponding box-shaped body
Advantageously, every shaft 21 connected to the respective
rotating element 14 comprises a first portion 25 near the motor 11 and associated
to the respective connection element 24, and a second portion 26 associated to the
rotating element 14.
In other words, every shaft 21 is made up of two portions
25, 26 joined to one another by means of a connection joint 27. Thus, the joint
27 keeps said portions engaged and coaxial to one another.
Preferably, as shown in Figure 5, the first portion 25
of every shaft 21 is supported by a suitable support 28 resting onto the machine
Thus, the whole shaft 21 cannot get does not risk to became
flexed by applying an excessive effort onto said connection joint 27.
During operation, the motor 11 sets into rotation, by means
of the belt 23, the pulley 22 and thus also the connection elements 24 connected
Thus, the two shafts 21 of every needle-bed 2, 3 transmit
the rotation to the respective rotating elements 14 around axis X.
It should be pointed out that the shafts 21 associated
to the two rotating elements 14 housed within a respective box-shaped body 17 rotate
in the same directions (Figure 3A). By adding a gear, the same shafts 21 can rotate
in opposite directions (Figure 3B). Accordingly, also the rotating elements 14 belonging
to the two needle-beds and housed within a respective body 17 are set into rotation
in the same or in opposite directions.
As a result of the rotation of the cams 15, the roller
18 slides within the respective guide 16 and cannot slide in a transversal direction
with respect to the longitudinal development of the respective rod 13. As a matter
of fact, the guide bearings 29 enable the movement of the rod 13 only in said direction
A and prevent, as described above, the rotation of the rods 13 along axis Y.
When the roller 18 meets a wave-shaped portion 16a of the
guide 16, said roller is moved in direction A so that the whole rod 13 and therefore
the respective bar 4, 7, 9 are shifted.
Under these circumstances, it should be pointed out that
the rotation of the rotating elements 14 of every needle-bed 2, 3 occurs coordinately
so as to move in a balanced manner the respective bars 4, 7, 9 and, accordingly,
the needles 5, the latches 6 and the stitch-combs 8 associated thereto.
It should also be pointed out that the cam guides 16 obtained
in every cam 15 can have any shape so as to obtain differentiated movements of the
rods 13 associated thereto.
Another embodiment of the knitting machine 1, shown in
Figures 6 and 7, can be carried out by using double profile cams 15 moving the rods
13 by means of two movement bearings 30 associated thereto. Said movement bearings
30 slide externally on two tracks 31a, 31b obtained on said cams 15.
The invention achieves important advantages.
First of all, the machine is very simple from a structural
point of view, especially as far as the rod moving elements are concerned.
As a matter of fact, motion is transmitted by the rotating
element only by means of the stiff rod and there are no quadrilaterals or other
complicated compound levers. Advantageously, in order to change the movement of
the bars, the cams having said guide cams causing the movement of said bars are
In other words, depending on the type of thread, on the
type of item or on an error in the movement of a bar detected during the operation
of the knitting machine, cams having guides adapted to the specific purpose are
carried out and those in use are replaced.
Thus, after carrying out cams with suitable guides, several
variations in bar movement are provided.
The simple construction of the rods enables cam replacement
also by a non-specialized operator, who does not have to execute any adjustment
on the machine. Acting upon the box-shaped body, the operator can easily disassemble
the cams and reassemble replacement cams. Advantageously, the intervention of specialized
personnel is avoided, which enables to save money.
Moreover, every cam can be associated to a type of item
or yarn to be worked, stored and then used whenever a given item has to be manufactured.
Another important advantage of the present invention is
the simple structure, the small overall size and, therefore, the low manufacturing
As a matter of fact, as referred to above, the rotating
elements can get one into the other and enable to save much space. As a consequence,
also the box-shaped body will be small-sized. Moreover, the rods are simply made
up of stiff elements, carried out as one piece and not subject to particular adjustments
and/or jointed movements.
It should further be pointed out that the rotating shafts
are slim in structure since they are made up of separate portions that are much
shorter than the longitudinal development of the whole machine. Therefore, problems
involving assembly and the excessive weight of the shafts are eliminated.
Furthermore, the joints eliminate torsional phenomena that
might occur with very long shafts, involving a different rotation of the elements
contained in the same body, which rotate with an angular offset due to said torsion
of the shaft.
Moreover, as referred to above, the shafts of the first
needle-bed, and therefore also the elements, can rotate in the same direction or
in an opposite direction with respect to the one of the second needle-bed.
As a consequence, in case of rotation in opposite direction,
the masses in movement are counterbalanced, thus avoiding the accumulation of energy
due to unavoidable vibrations. Said energy is therefore advantageously dispersed
thanks to the counter-rotation of the shafts.