PatentDe  


Dokumentenidentifikation EP1852907 20.12.2007
EP-Veröffentlichungsnummer 0001852907
Titel Elektrostatisches Futter und Verarbeitungsvorrichtung
Anmelder Toto Ltd., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, JP;
ULVAC, Inc., Chigasaki, Kanagawa, JP
Erfinder Kitabayashi, Tetsuo, Kita-kyushu-shi Fukuoka, 802-8601, JP;
Hori, Hiroaki, Kita-kyushu-shi Fukuoka, 802-8601, JP;
Uchimura, Takeshi, Kita-kyushu-shi Fukuoka, 802-8601, JP;
Tateno, Noriaki, Kita-kyushu-shi Fukuoka, 802-8601, JP;
Fuwa, Koh, Chigasaki-shi Kanagawa 253-0071, JP;
Maehira, Ken, Chigasaki-shi Kanagawa 253-0071, JP
Vertreter derzeit kein Vertreter bestellt
Vertragsstaaten DE, FR, GB
Sprache des Dokument EN
EP-Anmeldetag 25.05.2000
EP-Aktenzeichen 070132915
EP-Offenlegungsdatum 07.11.2007
Veröffentlichungstag im Patentblatt 20.12.2007
IPC-Hauptklasse H01L 21/683(2006.01)A, F, I, 20071009, B, H, EP
IPC-Nebenklasse H01L 21/00(2006.01)A, L, I, 20071009, B, H, EP   H02N 13/00(2006.01)A, L, I, 20071009, B, H, EP   B23Q 3/15(2006.01)A, L, I, 20071009, B, H, EP   

Beschreibung[en]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a processing apparatus of an insulative substrate for use in a PDP (plasma display) manufacturing apparatus, a master writer manufacturing apparatus for a DVD (digital video (or versatile) disc), a substrate processing apparatus for a hard disc manufacturing apparatus, a reticle fixing apparatus in an EB (electron beam) exposure apparatus, and a CVD, etching or sputtering apparatus for manufacturing elements to be formed on SOS (silicon on sapphire) and SOI (silicon on insulator) wafers.

2. DESCRIPTION OF PRIOR ART

In the manufacturing apparatuses for such as a DVD, a PDP or the like, a material to be processed is a glass substrate which shows electrically insulative characteristic. Therefore, in the conventional art, since it is impossible to electrostatically attract these substrates within a vacuum, they are flatly placed on a stage in the manufacturing apparatus thereof or they are fixed with a mechanical mechanism.

A reticle of the EB exposure apparatus is comprised of quartz which also shows electrically insulative characteristic. Therefore, conventionally, the reticle is fixed tinder a vacuum with a mechanical mechanism.

SOS wafers and SOI wafers, attracting attention as next-generation alternatives to silicon wafers, show electrically insulative characteristic with regards to the surface by which they are mounted on a.stage. Therefore, conventionally, it is impossible to apply a fixing method using an electrostatic chuck in the manufacturing apparatus for forming devices on these wafers. A means and a principle of electrostatically attracting a silicon wafer are disclosed, for example, in Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. Hei 5-63062 (1993 ), however it is impossible to electrostatically attract an insulative substrate in accordance with the principle.

Also, there was known an apparatus for electrostatically attracting a paper, for example, an electrostatic plotter.

As the level and integration is advanced in the process for forming devices or the like on a substrate for use in a DVD, PDP, or a hard disc, or on an SOS or SOI, the temperature control in the process comes to be very important. With regards to the conventional process for forming devices on a silicon wafer, the temperature control is conducted in the process using an electrostatic chuck.

However, since the electrostatic chuck of the conventional art can attract only a conductor or semiconductor, a material to be processed cannot be electrostatically attracted in a case of having an electrically insulative characteristic. Therefore, it is impossible to control the temperature in the process with high accuracy.

Therefore, an electrostatic chuck, with which an insulative substrate can be electrostatically attracted, and a processing apparatus using such an electrostatic chuck are desired.

For fixing a reticle in the EB exposure apparatus, there is also desired a method using an electrostatic chuck, the structure of which is simpler than that of a mechanical fixation and which has a less problem of generating dust particles.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

According to the present invention, for solving the problems mentioned above, there is provided an electrostatic chuck which can electrostatically attract an insulative substrate, such as a glass substrate, under a vacuum atmosphere and a heating/cooling apparatus and a temperature controller apparatus for an insulative substrate using such an electrostatic chuck.

In the electrostatic chuck according to the present invention, the distance between a plurality of electrodes which are provided on one side of a dielectric constructing the electrostatic chuck is made small, and the thickness of the dielectric is made thin. A potential difference is given between the electrodes so as to form an ununiform electric field upon an attracting surface of the dielectric. An insulative material to be processed being within the ununiform electric field is partially polarized, and generates gradient force that is attracted in the direction being strong in the strength of the electric field. The gradient force is expressed by F∝ &agr; · grad E2, wherein F is gradient force, &agr; an inductive polarization charge, and E an electric field. The present invention utilizes this effect.

For obtaining the effect mentioned above, according to the present invention described in the present claims 1 to 10, there is provided an electrostatic chuck for attracting an insulative substrate, used under a vacuum atmosphere by specifying the shape and the properties of a dielectric, and the shapes of electrodes.

According to the present invention described in the present claims 14 and 15, there is provided a heating/cooling apparatus, comprising the electrostatic chuck mentioned above, a plate in which a flow passage is formed to supply or diffuse heat generated in the process or heat to be supplied to an insulative substrate by a medium, and a gas supply conduit for supplying a gas which is enclosed within a space defined between the insulative substrate and the attracting surface of a dielectric for adjusting heat transmission therebetween, wherein the pressure of the enclosed gas can be adjusted by the temperature of the insulative substrate and thereby the temperature can be adjusted to a predetermined value.

According to the present invention described in the present claims 11, 13, 18 and 19, there is provided a processing method for an insulative substrate under a vacuum atmosphere, using the electrostatic chuck mentioned above.

According to the present invention described in the present claims 20 to 23, there is provided an apparatus for electrostatically attracting an insulative substrate under a vacuum atmosphere, using the electrostatic chuck mentioned above.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

  • FIG. is a plane view showing an example of an electrostatic chuck;
  • FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view along with a cutting line A-A in FIG. 1;
  • FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of another embodiment in which an insulative substrate is attracted by an electrostatic chuck;
  • FIG. 4 is a view showing an example of a pattern of electrodes provided on a dielectric;
  • FIG. 5 is a view showing another example of a pattern of electrodes provided on a dielectric;
  • FIG. 6 is a view showing another example of a pattern of electrodes provided on a dielectric;
  • FIG. 7 is a graph showing the relationship between the heating/cooling gas pressure and the temperature of an insulative substrate;
  • FIG. 8 is a graph showing the relationship between the voltage applied to an electrostatic chuck and the temperature of an insulative substrate; and
  • FIG. 9 is a graph showing the relationship between the area ratio of a solid-body contact portion to an electrostatic chuck and the temperature of an insulative substrate.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT(S)

Hereinafter, embodiments according to the present invention will be fully explained with reference to the attached drawings. FIG. 1 is a plane view showing ao example of an electrostatic chuck according to the present invention and FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view thereof.

In an embodiment shown in F1G. 2, a dielectric layer 1a and an insulative support base plate 1b are comprised of the same material, and integrally formed with a layer-laminated structure. FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view showing the condition of attracting an insulative substrate 10 by an electrostatic chuck 1. By applying voltage to electrodes 7 through conductors 12 for applying voltage, an attracting force is generated between the insulative substrate 10 and the electrostatic chuck 1, thereby attracting the insulative substrate 10 at protrusions 2 and an outer peripheral seal ring 3 (hereinafter, collectively referred to as a "solid-body contact portion"). Also, the electrostatic chuck 1 is connected through a connector portion 11 onto a metal plate 6, and heating/cooling is conducted to the electrostatic chuck 1 by passing a medium through a medium flow passage 8 which is provided within the metal plate 6.

FIGS. 4 through 6 show various examples of a pattern of the electrodes 7 which are formed on one surface of the dielectric. By using the electrodes 7 with a plurality of pairs, radio-frequency current which is used in a plasma process for SOS or SOI wafers can be dispersed into each of the electrodes, thereby enabling to reduce a load for each of electrically conductive terminals or the like.

Gas is supplied through a gas supply conduit 13 from a gas supply opening 5 and enclosed within a gas enclosure portion 9. In order to quickly and uniformly enclose the gas, grooves 4 are formed on the surface of the electrostatic chuck 1. Through the gas enclosure portion 9 and the solid-body contact portion, heat transmission is conducted between the insulative substrate 10 and the electrostatic chuck 1.

With the provision of a gas pressure gauge 16 in the vicinity of the gas supply conduit, signal voltage is outputted in the range of 0 to 10 V by pressure:

In the gas conduit, a pressure control valve 17 is provided, and opened and closed by comparing the signal voltage of the gas pressure gauge 16 with a preset value, thereby enabling to adjust the pressure of the gas to the preset value.

The measurement results of the electrostatically attracting force in a case of changing the properties of the dielectric are shown in Table 1. TABLE 1 No. Scope Of Present Invention Dielectric Material Material To Be Attracted Thickness (µm) Resistivity Of Dielectric (&OHgr;cm) Relative Dielectric Constant Of Dielectric Surface Roughness Of Dielectric Ra (µm) Electrostatically Attracting Force (g/5cm2) 1A Al2O3-Cr2O3-TiO2 Ceramic Sintered Body Low Alkaline Glass, Substrate Thickness 0.6 mm, Relative Dielectric Constant 5 500 1010 9 0.25 >300 1B Al2O3-Cr2O3-TiO2 Ceramic Sintered Body Low Alkaline Glass, Substrate Thickness 0.6 mm 500 1011 9 0.25 >300 1C Al2O3-Cr2O3-TiO2 Ceramic Sintered Body Low Alkaline Glass, Substrate Thickness 0.6 mm 500 1012 9 0.25 >300 1D Al2O3-Cr2O3-TiO2 Ceramic Sintered Body Low Alkaline Glass, Substrate Thickness 0.6 mm 500 1013 9 0.25 >300 1E Al2O3-Cr2O3-TiO2 Ceramic Sintered Body Low Alkaline Glass, Substrate Thickness 0.6 mm 1000 1011 9 0.25 >300 1F Al2O3-Cr2O3-TiO2 Ceramic Sintered Body Low Alkaline Glass, Substrate Thickness 0.6mm 500 1011 9 0.4 250 1G Al2O3-Cr2O3-TiO2 Ceramic Sintered Body Low Alkaline Glass, Substrate Thickness 0.6mm 500 1011 9 1.0 50 1H Al2-O3-Cr2O3-TiO2 Ceramic Sintered Body Quartz Glass, Thickness 5 mm, Relative Dielectric Constant 4 500 1011 9 0.25 >300 1I Al2O3-Cr2O3-TiO2 Ceramic Sintered Body Sapphire, Thickness 0.5 mm, Relative Dielectric Constant 10 500 1011 9 0.25 >300 1J Al2O3-Cr2O3-TiO2 Ceramic Sintered Body High Dielectric Substrate (Relative Dielectric Constant 120, Thickness 0.5 mm) 500 1011 9 0.25 >300 1K Al2O3-Cr2O3-TiO2 Ceramic Sintered Body High Dielectric Substrate (Relative Dielectric Constant 10,000, Thickness 0.5 mm) 500 1011 9 0.25 >300 1L Al2O3-Cr2O3-TiO2 Ceramic Sintered Body Polyimide Film (Thickness 50 µm) 500 1011 9 0.25 100 1M Al2O3-Cr2O3-TiO2 Ceramic Sintered Body SOI Wafer 500 1011 9 0.25 >300 1N Al2O3-Cr2O3-TiO2 Ceramic Sintered Body SOS Wafer 500 1011 9 0.25 >300 1O Al2O3-Cr2O3-TiO2 Ceramic Sintered Body Polycrystal Alumina substrate, Thickness 0.6 mm. Surface Roughness Ra 0.1 µm, Relative Dielectric Constant 10 500 1011 9 0.25 >300 1P Al2O3-Cr2O3-TiO2 Ceramic Sintered Body Polycrystal Alumina Substrate, Thickness 0.6 mm, Surface Roughness Ra 0.4 µm, Relative Dielectric Constant 10 500 1011 9 0.25 >300 2 Al2O3 Ceramic Sintered Body Low Alkaline Glass, Substrate Thickness 0.6 mm 500 1015 9 0.1 100 3 BaTiO3 Ceramic Sintered Body Law Alkaline Glass, Substrate Thickness 0.6 mm 500 1011 120 0.1 150 4 BaTiO3 Ceramic Sintered Body Low Alkaline GLass, Substrate Thickness 0.6 mm 500 1010 10,000 0.2 100 5 BaTiO3 Ceramic Sintered Body Low. Alkaline Glass, Substrate Thickness 0.6 mm 500 109 20,000 0.3 100 6 SiC Ceramic Sintered Body Low Alkaline Glass, Substrate Thickness 0.6 mm 500 1010 120 0.1 >300 7 Silicon Rubber Low Alkaline Glass, Substrate Thickness 0.6 mm 500 1010 3 0.4 150

In the measurement of the electrostatically attracting force, a material to be attracted having an area of 5 cm2 was prepared, DC voltage in the range of 3 to 10 KV was applied to the electrostatic chuck. When the material to be attracted started moving against the electrostatically attracting force by applying force to the material to be attracted in the horizontal direction, the moving force was measured by a spring scale. Because the maximum load of the spring scale was 300g, it was impossible to measure force being larger than that. However, if the coefficient of static friction between the dielectric and the material to be attracted is 0.2, the electrostatically attracting force will correspond to reaction about five (5) times as large as the measured value. Therefore, the electrostatically attracting force will correspond to the tensile strength of 300g/cm2 in the case where the measured value is 300g/5cm2. This value corresponds to about 30 kPa, which is enough to attract the material to be attracted within a vacuum chamber. In order to make the shape of the dielectric uniform, it was set to be 1 mm in the width of the electrode, 1 mm in the distance between the electrodes, and 0.5 mm in the thickness of the dielectric.

1A through 1D and 2 show the electrostatically attracting force in a case of varying the resistivity of the dielectric substrate. The resistivity does not have an influence to the electrostatic force very much; however, it is preferable that the resistivity be less than or equal to 1013 &OHgr; cm, which creates larger electrostatically attracting force.

1F and 1G show the electrostatically attracting force in a case of varying the surface roughness of the dielectric substrate. Compared to 1B, it is preferable that the surface roughness be less than or equal to Ra 0.25 µm.

The surface roughness of the material to be attracted used in the present embodiment is less than or equal to Ra 0.1 µm, except for the substrate of polycrystal alumina in 1P.

1B and 2 through 6 show the electrostatically attracting force in a case of varying the dielectric material. As the properties of the dielectric, the resistivity rather than the relative dielectric constant has a larger relationship to the electrostatically attracting force. With regards to the dielectric material, the most stable and large attracting force can be achieved by using ceramic sintered body obtained by adding chromium oxide and/or titanium oxide to alumina, and the material obtained by adding a sinter assisting material thereto.

1B and 1H through 1N show the electrostatically attracting force in a case of varying the kind of the material to be attracted. The result shows that different insulative materials can be electrostatically attracted, and that the larger the relative dielectric constant of the material to be attracted, the larger the force.

In 10 and 1P, a substrate of polycrystal alumina is used as a material to be attracted, the surface roughness thereof is varied, and then the electrostatically attracting force is measured. The result shows that the sufficient force can be obtained if the surface roughness of the material to be attracted is around Ra 0.4 µm Therefore, when the relative dielectric constant of the material to be attracted becomes large, the surface roughness of the material to be attracted can be degraded.

2 through 7 show the electrostatically attracting force in a case of varying the dielectric material. The result shows that the sufficient force can be obtained if a material other than ceramic sintered body obtained by adding chromium oxide and/or titanium oxide to alumina is used. In a case of glass for a PDP as a material to be attracted, it is preferable to use a material of rubber group which is hard to damage the glass is effective from the viewpoint of visibility. In the present embodiment, silicon rubber is used; however, natural rubber, chloroprene rubber, butyl rubber, nitrile rubber, fluorocarbon rubber, or resin such as polyurethane, PTFE, or the like, may be used. In this instance, it is preferable that the volume resistivity thereof be less than or equal to 1013 &OHgr;cm.

Table 2 shows the relationship between the electrostatically attracting force with respect to a glass substrate and the applied voltage (10 kV) in a case of using ceramic sintered body obtained by adding chromium oxide and/or titanium oxide to alumina, and varying the pattern of the electrodes in the electrostatic chuck according to the present invention. TABLE 2 No. Scope Of Present Invention Thickness of Dielectric (µm) Width of Electrodes (mm) Distance Between Electrodes (mm) Electrostatically Attracting Force (g/5cm2) 10KV 7 × 300 0.3 0.3 Break down 8 300 0.5 0.5 Break down 9 300 0.7 0.7 >300 10 300 1.0 1.0 >300 11 300 2.0 2.0 180 12 × 300 3.0 3.0 30 13 300 0.5 1.0 >300 14 300 0.5 1.5 200 15 300 2.0 1.0 250 16 300 4.0 1.0 120 17 × 300 6.0 1.0 30 18 × 400 0.3 0.3 Break down 19 400 0.5 0.5 >300 20 400 0.7 0.7 >300 21 400 1.0 1.0 >300 22 400 2.0 2.0 120 23 × 400 3.0 3.0 30 24 400 05 1.0 >300 25 400 0.5 1.5 200 26 400 2.0 1.0 200 27 400 4.0 1.0 100 28 × 400 6.0 1.0 20 29 × 500 0.3 0.3 Break down 30 500 0.5 0.5 Break down 31 500 0.7 0.7 >300 32 500 1.0 1.0 280 33 500 2.0 2.0 100 34 × 500 3.0 3.0 20 35 500 0.5 1.0 >300 36 500 0.5 1.5 200 37 500 2.0 1.0 165 38 500 4.0 1.0 45 39 × 500 6.0 1.0 25 40 × 700 03 0.3 Break down 41 700 0.5 0.5 240 42 700 0.7 0.7 240 43 700 1.0 1.0 220 44 700 2.0 2.0 90 45 × 700 3.0 3.0 20 46 700 0.5 1.0 260 47 700 0.5 1.5 150 48 700 2.0 1.0 140 49 700 4.0 1.0 50 50 × 700 6.0 1.0 20 51 × 1,000 0.3 0.3 Break down 52 1,000 0.5 0.5 200 53 1,000 0.7 0.7 200 54 1,000 1.0 1.0 180 55 1,000 2.0 2.0 70 56 × 1,000 3.0 3.0 20 57 1,000 0.5 1.0 220 58 1,000 0.5 1.5 120 59 1,000 2.0 1.0 120 60 1,000 4.0 1.0 30 61 × 1,000 6.0 1.0 10 62 × 2,000 0.3 0.3 Break down 63 2,000 0.5 0.5 170 64 2,000 0.7 0.7 130 65 2,000 1.0 1.0 100 66 2,000 2.0 2.0 10 67 × 2,000 3.0 3.0 10 68 2,000 0.5 1.0 120 69 2,000 0.5 1.5 30 70 2,000 2.0 1.0 70 71 2,000 4.0 1.0 30 72 × 2,000 6.0 1.0 10

In a case of the pattern having the same width of the electrode and the same distance between the electrodes, the maximum electrostatically attracting force can be obtained when the thickness of the dielectric is 0.3 mm, and there is a tendency that the thinner the thickness thereof, the larger the electrostatically attracting force.

If both of the width and the distance are equal to or greater than 0.5 mm, the electrostatically attracting is available. However sufficient insulation between the electrodes cannot be achieved if the distance between the electrodes is smaller than 0.5 mm. As a result of this, there are cases where the electrostatically attracting cannot be obtained.

In a case of comparing the dielectric having the same thickness, the smaller the width of the electrode, the larger the electrostatically attracting force.

In a case where the distance between the electrodes is larger than 2 mm, the electrostatically attracting force can hardly be obtained. In the present embodiment, the voltage applied is raised to 10 kV. It is expected that the sufficient force can be obtained even if the distance between the electrodes is 2 mm, by applying voltage being larger than that.

In a case of comparing the dielectric having the same thickness and the same width of the electrode, there is a tendency that the electrostatically attracting force becomes small when the distance between the electrodes is larger than the thickness of the dielectric.

The foregoing show that a large electrostatically attracting force can be obtained in a case where the thickness of the dielectric is thin, the width of the electrode is small, and the distance between the electrodes is almost equal to the width of the electrode.

In a case of electrostatically attracting a glass substrate as a material to be attracted, it can be put to practical use by setting the thickness of the dielectric in the range of 03 to 2.0 mm, the distance between the electrodes in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 mm, the width of the electrode in the range of 0.5 to 4.0 mm, and the resistivity of the dielectric to be less than or equal to 1013 &OHgr;cm. It is more preferable that the thickness of the dielectric be in the range of 0.3 to 1.0 nun, the distance between the electrodes in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 mm, the width of the electrode in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 mm, and the resistivity of the dielectric to be less than or equal to 1013 &OHgr;cm.

Hereinafter, an embodiment of a substrate heating/cooling apparatus will be described.

FIGS. 7 through 9 are graphs showing data on thermal attraction experiments and cooling experiments on an insulative substrate. A glass substrate (i.e., a low alkaline glass) is used as the insulative substrate 10.

FIG. 7 is a graph showing the relationship between the temperature of an insulative substrate and the pressure of the gas for heating/cooling to be supplied into a space between the insulative substrate and the attracting surface of the dielectric, in which the insulative substrate is positioned in a substrate heating/cooling apparatus which is provided within a vacuum chamber. The thermal characteristic in a case where a heat flow of 2W/cm2 is supplied from the upper surface of the insulative substrate 10 is shown by expressing the pressure of the above-mentioned gas on x-axis and the surface temperature of the insulative substrate 10 on y-axis. This graph shows that the temperature of the insulative substrate 10 can be controlled by varying the gas pressure enclosed in a gas enclosure portion 9. He gas is mainly used in the present experiment; however, the same heating/cooling effect can be obtained by using Ar or N2.

In order to increase efficiency of the heating/cooling by supplying higher pressure, it is necessary to make the height of the protrusions 2 on the attracting surface of the dielectric 19 low and thereby bring the pressure of the gas into the region of a molecular flow. For example, in order to bring the above-mentioned gas in the range of 0 to 13329 Pa (0 to 100 Torr) into the region of a molecular flow, the height of the protrusions 2 may be set to be less than or equal to 5 µm. In this instance, in order to quickly and uniformly enclose the above-mentioned gas, the formation of the grooves 4 is important as well as the protrusions 2.

In a case where only the protrusions are formed on the surface of the electrostatic chuck, it takes time until the pressure within the space comes to be uniform depending upon the height of the protrusions. Therefore, by forming of the grooves from the gas supply opening, the time is reduced until the pressure within the space comes to be uniform. With regards to the shape and the pattern of the grooves, the effect can be achieved when they are formed in a radial pattern from the gas supply opening, and they are equal to or greater than 1.0 mm in the width and equal to or greater than 50 µm in the depth. Preferably, the width is equal to or greater than 1.5 mm and the depth is equal to or greater than 250 µm, and thereby the time until the pressure distribution in the shape comes to be uniform is less than or equal to 5 seconds. The effect can be further increased if the grooves are formed in a concentric pattern as well as a radial pattern.

As shown in FiG. 8, by varying the applied voltage, it is possible to vary the temperature of the insulative substrate 10. In this instance, by varying the surface roughness of the electrostatic chuck, it is possible to adjust the temperature of the insulative substrate 10.

Further, as shown in FIG. 9, the experiment result shows that the temperature of the insulative substrate 10 is varied by varying the ratio of a contact area. In order to vary the contact area ratio, it is necessary to vary the number and the diameter of the protrusions. The diameter of the protrusions in the present embodiment is 5 mm, and the width of the seal ring is 4 mm. The number of the protrusions is converted from the contact area ratio. The protrusions are distributed upon the surface of the electrostatic chuck in the substantially equal position with regards to each other.

The present embodiment shows that large heating/cooling effect on the insulative substrate 10 can be obtained by enclosing the high gas pressure of 6664 Pa (50 Torr) in the gas enclosure portion 9. However, in order to enclose such high gas pressure, it is necessary that the electrostatic chuck generate a large attracting force. For, example, in order to enclose the gas pressure of 1333 Pa (10 Torr) in a case where the contact area ratio is 20 %, theoretically, the attracting force of at least 13 g/cm2 is required. Therefore, the electrostatic chuck having a very large attracting force is required. As a material for an insulating layer of the electrostatic chuck is used ceramic sintered body comprised of mainly alumina, and chromium oxide (Cr2O3), titanium oxide (TiO2), and a sinter assisting material added thereto in an appropriate amount. The attracting force in this material is about 300 g/5cm2 under application of 10 KV, which is the same as 1A - 1C mentioned above, and the tensile strength in the vertical direction can be assumed to be 300 g/cm2. Even if the contact area ratio is 20%, it can be ensured that the attracting force is equal to or greater than 60 g/cm2. Therefore, it is possible to sufficiently attract the insulative substrate.

A low alkaline glass is used as the insulative substrate 10 in the present embodiment; however, the electrostatic chuck according to the present invention can in general also be applied to other electrical insulative substrates and/or films.

With the provision of a heater within the insulative support base plate of the heating/cooling apparatus for an insulative substrate, and an optical thermometer, a thermocouple, or another noncontact thermometer as a means for measuring the temperature on the material to be attracted, the signal outputted from the measurement apparatus is compared with a predetermined value, and thereby the temperature of the material to be attracted can easily be controlled. In a case where the temperature of the insulative substrate cannot directly be measured, it is possible to maintain the temperature of the insulative substrate based on a data base in which the gas pressure, the applied voltage, the ratio of the solid-body contact area, the supplied thermal energy, the flow rate of the medium, the temperature of the medium, or the like are compiled in advance and linked together.

With the provision of the heating/cooling apparatus for an insulative substrate according to the present embodiment within a reaction chamber, it is possible to easily control the temperature in a semiconductor manufacturing process, in particular, in a plasma CVD for an SOS or SOI, a plasma etching, a sputtering, or the like.

As is fully explained in the above, according to the present invention, since a material to be processed can be attracted with the electrostatic chuck even if it is an insulative material, it is possible to easily heat/cool the insulative substrate with the heating/cooling apparatus in which the electrostatic chuck is installed, and thereby it is possible to control the temperature of the insulative substrate at a predetermined value.


Anspruch[en]
An electrostatic chuck for attracting an insulative substrate, used under a vacuum atmosphere, comprising: a dielectric layer having a first surface which is made an attracting surface for attracting an insulative substrate, and a second surface on which are provided a plurality of electrodes; an insulative support base plate for fixing said dielectric layer thereon; a plurality of electrically conductive terminals which are provided on said insulative support base plate; and a means for electrically connecting said electrodes which are provided on said dielectric layer and said electrically conductive terminals. An electrostatic chuck according to claim 1, wherein the resistivity of said dielectric layer is less than or equal to 1013 &OHgr;cm at room temperature. An electrostatic chuck according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the thickness of said dielectric layer is less than or equal to 2 mm. An electrostatic chuck according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein said dielectric layer is comprised of ceramic obtained by adding chromium oxide and/or titanium oxide to alumina as a main raw material and firing. An electrostatic chuck according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the attracting surface of said dielectric layer has grooves, protrusions and an outer peripheral seal ring. An electrostatic chuck according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein said plurality of electrodes which are provided on the second surface of said dielectric layer form a pair, the width of each electrode is less than or equal to 4 mm, the distance between the electrodes is less than or equal to 2 mm, and each electrode is intricate in a comb-tooth shape. An electrostatic chuck according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein said plurality of electrodes which are provided on the second surface of said dielectric layer form a plurality of pairs, the width of each electrode is less than or equal to 4 mm, the distance between the electrodes is respectively less than or equal to 2 mm, and each electrode is intricate in a comb-tooth shape. An electrostatic chuck according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein said insulative support base plate is comprised of a material having a larger resistivity than that of said dielectric layer. An electrostatic chuck according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein said electrically conductive terminals are formed through any one of hard solder, soft solder, and a conductive adhesive. An electrostatic chuck according to any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein said means for electrically connecting is any one of a conductive wire, a conductive rod, and filling of conductive resin or solder. A method for electrostatically attracting and processing an insulative substrate, comprising the steps of: providing a dielectric layer having a first surface which is made an attracting surface for attracting an insulative substrate, and a second surface on which are provided a plurality of electrodes; providing an insulative support base plate for fixing said dielectric layer thereon; providing a plurality of electrically conductive terminals which are provided on said insulative support base plate; providing a means for electrically connecting said electrodes which are provided on said dielectric layer and said electrically conductive terminals respectively; providing a high voltage source; providing a means for electrically connecting said high voltage source and said electrically conductive terminals; and thereby electrostatically attracting the insulative substrate positioned on said attracting surface under a vacuum atmosphere. A method for electrostatically attracting and processing an insulative substrate according to claim 11, wherein the insulative substrate is electrostatically attracted and gas for heating/cooling of the substrate is enclosed within a space defined between the substrate and the attracting surface of the dielectric layer. An apparatus for heating/cooling and processing an insulative substrate, comprising: an electrostatic chuck according to any one of claims 1 to 10; a plate for supporting said electrostatic chuck, in which is formed a flow passage for a medium; and a means for bonding said electrostatic chuck and said plate. An apparatus for heating/cooling and processing an insulative substrate, comprising: an electrostatic chuck according to any one of claims 1 to 10; a plate for supporting said electrostatic chuck, in which is formed a flow passage for a medium; a means for bonding said electrostatic chuck and said plate; and a gas supply conduit penetrating the dielectric layer, the insulative support base plate and the plate; a pressure gauge for measuring the gas pressure; a pressure control valve having a function of opening/closing a valve so as to control the pressure at a predetermined value by inputting an electric signal outputted by the pressure gauge; and an apparatus for measuring the temperature of the insulative substrate or a data base in which the relationship between the temperature of the insulative substrate and the gas pressure is recorded, wherein the temperature of the insulative substrate can be adjusted to the predetermined value under a vacuum atmosphere. An electrostatic chuck according to any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein the insulative substrate is comprised of glass. An apparatus for heating/cooling and processing an insulative substrate according to claim 13 or 14, wherein the insulative substrate is comprised of glass. A method for electrostatically attracting and processing an insulative substrate according to claim 11, wherein the electrostatically attracting force is equal to or greater than 30g/cm2. A method for electrostatically attracting and processing an insulative substrate according to claim 11, wherein the electrostatically attracting force is equal to or greater than 300g/cm2. An electrostatic chuck as claimed in claims 1 to 10 and 15, wherein the thickness of the dielectric is in the range of 0.3 mm to 2.0 mm, the distance between the electrodes is in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 mm, the width of the electrodes is in the range of 0.5 to 4.0 mm, the resistivity of the dielectric is less than or equal to 1013 &OHgr; cm, and the insulative substrate is a glass substrate. An electrostatic chuck as claimed in claim 19, wherein the thickness of the dielectric is in the range of 0.3 mm to 1.0 mm and the width of the electrodes is in the range 0.5 mm to 1.0 mm. An apparatus for electrostatically attracting an insulative substrate, comprising: an electrostatic chuck according to claims 1 to 10, 15, 19 or 20; a high voltage source; and a means for electrically connecting said high voltage source and said electrically conductive terminals, wherein, in use, the insulative substrate positioned on said attracting surface is electrostatically attracted under a vacuum atmosphere. An apparatus for electrostatically attracting an insulative substrate according to claim 21, wherein the insulative substrate is electrostatically attracted and gas for heating/cooling of the substrate is enclosed within a space defined between the substrate and the attracting surface of the dielectric layer. An apparatus for electrostatically attracting an insulative substrate according to claim 21, wherein the electrostatically attracting force is equal to or greater than 30g/cm2. An apparatus for electrostatically attracting an insulative substrate according to claim 21, wherein the electrostatically attracting force is equal to or greater than 300g/cm2. A method for electrostatically attracting and processing according to any one of claims 11,12,17 and 18, wherein the insulative substrate is comprised of glass. An apparatus for electrostatically attracting an insulative substrate according to any one of claims 21 to 24, wherein the insulative substrate is comprised of glass. An apparatus for electrostatically attracting an insulative substrate according to claims 21 to 24 and 26, wherein, in use, the high voltage source applies a potential difference of 3-10 kV between said plurality of electrodes.






IPC
A Täglicher Lebensbedarf
B Arbeitsverfahren; Transportieren
C Chemie; Hüttenwesen
D Textilien; Papier
E Bauwesen; Erdbohren; Bergbau
F Maschinenbau; Beleuchtung; Heizung; Waffen; Sprengen
G Physik
H Elektrotechnik

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